Numerous reports of use of other agents, including tear gas, smokes, and herbicides, are also reported. Additional reports have surfaced of use of sulfur mustard by the Vietnamese in Cambodia and Laos between 1976 and 1980 (Medema, 1986). There are more recent reports of use of sulfur mustard and cyanide by Armenians against the Azerbaijanis in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (CBW News, 1992).
Probably the greatest use of sulfur mustard, however, has been in the ongoing conflicts between Iran and Iraq, and many of these incidents have been confirmed (D'Halluin and Roels, 1984; Dunn, 1986a,b; Heyndrickx and Heyndrickx, 1984; Mandl and Freilinger, 1984; Medema, 1986; Physician's for Human Rights, 1989; Requena et al., 1988; United Nations Security Council Reports, 1986, 1987, 1988a,b,c,d). Some of the Iranian casualties were treated in European hospitals and thus could be documented medically. These patients suffered from pulmonary, eye, and skin lesions at similar incidence levels as battlefield casualties from WWI. In WWI, 80 to 90 percent of sulfur mustard casualties suffered skin lesions, 86 percent suffered eye involvement, and 75 percent had pulmonary damage (Sidell and Hurst, 1992). Among the Iranian casualties, 83 percent suffered skin lesions, 92 percent had eye problems, and 95 percent had pulmonary damage (Balali-Mood and Navaeian, 1986).
There are also sketchy data that indicate that some Iranian soldiers may have been exposed to Lewisite. London physicians who examined and treated the lesions of these soldiers reported that the signs exhibited were similar to those associated with Lewisite, rather than sulfur mustard (Perera, 1985). For example, pain occurred very quickly following vapor exposure, and skin lesions showed none of the pigmentation changes characteristic of sulfur mustard exposure. In addition, the victims reported that the agent did not smell like garlic, as does sulfur mustard.
The U.S. stockpile of sulfur mustard, currently stored at seven military installations on the continental United States (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland; Anniston Army Depot, Alabama; LexingtonBlue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky; Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas; Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado; Tooele Army Depot, Utah; Umatilla Depot Activity, Oregon) and one location in the South Pacific (Johnston Island, U.S. Pacific Territory), is under congressional mandate for destruction (Carnes, 1989; Carnes and Watson, 1989). Lewisite is stored in only one location, Tooele Army Depot, in ton containers. Although the locations listed here are the official storage facilities, it is not known on how many former military bases small amounts of agents such as sulfur mustard were left or buried when the bases were deactivated. For