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TABLE 3-4 Summary of Major Biological End Points Characterizing Sulfur Mustard Exposure to Humans (at 16°C-27°C unless otherwise noted)

 

Effects End Points

Exposure Route

Thresholda

Injured (nondisabling)

Incapacitationb

Death or Permanent Injury

References

Eye/vapor (mg·min/m3)

2 (at = 32°C) 12

50-100

200 (ICt50)c

>800

Gates and Moore, 1946; McNamara et al; 1975; Papirmeister et al., 1991; Project Coordination Staff, 1946; Stepanov and Popov, 1962 Urbanetti, 1988; U.S. Army, 1974; U.S. Army CRDEC, 1990; U.S. Army and Air Force, 1975

Respiratory tract/vapor (mg·min/m3)

12-70

<100

200 (ICt50)

1,000

1,500 (LCt50)d

Ganas, 1969; McNamara et al., 1975; Project Coordination Staff, 1946 Robinson, 1967; Sidell, 1990; Stepanov and Popov, 1962; Stroykov, 1970; U.S. Army, 1974; U.S. Army CRDEC, 1990

Skin/vapor (mg·min/m3)

5 (maximum safe Ct) 50 (at 32°C) 100-200

100-300

1,000 (ICt50 at 32°C, low humidity) 2,000 (ICt50 at 21°C-27°C, humid)

10,000 (LCt50)

Gates and Moore, 1946; McNamara et al., 1975; Papirmeister et al., 1991; Project Coordination Staff, 1946; Sidell and Hurst, 1992; U.S. Army, 1974; U.S. Army CRDEC, 1990

Skin/liquid

10 µg

10-20 µg/cm2

32 mg/man (HD)

3.5-4 mg/man (HT)

No reported estimates

770 mg/man

3,000-7,000 mg/man

100 mg/kg (LD50) 64 mg/kg (reported human lethal dose)

Papirmeister et al., 1991; Robinson, 1967; Sidell, 1990; U.S. Army, 1974; U.S. Army CRDEC, 1990; WHO, 1970

a Threshold is considered first indication of nondisabling signs and symptoms (eye reddening, erythema, and blisters).

b Incapacitation is considered inability to perform designated duties.

c The Ct expected to incapacitate 50 percent of those exposed.

d The Ct expected to cause death in 50 percent of those exposed.

SOURCE: Adapted from Papirmeister et al., 1991, Watson and Griffin, 1992.



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