Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
if Dew ~ nag boa Into Cam m_ Bi~bemi~ B , Id Sb~n-~ Mung C== ~ A~ Bio~ mad Bi_ Into ~1 ~ Bay ~~ of mad C Scatty Cation Pleas ~u~c ~ ~~a long Acid ~ Sdences Noons Act_ Lass Wasbin~n, DC 1989

OCR for page R1
NOTICE: The biotechnology Program was established in 1986 as a collaborative project between He National Academy of Sciences and Be Chinese Academy of Sciences to promote the exchange of information and ex~e related to biotec}mology research and techniques. The program was approved by Be Gowning Board of die National Research Council, whose members are drawn from die councils of Be National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineenng, and die Institute of Medicine. It was sword mar Master Agreement number 8~18643 between Be National Science Fo~mdation and Be National Academy of Seduces and Contract Number INT 85~6451 between Be National Science Foundation ~K1 Be Committee on Scholarly Communication win die People's Republic of China (CSCPRC). P=gram activities m China were supported by Be Chimse Ac~ny of Sciences. Founds m 1966, CSCPRC represents American scholars m die natural and engineenng sciences as well as scholars in the social sciences an~lh~ities. ~ addition to a~ninistenng exchange ~ogrmns, it advises individuals and institutions on means of G~mication with drew Chinese colleagues on China's intematianal activities, and on the state of China's scientific and scholarly pursuits. CSCPRC meanders are scholars Tom a broad range of fields, including China studies. Administrative of flees of the CSCPRC are located in the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 89~3312 International Standard Book Number ~309-04132-5 Additional copies of dais report are available hoary: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washings, DC 20418 S038 Printed in the United States of Amenca

OCR for page R1
Preface During a regular bi-academy meeting in 1986 in Beijing, Lu Jiaxi, then president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and Pears Press, president of die National Academy of Sciences (NAS), amend Upon Me need and impedance of a collaborative prog~n on biotechnology. Program activities for this Joint initiative were developed and finalized by members of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC) Subcommittee on Biotechnology in a meeting win representatives of CAS. They agreed to a 3- year program that would include biotechnology minicourses to be held in China under the ins~uchon of teams of American scientists, a major joint symposium in Shanghai on gene expression and gene regulation, and an assessment of Chinese biotechnology. Four minicourses wee designed to cover important current research areas: nematode molecular genetics, gene expression and amplification in yeast, immunotoxins and tumor markers, and plant molecular biology. Alexander Rich, chairman of He CSCPRC subcommittee, proposed a format which combined l~oramry training win complementary, broader teased lectures. Chinese students came Tom all parts of Be counoy to learn Be latest msearch methodologies and techniques, and Be results were overwhelmingly successful The symposium was scheduled to take place at the end of May 1989. It was postponed because of the growing instability resulting from prodemocracy demonstrations taking place in China at that tune. Attendant win Be substantial increase in Sino-American collaboration in the past 10 years is a need to extend American understanding of Chinese science goals, funding policies, and research infrastructure. For this reason, it was . Flu

OCR for page R1
IV PREFACE decided He biotechnology program should include an assessment of Chinese biotechnology. CSCPRC subcommittee member Dean H. Harner, an innovative researcher and leader of one of He minicourse delegations, and Shain-dow Kung, a professor of botany and biotechnology researcher who is known and valued for his inside track among He Chinese hierarchies, lock up this challenge. They reviewed post-~course reports made by each American minicourse instructor, conduced a survey of published biotechnology research' bode in Chinese and English, arid drew on Heir ohm personal commmucabons and previous experiences in China F~ennore, in He fall of 1988, Hey Raveled to China in order to make a firsthand evaluation of current blotechnologr research activities and funding. They met m~ high-level officials in charge of science and technology policies, and Hey visited beseech instates and biotechnology bases. Biotechnology in China is the result of all of these efforts: a comprehensive, evaluative, and at dines, provocative documentary of Chinese biotechnology research. k should be noted Hat Homer and Kung completed Heir report prior to the pr~emocracy demonstrations in He smog of 1989. The massacre in Tiananmen Square on June 3 4 and He govemment's subsequent repressive actions have inevitably altered the environment for scholarly communication with China. Regretfully, the pace of development and change In biotechnology in Chum and, at least in the short term, He extent and type of American participation have been scantly affected. Nonetheless, I feel strongly Hat He authors' findings and recommendations remain timely and noteworthy. The CSCPRC would like to express its appreciation to He authors for making this assessment available to the American scientific community. Also, CSCPRC is especially appreciative of Alexander Rich's leadership of He subcommittee and Eric Davidson perceptive accounts of Chinese biotechnology research. In this vein, CSCPRC would like to acknowledge all members of the CSCPRC Subcommittee on Biotechnology: Alexander Rich (Chairman), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael Bjorn, NeoRx Co~poadon Eric Davidson, California Institute of Technology Dean Homer, National Institutes of Health Robert Horvitz, Mdssachuseus Institute of Technology Ernest Jaworski, Monsanto Company Sidney Persia, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Paul Williams, University of Wisconsin CSCPRC would also like ~ acknowledge die capable leaders of the minicourse delegations: Michael Ejorn, Dean Homer, Robert Honritz, and Thomas busboy, University of Wisconsin, for them valuable contribudons ~ this collaboradve

OCR for page R1
PREFACE program. Finally, I personally would like to shard: Terry Price for his indispensable ass stance in managing these activities and Beryl Leach for her excellent editorial work on this room Jane Liu Jemow Director, Science and Technology Programs CSCPRC y

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China and the National Science Foundation. We especially thank Jane Jernow and Terry Price, whose encouragement and efforts helped make on evaluation trip and report possible, and Beryl Leach, who was responsible for the editing and production of this publication. We also thank the many scientists who donated their tune and effort to participate In the Chinese biotechnology literature survey: Alex Rich, James Leung, Jim Shi, Esther Cheng, Cao Xu, Lin Seyo, Bruce Paterson, and Eric Davidson (who also kindly provided Appendix D). Many of the articles reviewed in the survey were given to us by Chinese colleagues during our trip. We Rank them for mung ~eserepnnts available. Our evaluation of Chinese biotechnology funding would not have been possible without the valuable information provided by Cal Dalie (State Planning Commission), Xu Chengman (China National Center for Biotechnology Development), Hu Zhaosen (National Natural Science Foundation of China), and Li Zhensheng (Chinese Academy of Sciences). We thank the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Beijing Office of CSCPRC for malting arrangements in China and the many Chinese scientists who took the time to meet with us. For these many valuable contributions, we are appreciative, but we retain full responsibility for the contents of and views expressed in the following pages. vu

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Note on Spelling of Chinese Names At various times and places, several different systems have been used to romanize Chinese names. In He text, we use China's official Pinyin system, which includes retaining the Chinese order of last name first For example, Moo Zedong's last name is Mao. We have made exceptions in He few cases where scientists are well known in He United Smes by the initials of their first names followed by their last names. In the references, names are rendered as Hey al in He research publications. Fix

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents 1. In~oduchon. 2. China's Long History of Biotechnology 3. Research Priorities and Funding Mechanisms 3 High Technology Program and He China Nadona1 Center for Biotechnology Development, 8 Sevens 5-Year Plan (198~1990), 9 National Natural Science Foundation of China, 9 Evolution and Consequences of the New Funding Mechanisms, 12 4. New Res~chCen~rs 15 Biotechnology Bases, 15 Key Laboratories, 16 5. Infirastruct~e............................................... ~stnunentation, 18 Procurement System and Supplies, 19 Intellectual Properly Rights, 20 6. Biotechnology Literature Survey Sources, 22 Geographical Distribution, 24 Techniques, 24 x .. 18 ; 22

OCR for page R1
me zu CONES Experimental Organisms, 26 Research Topics and Goals, 26 Evaluation of Research, 29 7. Research Highlights ~ e e e e e e e e ~ ~ e e ~ e ~ e e e e ~ e e e e e e e e e ~ 32 X-Ray Crystallography, 32 Control of Plant Viruses, 33 Toward a Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine, 35 Plane Cell and Tissue Culture, 38 Se Current Research at Selected Institutes Beijing, 40 Beijing Agricultural University, 40 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 41 Institute of Biophysics (CAS), 42 Institute of Developmental Biology (CAS), 43 Institute of Genetics (CAS), 47 Institute of Microbiology (CAS), 48 Institute of Virology (CAPM), 49 Institute of Zoology (CAS), 51 Peking UIiiversity, 51 Shanghai, 53 Fudan University, 53 Institute of Biochemistry (CAS), 57 Institute of Cell Biology (CAS), 60 Institute of M6teria Medica (CAS), 60 Institute of Plant Physiology (CAS), 61 Guangzhou' 63 Guangdong Agricultural Academy of Sciences, 63 South China Agricultural University, 64 South China Astute of Bomny (CAS), 64 Zhongshan (Sun Yatsen) University, 65 Tianjin, 66 Nankai University, 66 40 9. Cooperation with He United States 68 Govenunent-SupponedF~og~ns,68 P6vam Foundations and AcadenucInsdmbons,70 Students Abner How Many Win Re~un?,71 Com mercies Enjoin ~,74 10. Conclusions and Recom mendadons 75

OCR for page R1
CONS APPE~nDI)]ES . . . razz A Abbreviadons ~ ~ ~ ~.83 B Con~c~-Sciendfic AdnninisU~1ion ~ ~ &4 C Con~cU;-4Re~uchIns6m ms end Unities 86 D ~ Au~dysisofNiu M~nchang's Reseachon Transfonnadon byRU4A Erm H. Davidson ~ ~ ~ 92 E Sud~nentbylk.Niu e ~ e 93

OCR for page R1