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toxicity data, but included longer-term effects. The first reviews were distributed among the various NDRC and CMR groups in August 1943 (Smith, 1943). There is no evidence that these reviews resulted in any changes or modifications of the protocols for the treatment or follow-up of human subjects in the experimental programs. On the subject of long-term effects of exposure, only Vedder's work, and not Gilchrist's, is mentioned in this review.

The focus of the following section is on the experiments conducted in the United States using human subjects; consideration of the animal experiments is included in later chapters, which survey the scientific literature. Similar experiments were also conducted in Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and the Soviet Union, as well as in Germany and Japan. The details of these experiments and these countries' chemical weapons programs are not included here. However, numerous references that provide information regarding these programs were examined by the committee, are included in the bibliography, and are specifically cited in this report where appropriate. One of the richest sources for information on the gas chamber experiments was reports released from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Other primary source information regarding gas chamber experiments in locations other than the NRL was obtained by the committee from Edgewood Arsenal in Aberdeen, Maryland.

CWS carried out three basic types of experiments with human subjects. According to Cochrane, these testing programs involved the use of approximately 60,000 human subjects. Patch, or drop, tests were the most common and were used to assess the efficacy of a multitude of protective or decontamination ointments, treatments for mustard agent and Lewisite burns, effects of multiple exposures on sensitivity, and the effects of physical exercise on the severity of chemical burns. In addition, drop application of liquid mustard agents was commonly used in basic training to raise single blisters to impress upon the trainees the toxicity of these agents and the need for immediate responses to any orders to don gas masks. Chamber tests of various types were conducted to test the effectiveness of protective clothing, all of which had been impregnated with chemicals to retard vapor penetration. Finally, field tests involved the contamination of large or small areas of land with sulfur mustard or Lewisite. Human subjects were used in field tests to test protective clothing, to monitor the effects of the agents on animals in the test sites, and to take measurements of agent concentrations in soil and water samples. Table 3-2 summarizes the known major locations of these tests and the types of experiments done in each location.

Many veterans who were subjects in the chamber tests have obtained detailed records of their exposures from the Naval Research Laboratory. These reports often employ an outdated scientific notation. Table 3-3



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