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be made for the specific exposure circumstances of veterans exposed during World War II or otherwise. Human epidemiological studies of workers employed in the production of sulfur mustard demonstrate a significant excess of cancers of the lung and larynx.

Lung cancer has been found to be doubled among British veterans exposed to mustard agents (Case and Lea, 1955) and increased by up to 50 percent in United States veterans (Beebe, 1960). It is suggested in Chapter 3 of this report that the cumulative exposures for some of the subjects in the WWII testing programs may have been similar to battlefield exposures. To the extent that they were comparable, a similar increased risk of lung cancer would be expected. It is not known how many individuals this finding describes.

REFERENCES

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Boyland E, Horning ES. 1949. The induction of tumours with nitrogen mustards. British Journal of Cancer 3:118-123.


Case RM, Lea AJ. 1955. Mustard gas poisoning, chronic bronchitis, and lung cancer: an investigation into the possibility that poisoning by mustard gas in the 1914-1918 war might be a factor in the production of neoplasia. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 9:62-72.

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Heston WE. 1949. Induction of pulmonary tumors in strain A mice with methyl-bis(ßchloroethlyl)amine hydrochloride. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 10:125-130.

Heston WE. 1950. Carcinogenic action of the mustards. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 11:415-423.

Heston WE. 1953a. Occurrence of tumors in mice injected subcutaneously with sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 14:131-140.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1975. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Vol. 9, Some Aziridines, N, S- & O- Mustards and Selenium. Lyon: IARC. 181-192.



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