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Institute of Medicine Committee to Survey the Health Effects of Mustard Gas and  Lewisite, June 11, 1992. Unpublished.

Karnofsky DA, Nolen JT. 1944. Report on mustard vapor casualties occurring at Bushnell, Fla., 6 June 1944. As cited in: Papirmeister B, Feister AJ, Robinson SI, Ford RD. 1991. Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 42.

Kenyon KR, Tseng SC. 1989. Limbal autograft transplantation for ocular surface disorders. Ophthalmology 96:709.


Little AD Inc. 1986. As cited in: Solana RP. 1992. Toxicology of Lewisite. Presentation to the Institute of Medicine Committee to Survey the Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite, June 11, 1992. Unpublished.


Mann I. 1944. A study of eighty-four cases of delayed mustard gas keratitis fitted with contact lenses. British Journal of Ophthalmology 28:441-447.

Mann I, Pullinger BD. 1944. A study of mustard gas lesions of the eyes of rabbits and men. American Journal of Ophthalmology 26:1253-1277.

Mann I, Pirie A, Pullinger BD. 1946. Study of Lewisite lesions of the eyes of rabbits. American Journal of Ophthalmology 29:1215-1227.

Maumenee AE, Scholz RO. 1948. The histopathology of the ocular lesions produced by sulfur and nitrogen mustards. Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital 82:121-147.

McNamara BP, Owens EJ, Christensen MK, Vocci FJ, Ford DF, Rozimarek H. 1975. Toxicological Basis for Controlling Levels of Mustard in the Environment. Edgewood Arsenal Special Publication EB-SP-74030. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: U.S. Army Armament Command. Edgewood Arsenal Biomedical Laboratory.

Moore RF, Heckford F. 1929. Delayed corneal ulceration from mustard gas. British Medical Journal 1:497-498.


Oswald A. 1920. Collapse of the double-sided closure of the central artery as a consequence of blister gas poisoning. Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde 64:381387. [In German]

Ottinger RS, Blumenthal JL, Dal Porto DF, Gruber GI, Santy MJ, Smith CC. 1973. Recommended Methods of Reduction, Neutralization, Recovery or Disposal of Hazardous Waste. Vol. 2, Toxicologic Summary. EPA-670/2-73-053-b. As cited in: Solana RP. 1992. Toxicology of Lewisite. Presentation to the Institute of Medicine Committee to Survey the Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite, June 11, 1992. Unpublished.


Papirmeister B, Feister AJ, Robinson SI, Ford RD. 1991. Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Pfister RR. 1986. The biology of persistent epithelial defects of the cornea. In: Brightbill, FS, ed. Corneal Surgery: Theory, Technique, and Tissue. Papers from the First International Cornea and Eye Banking Symposium . St. Louis: Mosby. 582-593.

Pfister RR, Paterson CA. 1980. Ascorbic acid in the treatment of alkali burns of the eye. Ophthalmology 87:1050-1057.

Pfister RR, Nicloaro ML, Paterson CA. 1981. Sodium citrate reduces the incidence of corneal ulcerations and perforations in extreme alkali burned eyes: acetylcysteine and ascorbate have no favorable effect. Investigative Ophthalmology 21:486-490.

Pfister RR, Haddox J, Paterson CA. 1982. The efficacy of sodium citrate in the treatment of severe alkali burns of the eye is influenced by the route of administration. Cornea 1:205-211.

Phillips TJ. 1940. The delayed action of mustard gas and the treatment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 33:229-232.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1940. Discussion on gas injuries to the eye. 33:225-236.

Project Coordination Staff, Chemical Warfare Service. 1946. Technical Aspects of Chemical Warfare in the Field. 2 vols. Washington, DC: Chemical Warfare Service.



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