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  • Chronic bronchitis

  • Emphysema

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Chronic laryngitis

  •  Recurrent corneal ulcerative disease (Includes corneal opacities; acute severe injuries to eye from Lewisite will also persist.)

  •  Delayed recurrent keratitis of the eye

  •  Chronic conjunctivitis

  •  Bone marrow depression and (resulting) immunosuppression (An acute effect that may result in greater susceptibility to serious infections with secondary permanent damage to vital organ systems.)

  •  Psychological disorders

    • Mood disorders

    • Anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder)

    • Other traumatic stress disorder responses (These may result from traumatic or stressful features of the exposure experience, not a toxic effect of the agents themselves.)

  •  Sexual dysfunction (Scrotal and penile scarring may prevent or inhibit normal sexual performance or activity.)

The evidence found suggested a causal relationship between exposure and the following health conditions:

  •  Leukemia (acute nonlymphocytic type, sulfur mustard)

  •  Reproductive dysfunction (genotoxicity, mutagenicity, etc.; mustard agents)

There was insufficient evidence found to demonstrate a causal relationship between exposure and the following health conditions:

  •  Gastrointestinal diseases

  •  Hematologic diseases

  •  Neurological diseases

  •  Reproductive dysfunction (Lewisite)

  •  Cardiovascular diseases (Except for those that may result from serious infections shortly following exposure—heart disease resulting from rheumatic fever, for example.)


There are large gaps in all areas of the knowledge base about the long-term health risks associated with exposure to mustard agents and Lewisite. For example, very little is known about the long-term effects on specific organ systems from studies in animals. The data from human studies lack precise information about the exposure levels in occupational settings. After consideration of these gaps in light of the commit-

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