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TABLE 3-2 Known Gas Testing Facilities and Test Typesa


Type of Experiments

Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland  

Chamber and patch tests Small-scale field tests Gas production

Bainbridge, Maryland

Chamber tests

Dugway Proving Ground, Utah  

Large-scale field tests

Camp Sibert, Alabama  

Chamber and patch tests (1943-1944 only)

Naval Research Laboratory, Virginia  

Chamber and patch tests

Great Lakes Naval Training Center, Illinois  

Chamber and patch tests

Camp Lejeune, North Carolina  

Chamber tests

San Jose Island, Canal Zone  

Large-scale field tests Chamber tests

Bushnell, Florida

Large-scale field tests

Other Allied Tests  

Finschhafen, New Guinea

Large-scale field tests

Innisfail, Australia

Large-scale field tests Chamber tests

Porton Down, England

Chamber tests (reported) Patch tests (reported)

a This represents only a partial list of locations, especially for patch tests because patch exposures were a frequent part of training at Chemical Warfare Schools. In addition, British testing reports are still classified and not. available

SOURCES: Cochrane, 1946; Gillis, 1985; Office of Scientific Research and Development, 1946.

TABLE 3-3 Concentration Versus Cumulative Exposure Level: Explanation of Notations in NRL Reports and Modern Literature



Used in NRL reports to signify micrograms (µg, also called gamma) per liter (1, according to modern notation) or µg/l


milligrams per cubic meter, equivalent to µg/l


parts per million, a volume to volume measurement that, at 25°C at sea level, is equal to 6.5 mg/m3 of sulfur mustard

Cumulative Exposure


Used in NRL reports to signify concentration (C) multiplied by time (T); equal to mg·min/m3, modern notation uses t to signify time (Ct)

a The use of L to signify liters is confusing because L is also the abbreviation for Lewisite. However, used with micrograms in the NRL reports, L signified liters.

SOURCE: Taylor et al., 1943.

summarizes the various notations used in NRL reports, along with other sources, to express concentrations, and compares these with modern notation. In addition, this table illustrates the difference between atmospheric concentration and the concept of cumulative exposure, in which

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