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the committee served during WWII. However, a number of men had served during later time periods, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam, and had participated in sulfur mustard and Lewisite testing programs at Edgewood Arsenal in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, some veterans had experienced exposures to multiple types of chemicals or radiation. This was especially true for former CWS personnel, who were trained with and exposed to a multitude of chemical agents, including phosgene. Finally, some of the men who had participated in the chemical warfare testing programs also participated in later atomic bomb or drug tests (see also Chapter 3 and Appendix F).

Health Problems Reported

The many different types of health problems reported by the veterans exposed to mustard agents and Lewisite (Appendix G) are summarized here. However, no analysis of the frequency of specific health problems was carried out, nor was any of the information reported by the veterans compared with data from unexposed populations. Such analysis was not possible due to the manner in which the information was gathered, nor was it appropriate to the task of this committee. In addition, it should be emphasized that disease and health condition categories were based on veteran self-reports and, thus, did not always fall into strict medical diagnostic categories. Nevertheless, consideration of the health problems reported did aid the committee in identifying important gaps in the knowledge base about the health effects of these warfare agents.

Various types of cancer were reported by these veterans. Most frequent were skin cancers, followed by lung or laryngeal cancer, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer. Tumors or polyps, not identified as cancer, were reported most often in the skin, larynx, and intestines. Among nonmalignant diseases, by far the most frequent problems reported were pulmonary and respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, laryngitis, sinusitis, and other respiratory problems, including repeated bouts of pneumonia and chronic respiratory infections. Skin problems were also common and included scars, repeated and varied types of irritations, and chronic rashes. Among eye diseases, chronic conjunctivitis and corneal opacities were reported, as well as cataracts, glaucoma, and other problems.

Cardiovascular problems ranging from heart attacks to strokes and high blood pressure were commonly reported. Gastrointestinal difficulties included difficulty swallowing, esophageal and laryngeal strictures (narrowing), chronic nausea, stomach ulcers, and Crohn's disease (chronic inflammation and scarring of the small intestine, often leading to obstruction). In addition, benign prostate disease was reported. There were reports of diabetes, allergies, liver and kidney diseases, blood and



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