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Published Literature

Aasted A, Wulf HC, Darre E, Niebuhr E. 1985. Fishermen exposed to mustard gas. Clinical experience and evaluation of the cancer risk. Ugeskrift for Laeger 147:2213-2216. [In Danish]

Aasted A, Darre E, Wulf HC. 1987. Mustard gas: clinical, toxicological, and mutagenic aspects based on modern experience. Annals of Plastic Surgery 19:330-333.

Abbott WN. 1935. Late clinical and pathological sequels of gas exposure. New Zealand Medical Journal 34:166-170.

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Abell CW, Falk HL., Shimkin MB. 1965. Uracil mustard: a potent inducer of lung tumors in mice. Science 147:1443-1445.

Abramov TV, Lebedev AV, Rait AS. 1988. Investigation of diastereomers of non-ionic oligonucleotide analogs v. alkylation of nucleic acids in living cells by ethyl phosphotriester derivatives of oligonucleotides containing residue of nitrous yperite on the effect of the phosphotriester fragment configuration . Molekuliarnaia Biologia 22:1285-1292. [In Russian]

Achard C. 1918-1919. Study of respiratory exchanges in war gas intoxications. Archives de Medecine Experimentale et d'Anatomie Pathologique 28:468-525. [In French]

Achard C. 1919. The sequelae of intoxication by war gases. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 81:135-150. [In French]

Acheson ED. 1983. Nasal cancer, occupational. In: Parmeggiani L, ed. Encylcopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 3rd rev. ed. Vol. 2. Geneva: International Labour Office. 1426-1427.

Acheson ED. 1986. Epidemiology of nasal cancer. In: Barrow CS, ed. Toxicology of the Nasal Passages. Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology Series. New York: Hemisphere. 135-142.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Bibliography Published Literature Aasted A, Wulf HC, Darre E, Niebuhr E. 1985. Fishermen exposed to mustard gas. Clinical experience and evaluation of the cancer risk. Ugeskrift for Laeger 147:2213-2216. [In Danish] Aasted A, Darre E, Wulf HC. 1987. Mustard gas: clinical, toxicological, and mutagenic aspects based on modern experience. Annals of Plastic Surgery 19:330-333. Abbott WN. 1935. Late clinical and pathological sequels of gas exposure. New Zealand Medical Journal 34:166-170. Abbruzzetti A. 1936. Phosgene and dichloroethyl sulfide, two most powerful war gases. Giornale Veneto di Scienze Mediche 10:383-391. [In Italian] Abell CW, Falk HL., Shimkin MB. 1965. Uracil mustard: a potent inducer of lung tumors in mice. Science 147:1443-1445. Abramov TV, Lebedev AV, Rait AS. 1988. Investigation of diastereomers of non-ionic oligonucleotide analogs v. alkylation of nucleic acids in living cells by ethyl phosphotriester derivatives of oligonucleotides containing residue of nitrous yperite on the effect of the phosphotriester fragment configuration . Molekuliarnaia Biologia 22:1285-1292. [In Russian] Achard C. 1918-1919. Study of respiratory exchanges in war gas intoxications. Archives de Medecine Experimentale et d'Anatomie Pathologique 28:468-525. [In French] Achard C. 1919. The sequelae of intoxication by war gases. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 81:135-150. [In French] Acheson ED. 1983. Nasal cancer, occupational. In: Parmeggiani L, ed. Encylcopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 3rd rev. ed. Vol. 2. Geneva: International Labour Office. 1426-1427. Acheson ED. 1986. Epidemiology of nasal cancer. In: Barrow CS, ed. Toxicology of the Nasal Passages. Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology Series. New York: Hemisphere. 135-142. Adachi S, Takemoto K. 1987. Occupational lung cancer: a comparison between humans and experimental animals. Sangyo Igaku 29:345-357. [In Japanese] Adair FE, Bagg HJ. 1931. Experimental and clinical studies on the treatment of cancer by mustard gas. Annals of Surgery 190-199.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Adelheim R. 1921. Classification of gases according to the pathology produced in the lung. Zentralblatt fur Pathologie 25:261. [In German] Adler FH, Fry WE, Leopold IH. 1947. Pathologic study of ocular lesions due to Lewisite (b-chlorovinyldichloroarsine). Archives of Ophthalmology 38:89-108. Adley FE, Uhle RJ. 1969. Protection factors and self-contained compressed-air breathing apparatus. American International Hygiene Association Journal 30:355-359. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1991. Draft. Toxicological Profile of Mustard "Gas." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Aitken RS. 1943. Effects of accidental exposure to mustard gas vapor. Lancet 2:602-603. Akamizu H, Nambu S, Egawa H, Tokuoka S. 1981. Cytological and histological studies on atypical bronchial epithelium in mustard gas ex-workers. Haigan 21:318. [In Japanese] Albert A. 1987. Xenobiosis: Foods, Drugs, and Poisons in the Human Body. New York: Chapman and Hall. Albrecht GJ, Kiese M, Szinicz L, Sies H, Weger N. 1975. Problems of mustard gas poisoning: on the molecular understanding of the alkylating reaction with nitrogen mustard compounds. Wehrmedizinische Monatsschrift 19:12-14. [In German] Alexander SF. 1947. Medical report of the Bari Harbor mustard casualties. Military Surgeon 101:1-17. Alho J, Kauppinen T, Sundquist E. 1988. Use of exposure registration in the prevention of occupational cancer in Finland. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 13:581-592. Allen AC. 1967. The Skin: A Clinicopathological Treatise. 2nd ed. New York: Grune and Stratton. Alpert LK. 1958. Preliminary studies with sulfur mustard in human neoplastic diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 68:1223-1224. Althouse R, Huff J, Tomatis L, Wilbourn J. 1979. Chemicals and Industrial Processes Associated with Cancer in Humans. Supplement 1. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. AMA Archives of Industrial Health. 1959. Beryllium disease and its control. Conference held at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sept. 30-Oct. 1, 1958. AMA Archives of Industrial Health 19. Amagai T, Tsutsumi S, Matsumoto Y. 1981. Effects of arsenic trioxide and its antidotes on the uptake of tritium labeled leucine of mouse lymphocytes (abstract). Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 31:209P. Amalric P, Bessou P, Farenc M. 1965. Delayed relapsing mustard gas keratitis. Bulletin des Societes d'Ophtalmologie 65:101-106. [In French] Amantea G. 1918. On a new method of curing lesions from dichloroethyl sulfide. Giornale de Medicina Militare 66:893-896. [In Italian] American Psychiatric Association. 1952. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. 1968. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II). 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. 1980. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. 1987. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IIIR). 3rd ed., rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association, Task Force on DSM-IV. Draft publication. DSM-IV Options Book: Work in Progress 9/1/91. Ancel P. 1946. Experimental research on spina bifida. Archives d'Anatomie Microscopique et de Morphologie Experimentale 36:45-68. [In French] Anders MW. 1988. Glutathione-dependent toxicity: biosynthesis and bioactivation of cytotoxic S-conjugates. ISI Atlas of Science: Pharmacology 2:99-104.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Johnson RE, DeVita VT. 1972. Non-lymphomatous malignant tumours complicating Hodgkin's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 287:1119-1122. Asboe S, Fledelius H. 1978. Mustard gas: a medical-ecological problem. Eye and skin injuries in three Ostersjo fisherman. Ugeskrift for Laeger 140:2048-2050 . [In Danish] Ashby J, Tinwell H, Callander RD, Clare N. 1991. Genetic activity of the human carcinogen sulfur mustard toward Salmonella and the mouse bone marrow. Mutation Research 257:307-312. Ashkenazi I, Blumenthal M, Avni I, Belkin M. 1991. Mustard gas injuries of the eyes. Harefuah 120:279-283. [In Hebrew] Atkinson WS. 1948. Delayed keratitis due to mustard gas (dichlorodiethyl sulfide) burns. Archives of Ophthalmology 40:291-301. Auerbach C. 1943. Chemically induced mutations as rearrangements. Drosophila Information Service 17:48-50. Auerbach C. 1946. The induction by mustard gas of chromosomal instabilities in Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B: Biology 62:307-320. Auerbach C. 1949. Chemical induction of mutations. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Genetics. 128-147. Auerbach C. 1950. Differences between effects of chemical and physical mutagens. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 22:1-21. Auerbach C. 1951. The effect of oxygen concentration on the mutagenic action of mustard gas. Kurze Mitteilungen 15:341-342. Auerbach C. 1953. Sensitivity of Drosophila germ cells to mutagens. Hereditas 6:247-257. Auerbach C. 1958. Mutagenic effects of alkylating agents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 68:731-749. Auerbach C. 1973. History of research on chemical mutagenesis. Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection 3:1-19. Auerbach C. 1976. Mutation Research: Problems, Results and Perspectives. London: Chapman and Hall. Auerbach C, Moser H. 1950. Production of mutations by monochloro-mustards. Nature 166:1019-1020. Auerbach C, Moser H. 1950. The effect of oxygen concentration on the mutagenic action of mustard gas. Experientia 7:341-342. Auerbach C, Robson JM. 1946. Action of mustard gas (dichloroethyl sulfide) on bone marrow (letter). Nature 158:878-879. Auerbach C, Robson JM. 1946. Chemical production of mutations. Nature 157:302. Auerbach C, Robson JM. 1947. Production of mutations by chemical substances. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B: Biology 62:271-283. Auerbach C, Robson JM. 1947. Tests of chemical substances for mutagenic action . Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B: Biology 62:284-291. Auerbach C, Sonbati EM. 1960. Sensitivity of the Drosophila testis to the mutagenic action of mustard gas. Zeitschrift fur Vererbungslehre 91:237-252. Auerbach C, Robson JM, Carr JG. 1947. Chemical production of mutations. Science 105:243-247. Axelrod DJ, Hamilton JG. 1947. Radio-autographic studies of the distribution of Lewisite and mustard gas in skin and eye tissues. American Journal of Pathology 23:389-411. Axford AT, McKerrow CB, Jones AP, Le Quesne PM. 1976. Accidental exposure to isocyanate fumes in a group of firemen. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 33:65-71. Azizi F, Nafarabadi M, Azartash P. 1988. Serum testosterone concentrations in young men exposed to chemical weapons containing mustards. In: Abstracts of the First International Medical Congress on Chemical Warfare Agents in Iran. June 13-16, 1988, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran. No. 52.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Azizi F, Keshavarz A, Elyasi H, Roshanzamir F, Rahimi F. 1988. Testicular function in men exposed to chemical weapons containing mustards. In: Abstracts of the First International Medical Congress on Chemical Warfare Agents in Iran. June 13-16, 1988, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran. No. 27. Azizi F, Elyasi H, Sohrabpour H, Jalali N, Nafarabadi M. 1989. Serum concentrations of various hormones following exposure to chemical weapons containing sulfur mustard. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 3:105-107. Azizi F, Jalali N, Nafarabadi M. 1989. The effect of chemical weapons on serum concentrations of various hormones. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 14:46-50. Baburina ND. 1972. Effects of mustard gas on Allium fistulosum cells. Genetika 8:174-177. Bacq ZM. 1947. [Recent Work on War Gases] Trauvaux Recents sur les Toxiques de Guerre. Paris: Masson. [In French] Bacq ZM. 1971. The concept of the biochemical lesion. In: Fundamentals of Biochemical Pharmacology. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 139-142. Bacq ZM, Angenot P. 1940. Inhibition of lactic fermentation of muscles by vesicant war gases. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Filiales 134:105-107. [In French] Bacq ZM, Angenot P. 1941. On the relationship between inhibition of glycolysis and vesicant action. Enzymologia 10:48-60. [In French] Bacq ZM, Goffart M. 1940. Lusndgaard effect produced on frog muscles by vesicant gases. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Filiales 133:696-697. [In French] Bacq ZM, Charlier R, Philippot E. 1948. Action of dichloroethyl sulfide and its derivatives on heart and respiratory exchange of anesthetized dog. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 77:353-368. [In French] Bacq ZM, Charlier R, Klutz A, Mazzella H. 1952. Action of dichloroethyl sulfide and methyl-bis-(ß-chloroethyl) amine on electrocardiogram of dog. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 89:357-363. Badger GM. 1956. Miscellaneous chemical carcinogens: chemical constitution and carcinogenic activity. British Journal of Cancer 10:330-356. Badolle, Bonnemour. 1928. Bronchial dilation from gas. Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine 99:235-237. [In French] Bagirova N. 1939. Sequels of poisoning with war gases. Klinicheskaia Meditsina 17:116-117. [In Russian] Bahadori M, Shakoor A. 1988. Autopsy findings on Iranian victims of chemical warfare. In: Abstracts of the First International Medical Congress on Chemical Warfare Agents in Iran. June 13-16, 1988, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran. No. 31. Bahadori M, Pishva-Bahadori N, Masyedi MR. 1988. Histology of the lung on the Iranian victims of chemical warfare. In: Abstracts of the First International Medical Congress on Chemical Warfare Agents in Iran. June 13-16, 1988. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran. No. 24. Bahar K, Dayhimi I, Eliasy H. 1988. Tumor markers in sulfur mustard gas (SMG) injured patients. In: Abstracts of the First International Medical Congress on Chemical Warfare Agents in Iran. June 13-16, 1988. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran. No. 13. Baker DB, Landrigan PJ. 1990. Occupationally related disorders. Medical Clinics of North America 74:441-460. Balali M. 1984. Clinical and laboratory findings in Iranian fighters with chemical gas poisoning. Archives Belges (Supplement):254-259. Balali M. 1986. First report of delayed toxic effects of yperite poisoning in Iranian fighters. In: Heyndricks B, ed. Terrorism: Analysis and Detection of Explosives. Proceedings of

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Berenblum I. 1935. Experimental inhibition of tumour induction by mustard gas and other compounds. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 40:549-558. Berenblum I. 1947. Action of mustard gas (ß,ß-dichlordiethyl sulfide) on nucleoproteins. Nature 159:727-729. Berenblum I, Wormall A. 1939. The immunological properties of proteins treated with ß,ß-dichlorodiethyl sulphide (mustard gas) and ß,ß-dichlorodiethyl sulfone . Biochemical Journal 33:75-80. Berenblum I, Kendal LP, Orr JW. 1936. Tumour metabolism in the presence of anticarcinogenic substances. Biochemical Journal 30:709-715. Berens C, Hartmann E. 1943. The effects of war gases and other chemicals on the eyes of the civilian population. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences 19:356-367. Berger NA. 1985. Poly(ADP-ribose) in the cellular response to DNA damage. Radiation Research 101:4-15. Berghoff RS. 1919. The more common gases: their effect on the respiratory tract. Observation on two thousand cases. Archives of Internal Medicine 24:678-684. Bergmeister R. 1941. Chemical warfare from the viewpoint of an ophthalmologist. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 91:765-771. [In German] Bergsagel DE, Bailey AJ, Langley GR, MacDonald RN, White DF, Miller AB. 1979. The chemotherapy of plasma-cell myeloma and the incidence of acute leukemia . New England Journal of Medicine 301:743-748. Bergsagel DE, Alison RE, Bean HA, Brown TC, Bush RS, Clark RM, Chua T, Dalley D, DeBoer G, Gospodarowicz M, Hasselback R, Perrault D, Rideout DF. 1982. Results of treating Hodgkin's disease without a policy of laparotomy staging. Cancer Treatment Reports 66:717-731. Berk PD, Goldberg JD, Silverstein MN, Weinfeld A, Donovan PB, Ellis JT, Landaw SA, Laszlo J, Najean Y, Pisciotta AV, Wasserman LR. 1981. Increased incidence of acute leukemia in polycythemia vera associated with chlorambucil therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 304:441-447. Bernstein IA, Mitra RS, Connolly RB, Vaughn FL, Gray RH, Brabec MJ, Bernstam L, Brown R, Sorscher DA, Ribeiro P, Zidell RH. 1985. Effects of sulfur mustard on cutaneous keratinocytes in vitro. In: Proceedings of the 5th Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, Frederick, MD. Bernstein IA, Bernstam L, Brown R, Fan L, Feng HW, Ku W, Locey B, Ribeiro P, Scavarelli R, Vaughan FL, Zaman S. 1987. Macromolecular and cellular effects of sulfur mustard on keratinocyte cultures. In: Proceedings of the 6th Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, Frederick, MD. 243-250. Bernstein IA, Bernstam L, Fan L, Ku W, Ribeiro P, Scavarelli R, Vaughan FL, Zaman S. 1989. Early molecular and cellular effects of mustard studied in vitro. In: Proceedings of the 1989 Medical Defense Bioscience Review, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Bertein, Baudet. 1925. Sequelae of conjunctivitis from yperite. Soc De Med Mil Franc Bull Mems (Paris) 19:171-175. [In French] Bertolero F, Marafante E, Rade JE, Pietra R, Sabbioni E. 1981. Biotransformation and intracellular binding of arsenic in tissues of rabbits after intraperitoneal administration of 74As labelled arsenite. Toxicology 20:35-44. Berton P. 1919. Two observations on cutaneous wounds caused by yperite. Bulletin Societe Centrale de Medecine Veterinaire 72:186-190. [In French] Bertrand M, Deen DF. 1980. Factors influencing the recovery from potentially lethal damage (PLD) in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Treatment Reviews 7:1-15. Beruard M, Maret J, Armand J. 1973. Acute arsenical poisoning with renal impairment treated with hemodialysis and forced diuresis. Lyon Medical 230:185-190. [In French]

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Bhuyan BK, Fraser TJ. 1974. Cytotoxicity of antitumor agents in a synchronous mammalian cell system. Cancer Chemotherapy Reports 58:149-155. Bickerton RE. 1934. New cases of war blindness due to mustard gas. British Medical Journal 2:769-770. Bird MJ, Fahmy OG. 1953. Cytogenetic analysis of the action of carcinogens and tumor inhibitors in Drosophila melanogaster.Part 1. 1:2,3:4-diepoxybutane. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 140B:556-578. Black JE, Glenny ET, McNee JW. 1915. Observations on 685 cases of poisoning by noxious gases used by the enemy. British Medical Journal 165-167. Black RM, Brewster K, Clarke RJ, Hambrook JL, Harrison JM, Howells DJ. 1992. Biological fate of sulfur mustard, 1,1'-thiobis(2-chloroethane). Isolation and identification of urinary metabolites following intraperitoneal administration to rat. Xenobiotica 22:405-418. Black RM, Hambrook JL, Howells DJ, Read RW. 1992. Biological fate of sulfur mustard, 1,1'-thiobis(2-chloroethane). Urinary excretion profiles of hydrolysis products and beta-lyase metabolites of sulfur mustard after cutaneous application in rats. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 16:79-84. Black S, Thomson JF. 1947. Metabolic effects produced by large doses of di-ß-chloroethyl sulfide in rats. Journal of Biological Chemistry 167:283-289. Blackmore HS. 1925-1926. The pathology of mustard gas burns and its relation to problems of prevention and treatment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 19:25-29. Blank JA, Hobson DW, Dill GS, Joiner RL. 1990. Comparative effects of sulfur mustard on NAD levels and viability of peripheral blood lymphocytes, human keratinocytes, and human lymphocytic cell lines (abstract). Toxicologist 331. Blank JA, Joiner RL, Houchens DP, Dill GS, Hobson DW. 1991. Comparative immunotoxicity of 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide and cyclophosphamide: evaluation of L1210 tumor cell resistance, cell-mediated immunity, and humoral immunity. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 13:251-257. Blayney DW, Longo DL, Young RC, Greene MH, Hubbard SM, Postal MC, Duffey PL, DeVita VT Jr. 1987. Decreasing risk of leukemia with prolonged followup after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 316:710-714. Blechmann G. 1919. Eclampsia: loss of consciousness and arterial hypertension in a patient intoxicated by vesicant gas. Bulletins et Memoires de la Societe Medicale des Hopitaux de Paris 3:507-510. [In French] Blewett WK. 1986. Tactical weapons: is mustard still king? Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense and Technology International 1:64-66. Blodi F. 1971. Mustard gas keratopathy. International Ophthalmology Clinics 11:1-13. Blumenfeld F 1919-1920. The behavior of the respiratory passages in poisoning by war gases. Zeitschrift fur Laryngologie, Rhinologie, Otologie und Ihre Grenzgebiete 9:21. [In German] Bockmeyer M. 1985. Documentation of mucous membrane alterations after contact with poison gas (Lost). Laryngologie, Rhinologie, Otologie 64:532-534. [In German] Bodansky O. 1945. Contributions of medical research in chemical warfare to medicine. Science 102:517-521. Bodell WJ. 1990. Molecular dosimetry for sister chromatid exchange induction and cytotoxicity by monofunctional and bifunctional alkylating agents. Mutation Research 233:203-210. Bodnar T. 1937. Fatal dichloroethyl sulfide poisoning. Orvosi Hetilap 81:1112-1113. [In Hungarian] Boehnlein JK, Kinzie JD, Ben R, Fleck J. 1985. One-year follow-up study of posttraumatic

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite stress disorder among survivors of Cambodian concentration camps. American Journal of Psychiatry 142(8):956-959. Boice JD, Greene MH, Keehn RJ, Higgins GA, Fraumeni JF Jr. 1980. Late effects of low-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 64:501-511. Boice JD, Greene MH, Killen JY, Ellenberg SS, Keehn RJ, McFadden E, Chen TT, Fraumeni JF Jr. 1983. Leukemia and preleukemia after adjuvant treatment of gastrointestinal cancer with semustine (methyl-CCNU). New England Journal of Medicine 309:1079-1084. Boice JD, Day NE, Andersen A, Brinton LA, Choi NW, Clarke EA, Coleman MP, Curtis RE, Flannery JT, Hakama M, Hakulinen T,Howe GR, Jensen OM, Kleinerman RA, Magnin D, Magnus K, Makela K, Malker B, Miller AB, Nelson N, Patterson CC, Pettersson F, Pompe-Kirn V, Primic-Zakelj M, Prior P, Ravnihar B,Skeet RG, Skjerven JE, Smith PG, Spengler RF, Storm HH, Stovall M, Tomkins GWO, Wall C. 1985. Second cancers following radiation treatment for cervical cancer. An international collaboration among cancer registries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 74:955-975. Boiteau H, Paulet G. 1955. Effect of dichloroethyl sulfide (mustard gas) on division and growth of cells of bakers' yeast. Journal of Physiology 47:605-619. Boivin JF, Hutchinson GB, Lyden M, Godbold J, Chorosh J, Schottenfeld D. 1984. Second primary cancers following treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 72:233-241. Bolla-Wilson K, Bleecker M. 1987. Neuropsychological impairment following inorganic arsenic exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine 29:500-503. Bol'Shakova EN, Borzov VV, Bondarev GN. 1979. Use of acridine yperite in selection of Actinomyces nodosus producing amphotericin B. Antibiotiki (Moscow) 24:3-6. [In Russian] Bonhoff. 1917. On poisonous gases. Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 64:762. [In German] Bonnefon G. 1919. Action of hypertonic solution on the ocular mucous membrane impregnated by dichloroethyl sulfide (yperite). Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Filiales 82:1089-1091. [In French] Bonnefon G. 1919. The eye exposed to yperite: clinical and therapeutic observations. Annales d'Oculistique 156:577-597. [In French] Bonnel F. 1930. Chemical warfare: effects of war gases. Journal de Medecine de Bordeaux et du Sud-Ouest 107:415-422. [In French] Bonnet P. 1939. Corneal dystrophy with torpid ulcer as late manifestation of dichloroethylsulfide burn: case. Bulletin de la Societe d'Ophtalmologie de Paris 51:432-433. [In French] Bonnet P. 1939. Vascular ectasis of conjunctiva following burn by dichloroethylsulfide. Bulletin de la Societe d'Ophtalmologie de Paris 51:407-409. [In French] Borak J, Sidell FR. 1992. Agents of chemical warfare: sulfur mustard. Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:303-308. Boswell W. 1919. Notes on the pathological changes occurring as a result of poisoning by mustard gas. Transactions of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 37:335-338. Boudansky Y. 1987. Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan. In: Klass R, ed. Afghanistan, the Great Game Revisited. Lanham, MD: Freedom House. 229-285. Boursnell JC. 1948. Some reactions of mustard gas (ß-ß-dichlorodiethyl sulphide) with proteins. In: Williams RT, ed. The Biochemical Reactions of Chemical Warfare Agents. Biochemical Society Symposia No. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 8-15. Boursnell JC, Francis GE, Wormall A. 1946. Studies on mustard gas (ß,ß-dichlorodiethylsulphide) and some related compounds. 2. The action of mustard gas ß,ß-dichlorodiethyl sulphone and divinyl sulphone on amino acids. Biochemical Journal 40:737-742.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Boursnell JC, Francis GE, Wormall A. 1946. Studies on mustard gas (ß,ß-dichlorodiethylsulphide) and some related compounds. 3. The preparation and use of mustard gas containing radioactive sulphur and deuterium. Biochemical Journal 40:743-745. Boursnell JC, Cohen JA, Dixon M, Francis GE, Greville GD, Needham DM, Wormall A. 1946. Studies on mustard gas (ß,ß dichlorodiethylsulphide) and some related compounds. 5. The fate of injected mustard gas (containing radioactive sulphur) in the animal body. Biochemical Journal 40:756-764. Boursnell JC, Francis GE, Wormall A. 1946. Studies on mustard gas (ß,ß-dichlorodiethylsulphide) and some related compounds. 6. The fate of injected ß,ß-dichlordiethyl sulphone and ß,ß-dichlorodiethyl sulphoxide (containing radioactive sulphur) in the animal body. Biochemical Journal 40:765-768. Boursnell JC, Francis GE, Wormall A. 1946. Studies on mustard gas (ß,ß-dichlorodiethylsulphide) and some related compounds. 7. The immunological properties of proteins treated with mustard gas and some related compounds. Biochemical Journal 40:768-774. Boursnell JC, Francis GE, Wormall A. 1946. Studies on mustard gas (ß,ß-dichlorodiethylsulphide) and some related compounds. 8. The action of mustard gas, divinyl sulphone and ß,ß-dichlorodiethyl sulphone on complement. Biochemical Journal 40:774-778. Boxwell W. 1919. Poisoning by mustard gas. Dublin Journal of Medical Sciences 147:7-14. Boyland E. 1952. The effect of radiation and radiomimetic substances. Endeavour 11:87-91. [In German] Boyland E. 1969. The correlation of experimental carcinogenesis and cancer in man. Progress in Experimental Tumor Research 11:222-234. Boyland E. 1975. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Archives fur Geschwulstforschung 45:625-627. Boyland E. 1977. Biochemistry of occupational cancer. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 27:97-101. Boyland E, Horing ES. 1949. The induction of tumours with nitrogen mustards. British Journal of Cancer 3:118-123. Boyland E, Sargent S. 1951. The local greying of hair in mice treated with x-rays and radiometic drugs . British Journal of Cancer 5:433440. Breastup A. 1940. [Renal threshold for sugar during poisoning with gas]. Nordisk Medicin 5:51-52. Brill NQ, Beebe GW. 1955. A Follow-up Study of War Neuroses. VA Medical Monograph. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Brockhausen G, Amelung B. 1991. Bronchial carcinoma and exposure to mustard gas: case reports. Pneumologie 45:181-182. [In German] Brodsky CM. 1983. Psychological factors contributing to somatoform diseases attributed to the workplace. Journal of Occupational Medicine 25:459-464. Brookes P. 1975. Covalent interaction of carcinogens with DNA. Life Sciences 16:331-344. Brookes P. 1978. The importance of a detailed knowledge of the nature of DNA damage by chemical mutagens and carcinogens. Heredity 40:333-334. Brookes P. 1990. The early history of the biological alkylating agents. Mutation Research 233:3-14. Brookes P, Lawley PD. 1960. The reaction of mustard gas with nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical Journal 77:478-484. Brookes P, Lawley PD. 1961. The reaction of mono- and di-functional alkylating agents with nucleic acids. Biochemical Journal 80:496-503. Brookes P, Lawley PD. 1963. Effects of alkylating agents on T2 and T4 bacteriophages. Biochemical Journal 89:138-144. Brookes P, Lawley PD. 1963. Evidence for the action of alkylating agents on deoxyribonucleic acid. Experimental Cell Research Supplement 9:521-524.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite potential environmental pollutants. II. Physical, chemical, toxicological, and biological properties of 16 substances. TR-7509. Fort Detrick, MD: U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory. AD-A030. 1975. Rudin DO. A review of the biological action of mustard as a basis for therapy. Special Report No. 21. Army Chemical Center, MD: U.S. Army Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories. DTIC AD-15 565. 1953. Sidell FR. Clinical notes on chemical casualty care. USAMRICD Technical Memorandum 90-1. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. 1990. Sidell FR. Clinical notes on chemical casualty care. USAMRICD Technical Memorandum 90-2. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. 1990. Smith GP, Schumchyk MJ. Performance evaluation of gas filters. June 1971-March 1976. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Chemical Systems Laboratory. ARCSL-SP-78004. 1978. Taylor JR, Johnson WN. Research report concerning the use of volunteers in chemical agent research. DAIG-IN 21-75. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, Office of the Inspector General and Auditor General. 1975. U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center. Lewisite. Material safety data sheet. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center. 1988. U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center. HD and THD. Material safety data sheet. HCSDS No. 20058A. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center. 1990. U.S. Department of the Army. Chemical agent data sheets, Vol. 1. Technical Report EO-SR-74001. Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland. 1974. U.S. Department of the Army. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. 1988. Williamson CE, Witten B. Reactivity of some nitrogen and sulfur mustards in biologic media. EATR 4587. Edgewood Arsenal, MD: Medical Research Laboratory. AD-734 828. 1971. Yaverbaum S. 14C-sulfur mustard adducts of calf thymus DNA. USAMRICD-TR-91-02. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. AD-A233 313/6/XAB. 1991. U.S. Navy Reports Naval Research Laboratory, Anacostia Station, Washington DC Report No. P-1898. Prophylaxis and treatment of burns caused by chemical warfare agents. I. Treatment of mustard burns with S-461 ointment in a series of controlled experiments on human subjects. 4/24/42. Report No. P-1899. Prophylaxis and treatment of burns caused by chemical warfare agents. II. Prophylaxis, as applied to prevention of burns by liquid mustard with S-461 ointment. 5/26/42. Report No. P-2208. Report on chamber tests with human subjects. I. Design and operation of chamber. II. Initial tests of Navy issue protective clothing against H vapor. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Daily LE. AD 223752. 12/22/43. Report No. P-2219. Chamber tests with human subjects. III. Design, operation and calibration of a chamber for exposing forearms to H vapor. 1/22/44.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Report No. P-2239. Chamber tests with human subjects. IV. Tests of carbon clothing against H vapor. Carhart HW, Taylor WH, Daily LE. 2/25/44. Report No. P-2322. The evaluation of activated carbon as an anti-vesicant agent in protective clothing. Billica HR, Gantz GM. AD B-953304L. 7/3/44. Report No. P-2364. A controlled laboratory experiment to compare lesions resulting from application of mustard, Lewisite and nitrogen mustards to the skin of the forearms of humans 9/1/44. Report No. P-2406. Report on wearing trials of protective clothing at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. 11/13/44. Report No. P-2464. Chamber tests with human subjects. V. Arm chamber exposures to HN vapors. Carhart HW, Taylor WH. AD B953306L. 3/45. Report No. P-2483. Chamber tests with human subjects. VI. Arm chamber exposures to L vapor. Taylor WH, Carhart HW. AD B-968917. 5/31/45. Report No. P-2528. Chamber tests with human subjects. VII. The effect of concentration of H vapor and time of exposure on the protection afforded by CC-2 impregnated clothing. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Heinen JH. AD 471548. 7/5/45. Report No. P-2579. Chamber tests with human subjects. IX. Basic tests with H vapor. Heinen JH, Carhart HW, Taylor WH, Stolp BN, Conner JC Jr, Clausen NM. AD 396275L. 8/14/45. Report No. P-2590. Chamber tests with human subjects. X. Protection afforded by CC-2 impregnated clothing under various conditions of exposure. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Heinen JH. 9/7/45. Report No. P-2597. Chamber tests with human subjects. VIII. Evaluation of worn CC-2 impregnated clothing. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Heinen JH. AD B-968912. 9/5/45. Report No. P-2602. Chamber tests with human subjects. XI. Evaluation of modified aqueous CC-2 impregnation systems. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Heinen JH. 8/18/45. Report No. P-2603. Chamber tests with human subjects. XII. Suit and man ''breaks" with CC-2 impregnated clothing. Carhart HW, Taylor WH, Heinen JH. 8/31/45. Report No. P-2604. Chamber tests with human subjects. XIII. Special tests of CC-2 and carbon protective clothing. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Heinen JH. AD 223227. 8/18/45. Report No. P-2682. Second wearing trial of protective clothing at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. 11/26/45. Report No. P-2688. Chamber tests with human subjects. XVII. Supplementary tests of CC-2 protective clothing. Taylor WH, Carhart HW, Heinen JH. 11/15/45. Report No. P-2695. A summary of wearing trials of permeable protective clothing. 11/26/45. Report No. P-2701. Chamber tests with human subjects. XIV. Tests of new carbon clothing. Carhart HW, Taylor WH, Heinen JH. AD 223534. 12/3/45. Report No. P-2702. Chamber tests with human subjects. XV. Tests of worn carbon clothing. Carhart HW, Taylor WH, Heinen JH. AD 223228. 1/16/46. Report No. P-2703. Chamber tests with human subjects. XVI. Tests of regenerated and contaminated carbon clothing. Report No. P-2729. Chamber tests with human subjects. XIX. Studies of clothing design. Gantz GM, Taylor WH, Carhart HW. 12/10/45. Report No. P-2734. Chamber tests with human subjects. XVIII. Tests with HN vapors. Heinen JH, Taylor WH, Stolp BN, Conner JC Jr, Clausen NM. 1/9/46. Report No. P-2760. Chamber tests with human subjects. XX. Hypersensitivity to H as demonstrated by patch tests before and after chamber exposure to H vapor. Heinen JH, Carhart HW, Taylor WH, Stolp BN, Conner JC Jr, Clausen NM. 5/15/46.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Other U.S. Military Reports Augerson WS, Sivak A, Marley WS. Chemical casualty treatment protocol developmenttreatment approaches: mustards. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: U.S. Air Force Systems Command. DTIC AD-B112-915. 1986. U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force. Military chemistry and chemical compounds. Field Manual No. FM3-9, Regulation No. AFR 355-7. 1975. U.S. Department of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. Treatment of Chemical Warfare Casualties. Technical Manual No. 8-285; NAVMED P-5041; Air Force Manual No. 160-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1956. United Kingdom Chemical Defence Experimental Station, Porton Down Porton Report No. 483. The effects of the vapor of H on the human skin. Goodwin GS. 5/31/27. Porton Report No. 930. Sensitivity to mustard gas. 7/22/31. Porton Report No. 948. Further report on sensitivity to mustard gas. 9/23/31. Porton Report No. 2150. Lewisite shock. 12/21/40. Porton Report No. 2201. Assessment of danger of systemic poisoning by Lewisite. 4/29/41. Porton Report No. 2246. Systemic effects induced by mustard gas poisoning. First report. 7/30/41. Porton Report No. 2297. Effect of mustard gas vapour on the eyes. 11/8/41. Porton Report No. 2320. Systemic effects produced by mustard gas poisoning. Sedimentation rate, corpuscular fragility, and coagulation time of blood after mustard gas poisoning, with a note on Lewisite. 12/26/41. Porton Report No. 2343. Medical report on casualties produced by airburst mustard gas shells. 3/10/42. Porton Report No. 2354. The protective value of carbon impregnated fabrics against H vapour. 5/20/42. Porton Report No. 2374. The protection of vulnerable areas of the body against H vapour in hot climates. 5/22/42. Porton Report No. 2383. Third report on mustard gas. 6/11/42. Porton Report No. 2398. Fourth report on mustard gas. General systemic effects of mustard gas applied to the skin. 8/7/42. Porton Report No. 2429. The relative insensitivity to mustard gas of the skin of the hand. 9/21/42. Porton Report No. 2460. Blood changes due to S derivatives. 12/1/42. Porton Report No. 2483. Chemical studies on the mode of action of mustard gas on proteins. Part 1. The nature of the combination of H with proteins. 2/19/43. Porton Report No. 2508. Lymph drainage in Lewisite poisoning. 6/2/43. Porton Report No. 2526. The behavior in vitro of serum and bone marrow from H poisoned animals. 8/14/43 Porton Report No. 2543. Capillary permeability factors related to the action of CW agents. Part I. 9/21/43. Porton Report No. 2553. Effect of Lewisite vapor on small animals and on man. 10/29/43. Porton Report No. 2560. Some further studies on the treatment of mustard gas blisters and a comparison of the healing of mustard gas and Lewisite burns. 11/10/43. Porton Report No. 2587. Treatment of systemic effects of H. Part I. A preliminary survey of therapeutic agents of high competition factor. 3/10/44.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Porton Report No. 2590. Bone marrow cultures as test objects for the treatment of injury due to CW agents. 1/29/44. Porton Report No. 2596. Toxicity of H in droplet form. 2/3/44. Porton Report No. 2626. The treatment of the leucopenia of vesicant poisoning. 6/20/44. Porton Report No. 2635. Capillary permeability factors related to the action of CW agents. Part II. 7/21/44. Porton Report No. 2638. Anti-gas ointments for use in the tropics. Part 1. Exploratory experiments. 8/14/44. Porton Report No. 2647. The mode of penetration of the skin by mustard gas. 9/8/44. Porton Report No. 2658. The treatment of the systemic effects of H. Part II. Dithiocarbamates as therapeutic agents. Burgess F, Call F, Cameron GR, Rydon HN. 1944. Porton Report No. 2680. The effect of mustard gas upon binary fistula animals. 5/29/45. Porton Departmental Report No. 76. Report on the skin burning power of various vesicant mixtures through service dress. Ptn. (Porton Letters) 1200 (R.12035 and R.14727). Comparative vesicant properties of vesicant compounds. 12/19/41. Ptn. 1601A (V.1358). Effects of H vapour on man. 2/7/45. Ptn. 2800 (T.12752 and T.12908). The biochemical mode of action of mustard gas. A review. 10/2/43. Ptn. 2809 (U.672). A clinicopathological report of human eyes splashed with mustard gas. 2/3/44. Ptn. 2820 (T.9506A). Comparison of the effects of H and Lewisite on living tissues. 7/10/43. CDE Technical Paper No. 522. The reaction between sulphur and nitrogen mustards and collagen. Goodlad GAJ. DTIC AD-70 757. 1956. CDE Technical Paper No. 573. Cross-linking of collagen by S- and N-mustards. Goodlad GAJ. DTIC AD-119 934. 1956. CDE Technical Paper No. 575. Esterification of amino acids by S-mustards. Goodlad GAJ. DTIC AD-123 274. 1956. CDE Technical Note No. 840. A literature review on the toxicology, mechanism of action and treatment of sulphur and nitrogen mustard poisoning. Whitfield D. 1987. Other British Military Reports Great Britain War Office. Medical Manual of Chemical Warfare. Admiralty BR/235/1954, War Office Code No. 10562, Air Ministry AP3326. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1955. Australia CD (Chemical Defence, Australia) Note No. 21. The effects of exposure to mustard vapor on the blood coagulation time in man. 5/23/44. CD (Australia) Note No. 41. The effect of high and low mustard vapour concentrations on the dosage required to penetrate impregnated clothing. 5/16/45. CD (Australia) Note No. 50. Exposure of subjects to mustard vapor dosages of 50, 120, 125, and 220 mg. min./m under tropical conditions. 1945. CD (Australia) Note No. 56. The effect of cumulative exposures to mustard vapour. 7/2/45. CD (Australia) Report No. 15. The differential white count in man following exposure to mustard vapor. 1/24/44. CD (Australia) Report No. 20. The differential white count in man following exposure to mustard vapor. Second report. 3/29/44.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite CD (Australia) Report No. 30. An attack on a small island with the M.47 bomb charged Levinstein mustard. Final report. 4/1/44. CD (Australia) Report No. 37. The systemic effects of mustard gas under tropical conditions as seen in four cases of liquid contamination. 5/8/44. CD (Australia) Report No. 40. Effect of varying humidity and temperature upon the sensitivity of human skin to mustard vapor. 5/22/44. CD (Australia) Report No. 41. Effect of varying activity of subjects during exposure on the sensitivity of human skin to mustard vapor. 5/22/44. CD (Australia) Report No. 55. A clinical analysis of a series of mustard burns occurring under tropical conditions. 10/18/44. CD (Australia) Report No. 78. A further comparison between physiological effects of mustard vapour in the chamber and in the field. 5/25/45. CD (Australia) Report No. 85. Estimation of the dose-lesion relationship for human exposure to mustard vapour. 2/28/46. Gillis RG. Australian field tests with mustard gas 1942-1945. Department of Defence, Australia. 1985. Gray PJ. A literature review on the mechanism of action of sulphur and nitrogen mustard. MRL-TR-89-24. Maribyrong, Australia: DSTO Materials Research Laboratory. ADA125 070. 1989. Canada Experimental Station, Suffield, Alberta Suffield Field Report No. 133. The physiological effects of mustard vapour at low temperatures. 8/9/45. Suffield Technical Minute No. 72. A comparison of the erythema and vesicle producing capacity of HT/MM and HT. 9/15/44. Suffield Technical Minute No. 92. Vapour damage from gross mustard contamination (Field Experiment 141). 10/8/43. Suffield Technical Minute No. 103. Effectiveness of given Ct's of mustard gas vapour for long exposure periods under tropical conditions. 8/13/45. Chemical Warfare Laboratories, Ottawa Physiological Section Report No. 27. Observations on the treatment of experimentally produced mustard lesions. 12/21/43. Physiological Section Report No. 35. Studies on the immunological behavior of H. II. The production of immune bodies by the use of H-serum protein complexes. 2/22/44. India CDRE (Chemical Defence Research Establishment, Rawalpindi, India) Report No. 245. The effect of mustard gas vapour on eyes under Indian hot weather conditions. 11/9/42. CDRE (India) Report No. 255. The appearances and treatment of mustard gas burns of the skin under Indian conditions. 7/15/43. CDRE (India) Report No. 285. Report on two cases of severe skin burns from mustard gas vapor under tropical conditions in India. 11/29/44.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Other Military Reports Alexander SF. Final report of Bari mustard casualties. Allied Force Headquarters. Director of Medical Services. Surgeon NATO. 1944. Project Coordination Staff. Part 1. Technical aspects of chemical warfare in the field. 1946. Project Coordination Staff. Part 2. Discussion of experimental data. Technical aspects of chemical warfare in the field. 1946. Technical Reports 1942-1946 Office of Scientific Research and Development OSRD 451. The study of the mechanism of the physiological action of mustard by means of radioactive mustard. Moritz AR, Henriques FC Jr, Schneider WG, Halford RS. Harvard University. 3/16/42. OSRD 527. The toxicity of mustard (redistilled Levinstein). Coon JM, Last JH, Lushbaugh CC, Rotariu GC. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 4/21/42. OSRD 823. Report on toxic effects of various arsine derivatives. Geiling EMK, McLean FC. University of Chicago. 8/24/42. OSRD 1199. Comparison of the lethal effects of several dichloroarsines on mice exposed to the vapors at low relative humidity. Hutchens JO, Doyle WL, Merrill R, Glass HG, Lushbaugh CC. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 2/16/43. OSRD 1248. The inactivation of enzymes by mustard gas. Cannan RK. New York University. 3/10/43. OSRD 1253. Toxic effects of various arsine derivatives. Hutchens JO, Glass HG, Gurney HW, Merrill R. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 3/11/43. OSRD 1313. A study of the hematological changes following exposure to certain war gases. Lusbaugh CC. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 4/3/43. OSRD 1439. Some reactions of mustard gas with proteins and proteolytic enzymes. Bergmann M, Fruton JS, Irving GW, Moore S, Stein WH. Rockefeller Institute. 5/21/43. OSRD 1630. A study of the reaction between mustard gas and proteins. Davis SB, Ross WF, Ball EG. Harvard University. 7/22/43. OSRD 1717. Review of the literature on the systemic action of mustard gas to August 1, 1943. Smith HW. New York University. 8/16/43. OSRD 1824. The action of mustard gas on certain enzymatic reactions. McKee RW, Marston EL, Ormsbee RA, Ball EG. Harvard University. 9/21/43. OSRD 1825. A study of the "fixed mustard" in skin tissues. Ormsbee RA, Henriques FC Jr. Harvard University. 9/21/43. OSRD 1855. The reactions of amine mustards with chemical constituents of biological systems. 9/28/43. OSRD 1911. Determination of the distribution of H and L in skin and eye tissues by radio-autographic techniques. Hamilton G, Axelrod D. University of California. 10/13/43. OSRD 3249. Preparation and testing of substances as neutralizing or therapeutic agents for H burns. Folkers K, Phillips RF, Shunk CH, Molitor H, Kuna S. Merck and Company. 2/15/44. OSRD 3269. Induced hypersensitivity to bis(b-chloroethyl)sulphide (mustard gas) and 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL) in guinea pigs. Kidd JG, Landsteiner K. Rockefeller Institute. 3/4/44.

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite OSRD 3366. A study of the ability of compounds with high competition factors to counteract the injurious effects of mustard gas. Buchanan JM, Doering WE, Marston EL, McKee RW, Ormsbee RA. Harvard University. 3/16/44. OSRD 3386. Tests of chloroamide-containing ointments for protection and decontamination of human skin against vesicants. Savit J, Thomson JF, Goldwasser E, Debruyn P, Bloom MA. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 3/21/44. OSRD 3437. A. Investigation of detoxicants or decontaminants for mustard gas. B. Enzyme studies and other chemical studies bearing upon the action of certain vesicants. Hellerman L, Porter CC, Irvin JL, Presta UA, Lindsay A. Johns Hopkins University. 4/4/44. OSRD 3467. Studies on the cause of death after systemic intoxication with the ß-chloroethyl vesicants. Smith HW, Crawford B, Houck CR. New York University. 4/12/44. OSRD 3620. The mechanism of cutaneous injury by mustard gas. An experimental study using mustard prepared with radioactive sulfur. Henriques FC, Moritz AR, Breyfogle HS, Patterson LA. Harvard University. 5/9/44. OSRD 3653. Reactions of H with enzymes and proteins. Herriott RM, Anson ML, Northrop JH. Rockefeller Institute. 5/20/44. OSRD 3942. Protective clothes. I. Irritancy of vapor-contaminated samples on human skin. II. Penetration of vapor and liquid vesicants. University of Chicago. 8/30/44. OSRD 3943. Analysis of variations in size of blister after applications of H. Wright S. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 7/27/44. OSRD 3944. A vapor-train study of the comparative vesicancy of mustard and several related amines and sulfides on human skin. Black S, DuBois KP, Lipton MA. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 8/30/44. OSRD 4176. Toxicity and vesicant tests of compounds referred to the University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. Young HD. 10/3/44. OSRD 4638. Tests for decontamination of mustard and nitrogen mustard on human skin. Goldwasser E, DeBruyn PPH, Thomson JF, Savit J. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 12/12/44. OSRD 4841. Biochemistry of the action of sulfur containing vesicants. du Vigneaud V, Carpenter FH, McDuffie HF, McKennis H, Melville OB, Rachele JR, Stevens CM, Wood LJ. Cornell University. 3/20/45. OSRD 4852. I. The necrotizing action of certain substances related to mustard gas, H, or to the nitrogen mustards. II. A comparison of the vesicant action exerted on human skin by mustard gas, H, and by mixtures of H with wetting agents or solvents. Hogeboom GH, McMaster PD, Sulzberger MB, Baer RL, Kanof A. Rockefeller Institute. 3/25/45. OSRD 4853. The development of methods for testing the abilities of agents to combat the effects of mustard gas, H, and other vesicants upon the skin. McMaster PD, Hogeboom GH, Sulzberger MB, Baer RL, Kanof A. Rockefeller Institute. 3/24/45. OSRD 4854. A search for decontaminating and treatment agents for skin exposed to mustard gas. McMaster PD, Hogeboom GH, Sulzberger MB, Baer RL, Kanof A. Rockefeller Institute. 3/24/45. OSRD 4855. The penetration of vesicant vapors into human skin. Bergmann M, Fruton JS, Golumbic C, Nagy SM, Stahmann MA, Stein WH. Rockefeller Institute. 3/24/45. OSRD 5000. The effect of flow rate on the toxicities of H, Q, HN1, HN3 and L by inhalation, by total exposure, and by body exposure. Albaum HG, Benedict D, DuBois KP, Glass HS, Henderson JH, Hutchens JO. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 4/28/45. OSRD 5026. Changes in the circulation and in the permeability of vessels within and about mustard gas and Lewisite lesions of rabbit skin. McMaster PD, Hogeboom GH. Rockefeller Institute. 5/3/45. OSRD 5027. The inhibition of vesiculation in mustard gas, H, lesions of human skin by

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite BAL. McMaster PD, Hogeboom G, Sulzberger MB, Baer RL, Kanof A. Rockefeller Institute. 5/3/45. OSRD 5032. A formal analysis of the action of liquid vesicants on bare skin. Landahl HD. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 5/5/45. OSRD 5169. Observations on the role of water in the susceptibility of human skin to vesicant vapors. Renshaw B. 6/1/45. OSRD 5180. The comparative systemic effects of mustard and the nitrogen mustards (HN1, HN2, HN3) in rats. Graef I, Jager VB, Karnofsky DA. New York University. 5/1/45. OSRD 5181. The penetration of vesicant vapors into human skin (Supplement to OSRD No. 4855). Bergmann M, Fruton JS, Nagy SM, Stein WH. Rockefeller Institute. 6/6/45. OSRD 5194. Tests for vesicancy on human skin. Thomson JF, Young HD, Savit J, Goldwasser E, Murray RG, DeBruyn P. University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. 6/1/45. OSRD 5245. Effects of bis(ß-chloroethyl) sulfide (H) and bis(ß-chloroethyl) methylamine (HN2) on enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Cori CF, Colowick SP, Berger L, Slein MW. Washington University School of Medicine. 6/20/45. OSRD 5527. Final technical report, University of Chicago Toxicity Laboratory. Cannan RK, Geiling EMK. 9/11/45. OSRD 5979. Protective and therapeutic agents for war gases: therapeutic agents for mustard and nitrogen mustards II. Salzberg PL, Lazier WA, Pavlic AA, Rigby GW, Vinton WH. 1/10/46. OSRD 6084. The NDRC method for laboratory evaluation of permeable protective fabrics. Guss WI, Adkins H, University of Wisconsin. 10/17/45. OSRD 6325. Summary report on the systemic pharmacology and pathology of the sulfur and nitrogen mustards. Anslow WP, Houck CR. New York University. 10/1/45. OSRD 6664. The effects of vesicants on cell division in Arbacia punctulata. Cannan RK, Levy M. New York University. 6/1/46. Office of Scientific Research and Development. National Defense Research Committee. Chemical Warfare Agents, and Related Chemical Problems. 2 vols. Summary Technical Report of Division 9, NDRC. Washington, DC: NDRC. AD-234 249. 1946. 1947-1992 Anders MW. Glutathione-dependent toxicity: biosynthesis and bioactivation of cytotoxic S-conjugates. Rochester, NY: Rochester University. School of Medicine and Dentistry. AD-A247-1126XSP. 1988. Aposhian HV. Prevention and treatment of vesication and poisoning caused by arsenicals. Annual summary report, Feb. 1980-Jan. 1981. Tucson: Arizona University. AD-A1203850XSP. 1981. Back KC, Thomas AA, MacEwen JD. 1972. Reclassification of material listed as transportation health hazards. Office of Hazardous Materials of the Assistant Secretary for Safety and Consumer Affairs, U.S. Department of Transportation. TSA-2072-3. PB-214 270/1. Benschop HP. Verification, dosimetry and biomonitoring of mustard gas exposure via immunochemical detection of mustard gas adducts to DNA and proteins. Midterm report 15 May 1988-14 Nov. 1989. Rijswijk, Netherlands: Prins Maurits Lab. AD-A240471-3XSP. 1990. Bernstein IA, Brabec MJ, Conolly RC, Gray RH, Kulkarni A, Mitra R, Vaughan FL. Chemical blistering: cellular and macromolecular components. AD-A190 313. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. 1985. Dannenberg AM Jr. Pathogenesis and treatment of skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard:

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite inflammatory mediators and modulators released from organ-cultured inflammatory lesions produced in vivo in rabbit skin by sulfur mustard. Final report. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. AD-A207 976. 1987. Dannenberg AM Jr. Sulfur mustard (SM) lesions in organ-cultured human skin: markers of injury and inflammatory mediators. Final report. DTIC AD-B134-651. 1990. Dannenberg AM Jr, Vogt RF Jr. Pathogenesis and treatment of skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard. Inflammatory mediators and modulators released in organ culture from rabbit skin lesions produced in vivo by sulfur mustard. Annual report. AD-A182 786. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. 1986. Feister A, Papirmeister B, Robinson S, Kiebzak G, McNally R, Ford R, Baggett J, Gottlieb J, Bareis D. Sulfur mustard and Lewisite: current perspectives and future directions. Prepared by Science Applications International Corporation for U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Unpublished. 1989. Hackett PL, Rommereim RL, Burton FG, Buschbom RL, Sasser LB. Teratology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: effects of sulfur mustard in rats and rabbits. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A187 495. 1987. Hackett PL, Rommereim RL, Burton FG, Buschbom RL, Sasser LB. Teratology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents. effects of sulfur mustard in rats and rabbits. Part 2. Appendices. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. NTIS AD-A189-161. 1987. Hackett PL, Sasser LB, Rommereim RL, Cushing JA, Buschbom  RL, Kalkwarf DR. Teratology studies of Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: effects of Lewisite in rats and rabbits. PNL-6408, Pt. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. 1987. Jostes RF Jr, Sasser LB, Rausch RJ. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: genetic toxicity of sulfur mustard (HD) in Chinese hamster ovary cells. PNL-6922. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A215 475. 1989. Koppikar A, McGaughy R, Rhomberg L. Upper-bound quantitative cancer risk estimates for populations adjacent to sulfur mustard incineration facilities. EPA 600891053, OHEAC291. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PB 921-372-07XSP. 1991. Landry L. Develop a biomedical database on the medical aspects of chemical defense. Final report. Washington, DC: Associate Consultants. NTIS-AD-A206 941-7. 1986. Ludlum D. Protection against the acute and delayed toxicity of mustards and mustard-like compounds. Final Report. Sept. 1, 1982-February 28, 1987. Albany Medical College, NY. AD-A183-573-5. 1987. Monteiro-Riviere NA, King JR, Riviere JE. Cutaneous toxicity of mustard and Lewisite on the isolated perfused porcine skin flap. Raleigh: North Carolina State University, School of Veterinary Medicine. AD-A229-9220XSP. 1990. Opresko DM. Occupational criteria documents for chemical agents. Review of methodologies used for establishing occupational health criteria with particular reference to chemical agents. ORNL-6387. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. AD-A233 858/0/XAB. 1988. Sasser LB, Cushing JA, Kalkwarf DR, Buschbom RL. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: modified dominant lethal study of sulfur mustard in rats. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A214 556. 1989. Sasser LB, Miller RA, Kalkwarf DR, Buschbom RL, Cushing JA. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: subchronic toxicity of sulfur mustard (HD) in rats. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A214-555. 1989. Sasser LB, Cushing JA, Kalkwarf DR, Mellick PW, Buschbom RL. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: subchronic toxicity study of Lewisite in rats. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A217 886. 1989. Sasser LB, Cushing JA, Kalkwarf DR, Mellick PW, Buschbom RL. Toxicology studies on

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: two-generation reproduction study of Lewisite in rats. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A214 311. 1989. Sasser LB, Miller RA, Kalkwarf DR, Buschbom RL, Cushing JA. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: two-generation reproduction study of sulfur mustard (HD) in rats. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A216 423. 1989. Smulson ME. Molecular biology basis for the response of poly(ADP-Rib) polymerase and NAD metabolism to DNA damage caused by mustard alkylating agents. Washington, DC: Georgetown University. AD-A235 314/2/XAB. 1991. Stewart DL, Sass EJ, Fritz LK, Sasser LB. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: mutagenicity of Lewisite in the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A213-146. 1989. Stewart DL, Sass EJ, Fritz LK, Sasser LB. Toxicology studies on Lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: mutagenicity of sulfur mustard in the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AD-A213 102. 1989. Watson AP, Munro NB. Reentry planning: the technical basis for offsite recovery following warfare agent contamination. ORNL-6628. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1990. Watson AP, Adams JD, Cerar RJ, Hess TL, Kistner SL, Leffingwell SS, MacIntosh RG, Ward JR. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. ORNL/TM-12035. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1992. Availability Information The following addresses and information are provided for those persons interested in obtaining copies of the military and technical reports listed in the bibliography. Consult the listed repositories for fees and availability. Office of Scientific and Research Development (OSRD) reports: Including National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) and Committee on Medical Research (CMR) reports. Civil Reference Branch National Archives and Records Administration Washington, DC 20408 Records are stored in Record Group 227, Series 29. Committee on Treatment of Gas Casualties (CTGC) reports: Office of Archives and Information Services National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 National Technical Information Service (NTIS): For unclassified reports listing an AD number: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161-0001

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Naval Research Laboratory reports: Reports with AD numbers can be ordered through the National Technical Information Service. Other reports can be requested from the NRL Public Affairs Office. Public Affairs Office Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20375-5000 Chemical Warfare Service reports: Administrative records and correspondence: National Archives and Records Administration Suitland Reference Branch Washington, DC 20409 Records are stored in Record Group 175 at the Suitland, MD facility. Reports can be requested through the Freedom of Information Act from: Commander U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5423 British reports: Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment Porton Down Salisbury, Wiltshire United Kingdom SP4 OJQ A subject bibliography, entitled Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite: Subject Bibliography, is available through the National Technical Information Service.