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Index

A

Accidental exposure, 42, 139-140

Acute effects, dermatological, 157-167

genital injury, 39, 160, 175, 219,221

of nitrogen mustard, 77-78

ocular, 133-139

respiratory tract, 115-118, 125-126, 127, 399-412

of sulfur mustard, 22, 25, 34, 75-78, 82

Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANL), 102-103, 393-395

African Americans, 36, 41-42

Alexander, Stewart, 44

Animal studies, 222-224

blood disorders, 187-188

carcinogenicity, 88-97, 171-172, 391-396

dermatological effects, 162-164, 167, 171-172

gastrointestinal disorders, 187

immunity disorders, 181-183

ocular effects, 139

reproductive toxicity, 189-190, 192-194

respiratory effects, 117, 118

Anxiety disorders, 200, 207, 211

Arm chamber tests, 40

Arsenals, 3-4, 40-43, 55, 120,

see also Edgewood Arsenal;

Occupational exposure

Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 86-87, 172-173, 192-193

see also Lewisite

Asbestos, 126, 407

Asthma, 119, 336, 409-410

B

Bainbridge, MD, Navy Training Center, 372-373

Bari harbor, Italy, disaster, 4, 10, 43-44, 184-185

Basic training, see Training exercises

Battlefield use, 9-10, 47-48, 142, 173

exposure levels, 33



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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Index A Accidental exposure, 42, 139-140 Acute effects, dermatological, 157-167 genital injury, 39, 160, 175, 219,221 of nitrogen mustard, 77-78 ocular, 133-139 respiratory tract, 115-118, 125-126, 127, 399-412 of sulfur mustard, 22, 25, 34, 75-78, 82 Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANL), 102-103, 393-395 African Americans, 36, 41-42 Alexander, Stewart, 44 Animal studies, 222-224 blood disorders, 187-188 carcinogenicity, 88-97, 171-172, 391-396 dermatological effects, 162-164, 167, 171-172 gastrointestinal disorders, 187 immunity disorders, 181-183 ocular effects, 139 reproductive toxicity, 189-190, 192-194 respiratory effects, 117, 118 Anxiety disorders, 200, 207, 211 Arm chamber tests, 40 Arsenals, 3-4, 40-43, 55, 120, see also Edgewood Arsenal; Occupational exposure Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 86-87, 172-173, 192-193 see also Lewisite Asbestos, 126, 407 Asthma, 119, 336, 409-410 B Bainbridge, MD, Navy Training Center, 372-373 Bari harbor, Italy, disaster, 4, 10, 43-44, 184-185 Basic training, see Training exercises Battlefield use, 9-10, 47-48, 142, 173 exposure levels, 33

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Iran-Iraq war casualties, 48, 117, 122, 170, 185, 191 WWI casualties, 9, 47, 48, 101-102, 121-122, 135, 137, 140-142, 183 -184, 203, 335-337 Beryllium, 124-125, 406-407 Birth defects, 189-195 Blindness, 140-141 Blisters, 151, 159, 167, 168 Blood counts, 68, 183-185 Blood disorders, 187-188, 220, see also Bone marrow injury; Leukemia Bone marrow injury, 77-78, 167-168, 183-186, 187, 220 Bowen's disease, 169, 171, 172-173 British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), 79, 85, 139 Bronchitis, 119-120, 121-122, 124, 127, 408-409 Bronchopneumonia, 117, 184, 335 Bureau of Mines, 26 C Camp Sibert, Alabama, 67 Cancer, 4-5, 64, 216-218 respiratory tract, 216, 396-397 skin, 168, 169-170, 171-173, 175, 216-218, 219, 396 see also Carcinogenicity; Chemotherapy; Leukemia Carcinogenicity, 81-82, 88-97, 171-172, 391-396 battlefield exposure, 101-102 of Lewisite, 171-173, 174-175, 216 occupational exposure, 97-101, 103-104, 105, 169-170, 172-173, 397 of sulfur mustard, 47, 78, 82-85, 102, 104, 105, 168-170, 216, 390 -392, 395-397 Cardiovascular diseases, 64 Causality, 4, 19 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), recommended exposure levels, 33 Chamber tests, 3, 10, 31-33, 35-40, 52-55, 120-121, 379 cancer risk, 105, 216 psychological effects, 211, 221 treatment of subjects, 65-69 Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, 49-50 Chemical Warfare Service (CWS), 3-4, 27-29, 31 arsenals, 3-4, 40-43, 55, 120 chamber tests, 39-40 field tests, 66, 373 records, 7, 373-374, 375-377 see also Edgewood Arsenal Chemotherapy, mustard agents use in, 44-45, 77, 102-103, 122 Chlorine gas, 124, 400-402 Civilian workers, 7, 42-43, 225 Claims, see Disability claims Claustrophobia, 206 Cleft lip and palate, 191 Clothing, see Protective clothing Coercion of test subjects, 65-66, 67-68 Combat fatigue, 203 Committee on Medical Research (CMR), 17, 30, 339 Committee on the Treatment of Gas Casualties (CTGC), NRC, 30-31, 42, 339 Conjunctivitis, 144, 219, 336 Contact lenses, 144 Corneal damage, 133, 135-145 passim, 218-219 Cotton dust, 124, 403-405, 410-411

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite CWS, see Chemical Warfare Service Cytotoxicity, of Lewisite, 86 of sulfur mustard, 75-77, 85 D Department of Defense (DoD), 7, 225-226 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 1-2, 6, 51, 204, 224-226 Depression, 207 Dermatological effects, see Skin disorders and injury Disability claims, 1-2, 10-11, 28, 66 Diseases, listing, 4-5, 217 self-reported, 64-65, 384-385 in VA determination guidelines, 2 Disposal of chemical weapons, 33, 48-50 DNA damage, from arsenite, 86-87 from sulfur mustard, 75-77, 83-84, 163-164, 216 Documentation, classification of, 7-8, 51-52, 226 foreign sources, 18-19 long-term effects, 2, 5-6, 214-215 personnel records, 7, 11, 66-67, 225, 370-377 of tests, 17-18, 215, 371 VA guidelines, 2, 11 Drods, 35 Drop tests, see Patch tests E Edgewood Arsenal, 28, 39-40, 42, 46, 140, 376-377 Emphysema, 119-120, 121, 127, 336, 408-409 Erythema, 159 as chamber test end point, 36, 39, 40 Exposure levels, 3, 33, 34, 215 chamber tests, 39-40, 52-55 patch tests, 35 Eye disease and injury, 4-5, 131-132, 142-145, 218-219 acute effects, 133-139 battlefield exposure, 135, 137, 140-142 from Lewisite, 137, 138, 144-145, 219 occupational exposure, 139-140 from sulfur mustard, 133-144, 218-219 treatment, 143-144 F Field tests, 3, 31, 32, 40-41, 66 Follow-up of test subjects, 34, 6-8, 50-52, 224-225 roster development, 370-377 France, WWI gas casualties, 140 G Gas chamber tests, see Chamber tests Gas masks, 3, 36n, 43, 52-55, 215 Gas neurosis, 203 Gastrointestinal disorders, 64, 187, 220 Genetic damage, from Lewisite, 86-87, 104, 192-195 from sulfur mustard, 46-47, 75-77, 83-85, 104, 189-192, 216 Genital injury, 39, 160, 175, 219, 221 Germany, mustard gas use, 9-10 weapons production workers, 169

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite Gilchrist, Harry L., 28, 29 Glutathione depletion, 77 H Heat stress, 205n Hematopoietic depression, see Bone marrow injury Hodgkin's disease, 45 Hypervigilance, 210 I Immunity disorders, 179-186, 220 battlefield exposure, 183-186 from sulfur mustard, 181-186 Incineration of chemical stockpiles, 49-50 Iran-Iraq War, 48, 117, 122, 170, 185, 191 Isocyanates, 124, 405 J Japan, weapons factory workers, 97-99, 119-120, 169-170, 172, 190-191 Japanese Americans, 36 Johns Hopkins University Medical School, 42 K Keratitis, 137, 139, 140, 141-142, 144, 219 L Leukemia, 102-103, 216, 218, 393-395 Leukopenia, 184-185 Levinstein process, 71-72 Lewis, W. Lee, 25-26 Lewisite, blood effects, 187-188 carcinogenicity, 171-173, 174-175, 216 chemistry and properties, 24, 25-26, 78-79, 84 cytotoxicity, 86 dermatological effects, 153, 164-167, 171-175 gastrointestinal effects, 187 genetic damage, 86-87, 104, 192-195 neurological effects, 188 occupational exposure, 172-173 ocular effects, 137, 138, 144-145, 219 odor threshold, 53 production, 26, 41 reproductive toxicity, 192-195 respiratory effects, 117-118 stockpiles, 48 Limbal vascular damage, 142-143 Lymphosarcoma, 45 M Man-break tests, 36, 39, 65 Medical exposure, 122-123, 142, 170-171, 173, 393-395 chemotherapy, 77, 102-103, 122 Military personnel, CWS units, 4, 7, 41, 225 Mood disorders, 200 Mutagenicity, of sulfur mustard, 46-47, 84-85, 190-191 N National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), 17, 30, 339 National Personnel Record Center (NPRC), 371-372

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite National Research Council (NRC), 26, 338-339 Committee on the Treatment of Gas Casualties (CTGC), 30-31, 42, 339 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), chamber tests, passim, 36-40, 67 -68, 371-373 records, 371-373, 374-375, 376-377 Nerve agents, 46, 206, 380 Neurasthenic conditions, 28 Neurological disorders, 65, 188, 220 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) depletion, 77 Nitrogen mustard, acute effects, 77-78 carcinogenicity, 77-78, 102-103, 104-105, 216-218, 392-393, 395-396 chemistry, 24 as chemotherapy agent, 44-45, 77, 102-103, 122 dermatological effects, 156, 170 respiratory effects, 122 wartime production, 41 Nuremberg Codes of 1947, 379-381 O Occupational exposure, 3-4, 7, 42-43, 55, 120, 140, 215, 221-222, 225 carcinogenicity, 97-101, 103-104, 105, 169-170, 172-173, 397 chlorine gas, 401 dermatological effects, 168-170, 172-173 to Lewisite, 172-173 ocular effects, 139-140 reproductive toxicity, 190-191, 194 respiratory effects, 119-120 to sulfur mustard, 97-101, 119-120, 139-140, 168-170 Ocular effects, see Eye disease and injury Ocular epithelial damage, 144 Odor thresholds, 53 Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), 17, 29-30, 339 Ointments and salves, 10, 35 Online databases, 14-15, 16, 17 Operation TOP HAT, 379-380 P Patch tests, 10, 31, 33, 35, 66, 171 Physical examinations, 68 Pigmentation disorders, 156-157, 168, 169, 175 Pneumonia, 119 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 200-204, 207-208, 211 Post-WWI period (1919-1940), chemical weapons use, 9-10 research programs, 28-29 Post-WWII period, chemical weapons use, 47-48 research programs, 45-47 Production, see Arsenals; Occupational exposure Protective clothing, 10, 36-40, 52, 205n Psoriasin, 170-171 Psychoactive drug testing, 46, 378-380 Psychological disorders, 5, 65, 199-211, 221 see also Post-traumatic stress disorder Pulmonary fibrosis, 122-123

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite R Racial factors, dermatological effects, 158-159 Rapid screening of hazard (RASH) method, 395-396 Raritan Arsenal, 49 Reproductive toxicity, 189-195, 220-221 of Lewisite, 192-195 occupational exposure, 190-191, 194 of sulfur mustard, 189-192, 220-221 Respiratory tract effects, 4-5, 112-115, 117, 118, 123-127, 218, 399-412 acute, 115-118, 125-126, 127, 399-412 battlefield exposure, 117, 120-122, 335-337 cancer, 216, 396-397 Lewisite, 117-118 of nitrogen mustard, 122 occupational exposure, 119-120 sulfur mustard, 115-123, 127, 218 Reverse assembly, 49 S Scarring, 152, 160, 168, 219 Secrecy oath, 1, 7-8, 65-66, 226 Septicemia, 117 Service records, 7, 11, 66-67, 225, 371-377 Sexual dysfunction, 5, 65, 175, 219, 221 Shell shock, 203 Silicosis, 125, 407 Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) elevation, 84, 86 Skin disorders and injury, 4, 64, 148-157, 162-164, 167-168, 171-172, 174-175, 219-220 acute effects, 157-167 battlefield exposure, 170, 173 cancer, 168, 169-170, 171-173, 175, 216-218, 219, 396 from Lewisite, 153, 164-167, 171-175 from nitrogen mustard, 156, 170 occupational exposure, 168-170, 172-173 sulfur mustard, 151, 153, 154, 156-164, 167-171, 174, 175 see also Erythema Smoking, 101-102, 411 S.S. John Harvey, 43 Stockpile disposal, 33, 48-50 Stress effects, 204-211, 221 Sulfhydryl peptide depletion, 77 Sulfur dioxide, 123, 402 Sulfur mustard, acute effects, 22, 25, 34, 75-78, 82 carcinogenicity, 47, 78, 82-85, 102, 104, 105, 168-170, 216, 390-392, 395-397 chemistry and properties, 22, 24, 71-78 cytotoxicity, 75-77, 85 dermatological effects, 151, 153, 154, 156-164, 167-171, 174, 175 development, 22, 25 genetic damage, 46-47, 75-77, 83-85, 104, 189-192, 216 immunity effects, 181-186 mutagenicity, 46-47, 84-85, 190-191 occupational exposure, 97-101, 119-120, 139-140, 168-170 ocular effects, 133-144, 218-219 odor threshold, 53 production, 41 reproductive toxicity, 189-192, 220-221 respiratory effects, 115-123, 127, 218

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Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite stockpiles, 48-49 WWI casualties, 9, 47, 48, 101-102, 121-122, 135, 137, 140-142, 183 -184, 335-337 WWI casualty studies, 335-337 WWI use, 9 T Testing, see Animal studies; Chamber tests; Field tests; Patch tests Three-Mile Island accident, stress effects, 209-210 Training exercises, 31, 42 Treatment of test subjects, 65-69, 211 Tuberculosis, 336-337 U Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), 204-205 Unitary munitions stockpiles, 49 United Kingdom, weapons factory workers, 99-101, 119, 139-140, 170 WWI veterans, 101, 121-122, 140 U.S.S. Bistera, 43-44 V VA, see Department of Veterans Affairs Vapor cup tests, 35 Vedder, E.B., 28 Vietnam War, post-traumatic stress syndrome, 204, 207 W War Department, see Chemical Warfare Service (CWS) Wear tests, 40 Women in CWS supply units, 41-43 Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, 41-42 World War I (WWI), combat stress reactions, 203 gas casualties, 9, 47, 48, 101-102, 121-122, 135, 137, 140-142, 183 -184, 335-337 research programs, 26-28

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