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Special attention was directed at estimating the dose levels to which the experimental human subjects had been exposed in gas chambers or field exercises. In these experiments, subjects wore varying amounts of the protective clothing being tested, as well as gas masks. In the chamber tests, human subjects were required to enter gas chambers repeatedly for an hour or more per trial, until, after a number of trials, their skin showed evidence of chemical burns (erythema)—an indication that the agents were penetrating the protective clothing. In the field tests, the agents were dropped over large tracts of land, and human subjects, wearing clothing being tested, were sent into those areas for varying amounts of time. Penetration of the agents through the clothing was assessed in these tests in the same manner as in the chamber tests.


The committee reached the following conclusions on the basis of its analysis of the experimental protocols:

  • The lack of follow-up health assessments of the human subjects in the WWII gas chamber and field tests severely diminished the amount and quality of information that could be applied in the assessment of long-term health consequences of exposure to mustard agents and Lewisite.

  • The levels of exposure to mustard agents or Lewisite experienced by the human subjects may have been much higher than inferred in the summaries of the gas chamber and field tests.

The lack of follow-up of these subjects particularly dismayed the committee for a number of reasons. For example, the end point of the chamber and field tests was tissue injury, but it was already known by 1933 that certain long-term health problems resulted from sulfur mustard exposure. Further, it was documented that numerous subjects suffered severe injuries that required up to a month of treatment. Finally, the exposure levels were sufficiently high that even the most efficient gas mask would have leaked enough mustard agent or Lewisite to cause inhalation and eye injuries.

  •  The committee was additionally dismayed that there were no epidemiological studies done of mustard agent-exposed, U.S. chemical weapons production workers, war gas handlers and trainers, or combat casualties from WWII.

Tens of thousands of people (military and civilian) worked in U.S. arsenals that produced mustard agents, Lewisite, and other chemicals. Exposure levels in these facilities were often quite high, as evidenced by the number of injuries reported and by the poor safety record of the

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