THE ROLE OF PUBLIC AGENCIES IN FOSTERING NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING

COMMITTEE ON NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING

Building Research Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

David R. Dibner

Andrew C. Lemer

Editors

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 1992



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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building THE ROLE OF PUBLIC AGENCIES IN FOSTERING NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING COMMITTEE ON NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING Building Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council David R. Dibner Andrew C. Lemer Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1992

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government, and upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for the project, initially sponsored by the Department of the Navy, the General Services Administration, and the Department of State, and completed under the Federal Construction Council technical program, was provided through the following agreements between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: Department of the Navy Agreement No. N00025-89-M-0018; Department of State Contracts No. 1030-621218 and 1030-270106; National Science Foundation Grants No. MSS-8902669, under master agreement 8618641; and U.S. Postal Service grant, unnumbered. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 92-62883 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04783-8 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 B 008 Copyright 1992 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building COMMITTEE ON NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING Chairman DAVID R. DIBNER, (Retired) Vice President and Principal Architect, Sverdrup Corporation, Arlington, Virginia Members ROBERT J. BOEREMA, Construction, Planning and Design Manager, Florida Department of General Services, St. Augustine LLOYD A. DUSCHA, Consulting Engineer, Reston, Virginia MARTHA W. GILLILAND, Vice Dean and Assistant Vice President, University of Arizona, Tucson MICHAEL GREEN, Professor, College of Law, University of Iowa, Iowa City DONALD E. KASH, Hazel Chair in Public Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia STEPHEN R. LEE, AIA, Instructor of Architecture/Research Associate, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ALVIN P. LEHNERD, Vice President Product Development, Steelcase Inc., Grand Rapids, Michigan PHILIP B. LOVELL, Turner Construction Company, San Jose, California FRED MOAVENZADEH, George Macomber Professor of Construction Management, and Director of the Center for Construction Research and Education, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge TOM F. PETERS, Director, Institute for the Study of High-Rise Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania ROBERT RATAY, Industry Professor of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic University—Brooklyn and Farmingdale, New York JOHN W. THOMPSON, Assistant Vice President, Facilities Planning and Development, CIGNA Corporation, Hartford, Connecticut LOUIS G. TORNATZKY, Scientific Fellow, Office of the President, Industrial Technology Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building Federal Construction Council Liaison Representatives DENNIS BAYON, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. JAMES BINKLEY, U.S. Postal Service, Washington, D. C. ANDREW CONSTANTARAS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. MILON ESSOGLOU, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Department of the Navy, Alexandria, Virginia MARVIN GORELICK, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. DAVID M. JONCICH, USA Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois DEBBIE J. LAWRENCE, USA Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois WILLIAM G. MINER, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. BILL O'CONNOR, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, Virginia NOEL RAUFASTE, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland DWAINE WARNE, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. Public Facilities Council Liaison Representatives DALE STANTON HOYLE, Montgomery County Government, Rockville, Maryland HENRY G. SHIRLEY, Bureau of Capital Outlay Management, Commonwealth of Virginia DALE STRAIT, Department of General Services, State of Maryland Project Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant MARY T. McCORMACK, Project Assistant

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1991–1992) Chairman HAROLD J. PARMELEE, President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York Members RICHARD T. BAUM, (Retired) Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Institute for the Study of High-Rise Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania L. GERALD CARLISLE, Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, Chairman, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California ELISHA C. FREEDMAN, Regional Manager, The Par-Group—Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., Hartford, Connecticut DONALD G. ISELIN, USN, Retired, Consultant, Santa Barbara, California FREDERICK KRIMGOLD, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director, Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WALTER P. MOORE, President and Chairman of the Board, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas J.W. MORRIS, (Retired), President, J. W. Morris Ltd., Arlington, Virginia BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President, Prudential Property Company, Prudential Plaza, Newark, New Jersey LESLIE E. ROBERTSON, Director, Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York JEROME J. SINCOFF, AIA, President, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building JAMES E. WOODS, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg APRIL L. YOUNG, CRA Coordinator, First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Construction Council PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant MARY T. McCORMACK, Project Assistant

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building PREFACE Charles H. Duell, director of the U.S. Patent Office, urged President McKinley in 1899 to close the agency because "everything that can be invented has been invented." Yet today, the products of technological innovation in many fields are all around us: organ transplants have become almost commonplace in hospitals around the country. A daunting array of new food products with long shelf-lives entices us at supermarkets. Computers that now fit comfortably on one's lap pack more power than the room-sized machines commonly available just two decades ago. In construction and related industries, change has been less apparent in recent decades. Some observers term the building-related industries "antiquated" and credit them with little real potential for innovation. We and the committee whose work is reported here feel that these critics may be, like Mr. Duell, short-sighted. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that new technology development and innovation in U.S. construction are lagging. At the same time the growing bounty of new products and procedures in other fields suggests that substantial opportunities for building innovation may be emerging. The agencies of the Federal Construction Council, in asking the Building Research Board to consider what the federal government's role should be in fostering new building technology, have thus raised an issue of much broader consequence than the immediate benefits to these agencies' programs. Innovation leads to improved productivity, better quality, and higher quality of life for individuals and organizations in both private and public sectors. Pursuit of these benefits is a worthy enterprise. We believe that the federal government indeed does have a crucial role to play, but many other groups in the private and public sectors have important roles as well. We hope through this work to help strengthen the partnership of the many interests needed if our building-related industries are to realize the promise of new technology. David R. Dibner, Chairman Commitee on New Technology and Innovation in Building Andrew C. Lemer, Director Building Research Board

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building This study was supported as part of the technical program of the Federal Construction Council (FCC). The FCC is a continuing activity of the Building Research Board, which is a unit of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of the FCC is to promote cooperation among federal construction agencies and between such agencies and other elements of the building community in addressing technical issues of mutual concern. The FCC program is supported by 18 federal agencies: the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army (two agencies), the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of the Navy, the Department of State, the General Services Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Postal Service, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The Public Facilities Council (PFC) was formed in 1983 to make available to state and local governments, quasi-governmental authorities, and others, the forum and services of the BRB and NRC to identify technical problems and research needs facing construction administrators and facilities managers. Sponsors of the PFC currently include a score of state and local governments or interstate entities. Funding and participation are typically drawn from the executive office of the jurisdiction responsible for facilities development and management. Reports resulting from Building Research Board programs are provided free of charge to sponsoring entities. For information contact: Director Building Research Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1.   INTRODUCTION   9     The Government Interest   9     Benefits and Risks of New Technology   11     Source and Scope of the Study   12     Structure of the Report   14 2.   NEW BUILDING TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION, AND GOVERNMENT INTERESTS   17     Public Benefits of Innovation   18     Government as Purchaser and Funder of Research   20     Technological Innovation and Public Policy   22     Impact of the Building Regulatory Process   25     Government's Current Role in Fostering New Technology   27 3.   NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN THE U.S. BUILDING-RELATED INDUSTRIES   31     Background   31     Lack of Data   34     Attitudes Toward New Building Technologies   34     Entry Points for Building Innovation   36     Status of Building Research   37

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The Role of Public Agencies in Fostering New Technology and Innovation in Building     Deterrents to Transfer of New Technology   39     Limited Opportunities for Innovation   41     Place of Universities and Other Educational Institutions   44 4.   WHAT SHOULD THE ROLE OF THE FEDERAL AGENCIES BE IN FOSTERING NEW BUILDING TECHNOLOGY?   47     Institutional Perspective   48     Alternative Roles for Government   50     Evaluation of Strategy Options   52 5.   IMPLEMENTING AN EFFECTIVE ROLE   57     Responsibilities for Taking Action   57     Institutional Focus Needed   58     Actions by Facilities Agencies   60     Enabling Environment   61     Technology Transfer   62     Innovation and the Future   63     APPENDIXES     A.   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff   65 B.   Processes of Technological Innovation   69 C.   Review of Specific Agencies' Stance Toward Building Innovation   81 D.   Federal Laws and Regulations Related to Technological Innovation in Building   87 E.   New Building Technology and Innovation: A Selective Review   91 F.   Tort Law, Deterrence and Innovation: Too Much or Too Little?   101 G.   Points of Entry for Building Innovation   125