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Taylor and colleagues (1945) refer to ranges of 3,000 to 11,000 Ct of sulfur mustard used at Edgewood Arsenal.

Chamber tests were also conducted in Panama, North Carolina, and Maryland. These tests were called "wear tests," designed to see how the impregnated clothing stood up to use under possible combat conditions. Thus, the men wore the protective suits during drills and combat simulations, ranging from 1 day of amphibious training to 6 weeks of simulated combat. Following this, the men entered gas chambers in these suits, for 60-minute trials (as in the man-break tests), until erythema developed. The data reported in the Summary Technical Report of the NRDC (OSRD, 1946) show a range of 1.0 to 2.2 hours chamber time before erythema developed in this group of subjects. These data are difficult to compare with other chamber tests, however, because only micrograms of sulfur mustard were reported without the usual accompanying notation regarding volume. If one assumes that the micrograms listed were per liter, then the exposures ranged from 300 to 2,400 Ct in this series of chamber trials. Finally, some men participated in arm chamber tests of protective ointments or clothing materials. In these, the arms of the men were placed in a wind tunnel with cumulative exposures reported to be 1,200 Ct.

Some physiological measurements, including temperature and blood counts, were done on men participating in some of the tests, but these physiological measurements were not generally reported in the technical summaries. For those men who participated in Naval Research Laboratory tests, records of the experimental conditions, as well as any physiological measurements, were kept for each test subject and are available from NRL to individuals through the Freedom of Information Act (also see Chapter 4).

Field Tests

Many field tests with mustard gas were conducted with human subjects, but relatively little information is available. Known field tests were conducted by the United States and Australia in various locations (Freeman, 1991; Gillis, 1985; OSRD, 1946) (Table 3-2). Apparently, 1,000 U.S. servicemen participated in these field tests, a number that is supported by the discovery of a list of 1,000 servicemen recommended for special citation for participation in CWS testing programs (Cochrane, 1946; see also Appendix E). There is also evidence that some U.S. field tests involved human subjects who were not protected by clothing or even gas masks. The Summary Technical Report of the NDRC (OSRD, 1946, Table 8, p. 58) presents data about the exposure levels of mustard gas required to produce injuries in man, based on field tests in varied temperatures and climates in which none of the men wore protective



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