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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration APPENDIXES
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration This page in the original is blank.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration A Overviews of Selected Institutions INTRODUCTION Appendix A contains reports from panel members' visits to selected research institutions during the summer of 1991. They outline the basic organization and resources of the institution, identify researchers and briefly describe research relevant to global change. Visits were chosen from a listing of institutions and individuals involved in global change research that the panel compiled in consultation with the Chinese National Committee for the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (CNCIGBP) at the outset of this study. Because of time and financial constraints, it was not possible to visit all of the institutions where relevant work is being carried out. BEIJING NORMAL UNIVERSITY Institute of Low Energy Physics Beijing Normal University operates a laboratory for elemental analysis by the method of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The laboratory, with a Van de Graaff nuclear particle accelerator, is managed by Zhu Guanghua and Wang Xinfu, and is administered by the Institute of Low Energy Physics, which is under the leadership of Lu Ting and Wu Yuguang. The laboratory is also actively supported by the university's computer center and its director, Pei Chunli.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Research Highlights The laboratory has gained international recognition for its analyses of aerosol particle samples. It has entered into interlaboratory comparison analyses of standard samples with participating laboratories at Kyoto University in Japan and at Element Analysis Corporation in Tallahassee, Florida, with results that demonstrate its ability to produce high-quality analytical results. Researchers have been assisted through interactions with scientists at other laboratories both within China and internationally. Wang Mingxing of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Institute of Atmospheric Physics has advised Zhu Guanghua about aerosol particle sampling and analysis needs in air chemistry research and Wang has made his institute's sampling equipment available to the laboratory. Wang Mingxing brought together Zhu Guanghua and Zhang Xiaoye, a staff scientist at the CAS Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, resulting in collaborative studies of aerosol transport characteristics and publication of their work in international journals. Zhu Guanghua is collaborating with Yoshikazu Hashimoto of Keio University in Yokohama, Japan and Mitsuru Fujimura and Akira Inayoshi at the Nippon Environmental Pollution Control Center in Tokyo, Japan to measure aerosols through a network of stations in China (interior), Korea, and Japan. Through the Japanese collaboration, computer software has been donated to the university for use in its PIXE laboratory and in teaching programs conducted by the computer center. Additional urban air quality research by the laboratory has been supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both Zhu Guanghua and Wang Xinfu have attended the triennial international conferences on PIXE and its analytical applications, where they have presented research results. It is likely that the laboratory will become an important contributor to aerosol studies on a global scale. CHINA REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE GROUND STATION The China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station, which is administered by CAS, is headed by Wang Xinmin. This ground station is unique in that it is the only Landsat Five, or Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery receiving station in China. The receiving antenna is actually 100 km northeast of Beijing and high-density digital tapes are delivered to the station two or more times a week for processing. Reception is from east of Japan to about 80 percent of China to the west. China needs another receiving station to get imagery for the
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration western 20 percent of the country. This station receives and processes only TM data, and a royalty is paid to EOSAT in the United States. This station does not receive Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data.1 TM data are used for mineral exploration purposes, including gold, oil, and coal. China has oil off-shore and in scattered parts of the eastern mainland, and has potentially large deposits in the far western regions (some geologists and others believe that China's oil deposits could rival those discovered in the Middle East). With such possibilities, the Japanese are investing 5.5 × 106 yen in mineral exploration activities in China. Japan is this center's major collaborator. Major remote sensing application units are the CAS Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, the NEPA Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, and the Peking University Institute of Remote Sensing Technology and Application (see below). In addition, the station provides remote sensing imagery services to more than 30 other units. For example, the station will be the source of imagery used in a national key remote sensing project in the Eighth 5-Year Plan to monitor and forecast natural disasters and crop production (the Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources [CISNAR] and others will be involved). Such services are not automatic, and many research institutes are not able to afford the cost of remote sensing in their research plans. About 200 persons staff six technical departments (receiving, processing, photo laboratory, digital processing laboratory, geographic information systems [GIS], and remote sensing applications) and three support departments (planning, logistics, and administration). Skilled personnel include both M.S.- and Ph.D.-level people, many from Tsinghua and Peking Universities. Funding is the specific limitation at the station, especially for keeping up state-of-the-art hardware. Personnel use I-squared software now, but have the capacity to write their own. Some remote sensing research is going on in the applications department, which is being upgraded in anticipation of the launching of Landsat Six (which is expected to go up soon with upgraded capacity of 15 × 15 m pixel in panchromatic). The station is also preparing to handle Synthetic Aperture Radar planned for the Japanese and European remote sensing vehicles. This will change the operations of this unit considerably. This station has no educational function. Instead, it relies on the remote sensing institute at Peking University (see below) that runs a training center under a coordinated training service for units using remote sensing.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration CHINESE ACADEMY OF METEOROLOGICAL SCIENCES The Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS), the research arm of the State Meteorological Administration (SMA), currently has about 500 employees. In addition, CAMS has two graduate schools, one in Beijing and the other in Nanjing. Zhou Xiuji is director of CAMS and Ding Yihui is the deputy director. According to Ding Yihui, scientists at CAMS working in areas relevant to global change can be found at the Climate Research Center, the Atmospheric Chemistry Center, the Institute of Arid Regions Research, the Tibetan Plateau Institute, and the Beijing Data Center. Currently, about 60 scientists (approximately 20 of which have Ph.Ds) and staff members participate in research subjects related to global change. Annual program funding is about $300,000, excluding salaries. Research Highlights The following are major global change research projects that will be carried out over the coming decade: Establish observation networks for detecting global change. CAMS will upgrade existing monitoring networks to monitor changes in climate and large-scale air quality at (a) about 200 standard climate monitoring stations, (b) about 500 agricultural meteorology stations, (c) about 100 acid rain stations, (d) seven standard radiation stations, (e) six total ozone (O3) stations and three O3 sonde stations, (f) six regional air quality stations, and (g) one atmospheric baseline station. Some of these activities are supported by the World Meteorological Organization and they include extensive collaborations with other domestic and international scientists. Study the past climate recorded in historical literature. CAMS researchers have studied more than 7,800 pieces of historical Chinese literature dating back to about 1,000 years, and they have established a data set of major droughts and cold and warm periods. In addition, a study of these climate changes and their impact on China's development has been carried out. Participate in tropical ocean expeditions and monitoring. CAMS has been active in the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program since 1984. Major foci are the energy budget of the tropical ocean and atmosphere and the genesis of El Niño. Model ocean-atmosphere interactions. For ocean-atmosphere coupling dynamic climate models, a three-dimensional global atmosphere model and a six-level oceanic circulation model
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration have been developed to study ocean-atmosphere interaction problems such as the genesis mechanism of El Niño. In addition, a two-dimensional water-energy equilibrium model has been developed to study the mechanism of drought in China. Model stratospheric O3 change. A two-dimensional photochemicalradiative-dynamic model has been developed to study stratospheric O3 change and large-scale tropospheric air quality problems. Model climate change in East Asia. The U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model is used to study climate change in East Asia, including the genesis mechanism of East Asian monsoons and the effects of forest coverage variation on regional climate. Study the impacts of climate change on China's development. Population pressures and an extended drought in north China, where a significant amount of China's food grains are grown, are causing harmful changes to agroecosystems and the water supply. Also, destructive meteorological disasters inflict immense impacts on the populace. These problems are being investigated and response strategies are being formulated. In addition, assessment models of impacts of climate change on socioeconomic activities have been developed. COMMISSION FOR INTEGRATED SURVEY OF NATURAL RESOURCES Administered jointly by CAS and the State Planning Commission, the Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources (CISNAR) is responsible for developing and maintaining both past and present data on all the lands and freshwaters of China. With such a national research and data collection mandate, it should be central to any global change research program. CISNAR is headed by Sun Honglie, who is a CAS vice president, member of the CNCIGBP, and chairman of the Chinese Ecological Research Network (CERN). CISNAR has a total of 386 staff, 296 of whom are researchers and technicians, 51 are administrators, and 39 are support staff. The commission also has three ecological field stations (Appendix D). The view of commission representatives is that CISNAR is central to global change research in China and, rather than having a separate unit devoted to global change considerations, representatives claim to have them built into the work of every project. Such statements belie current limits on understanding of what constitutes global change research or, at the least, indicate a certain expediency in categorizing global change research in its broadest sense.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration CISNAR research has an intense ecological flavor. A review of materials provided by CAS about global change research at CISNAR (CAS 1991) reveals interesting work, but, for the most part, research designs do not have any direct connection to global change, and natural resource data collection is not tied to specific research questions. Clearly, the potential exists to develop interesting global change research projects from this work and these data, but it would be overreaching to say it has been done. An historical perspective is said to be included in everything the commission undertakes, and a number of projects include marvelous historical and dendrochronological data. CISNAR conducts most of the country's large-scale survey research. Much of its work has been expeditionary in character, reminiscent of the former U.S. Biological and Geological Survey. Survey expeditions are multiyear undertakings in large regions such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. CISNAR has completed expeditions in all parts of the country over the last 30 years. Maps at various scales are important products of these expeditions. Because of CISNAR's role in national land use planning, personnel want to develop 15 or 16 case studies to monitor change in different regions. CISNAR maintains large databases of natural resource information and has plans to increase that capacity. It houses World Data Center (WDC)-D for Renewable Resources and Environment and has a database project with the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) through their jointly sponsored Integrated Research Center for Natural Resources and Agricultural Development. It has a national climatological database containing information (for the years 1951 to 1980) from about 1,000 monitoring stations. While CISNAR maintains a data management center, it is not clear it has the appropriate hardware and staffing to do the task. They have a VAX computer, a digitizing table, and about two dozen personal computers (PCs). They have no computer work stations. Extensive plans are being formulated for the establishment of the CERN Synthesis Center (Chapter 4) at CISNAR. The equipment and training planned for CISNAR in CERN plans will address current limitations, particularly in data management and modeling. The commission plays an explicit educational role by taking on M.S. and Ph.D. students from participating universities and fostering them through research projects. Between 15 and 20 graduate students work at CISNAR. CISNAR is an extremely important resource for information and understanding of China's land and freshwaters that are important to global change studies. To make its best contribution to such studies,
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration CISNAR would greatly benefit from increased capacities, including data management, trained personnel, and equipment. GUANGZHOU INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY The Guangzhou Institute of Geography is supported by the Guangzhou provincial government, and is not connected directly to any CNCIGBP activities. In fact, institute staff were not aware of any national plans for global change research. Nevertheless, the institute is doing some work of interest. The institute is staffed by 110 scientists and is organized into the following departments: physical geography, economic geography, special economic zones, geomorphology and quaternary studies, remote sensing, coastal and river delta resources, laboratory, and administration. A very few undergraduate students from various regional universities conduct research, although the institute does not confer a degree. The institute has eight computers, ranging from IBM XTs to IBM 386s and some Canadian machines. This institute has no GIS capability because of the high cost of hardware and software. The remote sensing department has Eros II hardware and software purchased from a company in Canada. According to institute officials, the department works with TM data, and it can do carbon-14 and chemical analyses. Research Highlights Huang Zhenguo is studying the physical and biological effects of sea-level change on the environment of the Pearl River Delta. Li Pingri, who collaborates with Huang Zhenguo, is doing some very nice historical analyses of coastal changes in the Pearl River Delta. Scientists do not appear to be modeling future changes, although some papers discuss implications; essentially, no predictive work is being undertaken. No collaboration is evident between this coastal zone geomorphology group and Ren Mei-e at Nanjing University, nor with the CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology. Zhong Gongfu is working on a project funded by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) on dike systems, but further information was not available. INSTITUTE OF ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS The CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics is a leading center for research on a broad range of atmospheric physics, including regional and global atmospheric circulation, boundary layer physics, pollu-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration tion meteorology, tropospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. Zeng Qingcun, director, is well known internationally for ''Zeng's model'' for general circulation. Ye Duzheng, director emeritus, is internationally known for his work on atmospheric circulation in eastern Asia, particularly for his work on the role of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in general global circulation. The institute has about 550 staff members, 14 laboratories, a computing center, a postgraduate division, a postdoctoral program, and an atmospheric observatory at Xianghe. Since 1986, scientists have been carrying out research in nine areas: climate change and prediction, medium-range weather forecasting, mesoscale dynamics and nowcasting, atmospheric environment, acid rain, middle atmosphere, geophysical fluid dynamics, atmospheric physics and chemistry, and global change. In general, two research areas are of particular relevance to the global change studies—climate modeling and climate diagnostics. The institute is a primary collaborating institute under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Chinese Academy of Sciences Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect (Appendix C). Research Highlights A hierarchy of climate models for the atmosphere and oceans has been used in climate simulations, and more models are under development. The institute's 2-level atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) has been developed since 1987 and is used extensively for climate studies, such as the Asian monsoon, seasonal abrupt changes in atmospheric circulation, severe cold summers, low-frequency oscillations, and teleconnection. The model is also used to participate in the international GCM intercomparison program organized by DOE for understanding differences among GCMs (Appendix C). A multilayer ocean GCM and a multilayer atmospheric GCM are separately under development, with the ultimate goal of studying the ocean-atmosphere interaction. As part of model validation study, these models will also be used to examine the paleoclimate. Climate diagnostics mainly focus on seasonal, interannual, and long-term climate variability, in particular, monsoon variability. The main purpose of this focus is to understand the physical mechanisms of weather process, such as the formation, propagation, and anomaly of planetary waves, teleconnection, low-frequency oscillation, air-sea coupled oscillations and the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the general circulation and the climate of China. In recent years, special emphasis has been placed on the 14- and 40-day oscil-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration lations, the relationship between the Asian monsoon and summer rainfall in the Yangtze River Valley and the relationship between the Chinese and Indian monsoons. The objective is to improve understanding of the climate system for long-range forecasting and short-term prediction. The National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), set up in 1985, hosts visiting scientists from all over the world. LASG supports climate, ecology, and environmental research by using data sets and computer-assisted analyses. Main topics are the development of four-dimensional dynamic models, data sets, and methodologies and protocols for handling large volumes of data. The LASG data center holds more than 200 gigabytes, and the volume of data is growing at more than 1 gigabyte per year. The LASG has a CONVEX mini-supercomputer, Silicon Graphics work station, and numerous micro-computers. Data holdings include basic climate variables, trace gas, land-surface properties, ocean variables, past climate change variables, and global and national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The institute publishes Scientia Atmospherica Sinica (Daqi Kexue, quarterly, in Chinese), Advances in Atmospheric Sciences (quarterly, in English), and the Annual Report of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics. INSTITUTE OF BOTANY The CAS Institute of Botany is located in pleasant surroundings on the grounds of the Beijing Zoo. The institute is under the leadership of Zhang Xinshi (also known as Chang Hsin-shih and David Chang), who replaced the distinguished Tang Peisung upon his retirement. The institute is large, effectively managed, and covers a wide array of botanical sciences. It has sections dealing with phytochemistry, cytology, nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis, plant physiology, and plant ecology/geobotany. It has the largest herbarium in Asia, with collections predating the 1920s. The professional staff is 580, with a support staff of 200. Approximately 50 M.S. and 20 Ph.D. students are working in the institute. The institute administers three CERN sites: (1) the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Experiment Station, (2) Beijing Forest Ecosystem Experiment Station, and (3) Maousu Ecology Experiment Station. The institute is working with the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics and the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology to establish a research station on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration research groups working on environmental databases and information. RCEES has international programs with Germany, Japan (an acid rain study in Chongqing and at other sites in South China), and the United States. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution studies on local and regional scales seem to be the most numerous of these collaborative programs. Only a few of the programs at RCEES relate to global change. RCEES provided the following information on these programs as they relate to the panel's interests in (a) atmospheric chemistry and (b) atmosphere-land surface interactions. RCEES proposals for land cover change studies were not funded under the Eighth 5-Year Plan. The center will look for international collaboration, possibly with Australia, Germany, or the United States to fund this type of work. Currently, the only ongoing land use project is one to study land reclamation after mining operations. Trace Gas Projects Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions (Yang Wenxiang, PI) Studies of the fluxes of N2O, CH4, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and the concentration of carbon monoxide in northern China (planned IGAC contribution) (Su Weihan, PI) Simulation of trace gas emissions from agricultural biomass burning in China (Yang Wenxiang, PI) Study of clean coal application techniques and the control of CO2 emissions (planned) (Zhao Dianwu, PI) Study of the effects of CO2 and O3 on the growth and production of rice, wheat, and corn Study of the effect of CO2, O3, SO2 on the deciduous, broadleaved forest ecosystem2 Modeling of climate change and agricultural ecosystems Study of forest ecosystems3 Study of the role of emission and absorption of trace gases in forest ecosystems Study of trace gas emissions from soils Study of trace gas fluxes from different environmental systems Study of the chemical reaction of the hydroxide radical and oxygen with greenhouse gases Study of the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of CFCs Estimation of the atmospheric residence time of some CFCs and N2O and the assessment of the impact of these gases on the O3 layer (planned) (Yang Wenxiang, PI) Study of the key reactions of O3 depletion
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Biogeochemistry Study and modeling of the biogeochemical cycles and of natural and anthropogenic emissions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in China Precipitation Chemistry Research on the atmospheric chemical processes for the formation of acid rain in southwest China (Shen Ji and Zhao Dianwu, PIs) Study of the critical loadings of acid precipitation Cooperative study of a control policy for acid deposition Study of the impact of atmospheric deposition on forest ecosystems In summary, RCEES is a dynamic institute with tremendous potential for contributing not only to the global change programs of China, but also in providing a bridge to U.S. programs. RCEES is in the process of adding a global dimension to their historical focus on local (urban air pollution) and regional (acid deposition) research. They have initiated a number of programs that address global-scale questions, especially in relation to the emission of radiatively active gases to the atmosphere and biosphere and atmospheric interactions (see projects listed above). RCEES' strengths have been in the areas of local and regional issues of environmental chemistry, but continued development is limited by a lack of resources and facilities. As is common with other institutes, tremendous competition exists for funds and resources. This competition limits the development of new programs and limits the amount of intergroup and interinstitutional cooperation on questions relating to global change. A number of scientists have excellent research records that address a wide variety of questions of interest to the international community. Concerning collaboration with U.S. scientists in the area of global change research, several RCEES scientists have established cooperative projects, for example, Su Weihan, Zhao Dianwu, and Liu Jingyi (who strongly supports international collaboration in her capacity as Secretary General of the United Nations Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment-CAST program for China). Scientists are eager to build upon these collaborations. SHANGHAI INSTITUTE OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY The CAS Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology was established in 1986 and is directed by Yang Xiongli. It is primarily a molecular
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration and cellular biology institution and its main focus has shifted from physiology to tissue culture, biochemistry, and molecular genetics. As well as dealing with plants, research also has a strong microbiological thrust. The institute takes on 10 graduate students per year, and confers its own degree. Given its current focus, the institute is not an obvious center for global change research. Yet, it has important assets and relevant projects, nevertheless. Wang Tianduo, who is working on a water use efficiency experiment, is a member of the pre-World War II school of scholars whose dignified excellence dots the Chinese academic landscape. Although he has been abroad, he has never been to the United States, where seven of his eight students now work on plant processes. Fu Wei and Ding Yang are two sharp graduate students with good modeling capabilities who are working under Wang. Research Highlights Wang Tianduo's current research is centered around the development of a mechanistic model for atmosphere-plant linkages—photosynthesis, respiration, allocation and growth—water flux, and balance. This model, PGROW (which only has parameters for annual plants) is being applied chiefly to crops as part of the water use efficiency project on the Huang Huai Hai Plain in which Wang plays a leadership role (Chapter 4). This project has the potential to make important contributions to regional-scale global change research (Wang 1990). Very importantly, Wang is working actively on the problems of ''scaling up'' analyses. This experience and expertise of Wang and his students might be applied to the development of, or incorporation of China into, a general ecosystem model that links atmosphere-plant-soil through energy-water-chemical exchanges. Two other projects should be noted for their relevance to global change research. First, Xu Daquan makes detailed gas exchange measurements and is interested in the direct effects of CO2 enhancement on plants. He recently worked on this with Roger Gifford in Canberra, Australia and has some intriguing results on acclimation to higher CO2. Xu Daquan and Qin Guoxiong are working on CO2 enhancement field experiments by using natural CO2 from a well north of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province. His laboratory is equipped with an oxygen sensor leaf chamber, an ADC infrared gas analyzer for lab/phytotron measurements, an ADC porometer/infrared gas analyzer for field measurements, and a Wisconsin-type phytotron (without CO2 control facilities). Second, Yu Shuwen works on SO2 and industrially-derived ethylene pollution effects on plants.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration SOUTH CHINA INSTITUTE OF BOTANY The CAS South China Institute of Botany, located in Guangzhou under the directorship of Tu Mengzhao, has six departments—plant genetics, physiology, taxonomy, morphology, resources, and ecology—on a 16 ha campus. These departments provide good biological support for the ecologists and ecophysiologists who are the likely persons to be conducting global change research. The institute administers three ecological research stations and is responsible for the South China Botanical Garden, which was founded in 1958 and covers about 300 ha. The garden has currently more than 4,000 species, including some 500 species of medicinal plants. (Guangzhou has the main phytotaxonomic facilities in South China, including an extensive herbarium where about 700,000 specimens are stored.) The staff consists of 534 people, including 74 senior scientists, and approximately 25 M.S. students. The institute has experimental rice paddies, greenhouses, and some environmental control chambers. Instruments include an antiquated transmission microscope, a fairly new scanning electron microscope, an organic compound mass spectrometer for the large volume of phytochemistry conducted, a LICOR porometer for plant leaf gas exchange measurements, an oxygen electrode for measuring photosynthesis and respiration of leaf samples, and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The institute's ecological research stations, two of which are in CERN (Chapter 4) are considered to be key to its participation in global change research. The Xiaoliang Artificial Tropical Forest Ecosystem Experiment Station, which is not in CERN, is far down the coast to the southwest and features a subtropical forest restoration project on heavily eroded soils, probably oxisols. Heshan Comprehensive Downland Experiment Station, which is in CERN, is mainly an agroecosystem station devoted to land reclamation (primarily through reforestation with exotic tree species), integrated agroforestry, animal husbandry, and aquaculture production (Yu and Wang 1990). Dinghushan Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Experiment Station4 is located in an UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) reserve and is a CERN station. It features natural and semi-natural subtropical and tropical forest vegetation (up to 400 years old) extending over terrain nearly 1,000 m in elevation (CAS Undated, b). It appears that they have a thorough understanding of the natural histories of these locations, and Dinghushan, in particular, appears to offer excellent research potential. The institute has no GIS or remote sensing capabilities, but re-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration searchers can contact Hu Suozhong at the Department of Geography at South China Normal University for remote sensing data. Because the Dinghushan station has been included in CERN, it should receive equipment and training for GIS. Computer facilities include eight PCs. This institute has enjoyed three important cooperative programs with other nations that helped to introduce modern ecology and whet researchers' appetites for more. The first of these was with Germany in which a Cooperative Ecological Research Project was Carried out with Hans Brunig of Hamburg University and others on ecosystem processes at the Xiaoliang station. The second is a MAB project on ecosystem restoration with Sandra Brown at the University of Illinois. The third is a MAB project headed by Orie Loucks at Miami University (Ohio) on the comparison of broadleaved forests. James Ehleringer of the University of Utah and Chris Field of Carnegie Institution at Stanford University have done collaborative ecophysiological work at this station. Institute objectives for global change research revolve around monitoring processes at their research stations. Extrapolating local knowledge to a regional evaluation or developing methods for predicting change had not been considered. With increased knowledge of scientific principles, sampling techniques, modeling, and leadership, this institute could make a contribution by virtue of its geographical location, institutional facilities (including the stations), and the basic skills of the staff. One of its most important resources is the enthusiasm and eagerness of the staff for interaction and collaboration. For the purposes of discussion, the following are examples of global change research the institute may wish to undertake: Describe land cover change for Guandong Province and southern China more generally over the last several decades (they have a 1970 vegetation map as a base). Develop models for predicting land cover change for specified scenarios of climate change (including crops). Design imaginative ways to measure the states of ecosystems at their stations by using biological measurements such as radial growth increment or degrees of herbivory. Devise ways to learn how subtropical vegetation will respond to elevated CO2. (The institute has adequate photosynthetic measurement capacity.) Create linkages with other regional institutes to do regional appraisals.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration SOUTH CHINA SEA INSTITUTE OF OCEANOLOGY The South China Sea Institute of Oceanology in Guangzhou, under the directorship of Sun Yuke, is one of two sister CAS institutes of oceanology, the other being the Qingdao Institute of Oceanology (see above) in Shandong Province. Within CAS, the Qingdao institute is responsible for the East China Sea and this one for the South China Sea. It confers the M.S. degree and has from five to 15 graduate students. Research Highlights The institute is conducting mostly historical analyses that would be considered under the rubric of global change. Researchers are using a multisource (pollen, meteorological data, and archives) climate record for the last 2,000 years for Guangdong Province (compiled by Chen Shixun of Zhongshan University [Chen 1990]). Coral reef structures (Nie et al. 1991, Nie, Undated) are being studied. Nie Baofu has calibrated the lamina widths with seawater temperature over the last decade or so to estimate temperatures of the past several thousand years. Zhao Huanting described coral reef work based on 100 m of island coral for sea temperature proxy data. Zhu Yuanzhi is examining the physical rate of carbonate rock deposition as a function of temperature as another means of historical analysis. Zhang Qiaomin has done an historical study of the evolutionary geomorphology of a tidal inlet. His ongoing work is toward forecasting future change. A large-scale, multi-institutional project has been ongoing for a number of years that addresses the rise in sea level versus change in land level due to tectonics for the entire China coast. This institute is charged with the South China Sea coastline on this project. As described by Chen Tegu, this project has historical significance, but as part of a forecasting program. At least three opinions on this phenomenon in China have been put forward. It is not clear, though, whether Ren Mei-e from Nanjing University is involved. Chen stated that they would welcome collaboration with the United States on this kind of work. Lue Youlang is working on a 6 to 8 meter-long deep sea sediment core from the South China Sea. He says it goes back 230,000 years and he is doing oxygen-isotope work on it with Dr. Sacklette, a chemical oceanographer from the United Kingdom. A group including Lue was seeking funding for a similar core from Antarctica. These are projects pertinent to PAGES, but some have prediction
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration potential as well that may be relevant to LOICZ and JGOFS. More directly relevant to JGOFS is Chinese participation, specifically this institute, in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and TOGA, and about which Gan Zijun had considerable knowledge. Blue water oceanography is evidently a rather active and important activity here. However, it is hard to say if it has higher priority than coastal zone work. This institute was originally founded for coastal zone work, but as they have accrued vessels (and bigger budgets), they have been able to expand into deep sea cruise work. He Youhai described a physical oceanography project that is part of TOGA. One of the results of these cruises is measurement of sea surface temperature and currents in the South China Sea. These variables are definitely related to ENSO. One intriguing idea would be to model the relationship of ENSO with these variables and, with GCM scientists, their effect on the timing and strength of the summer monsoon to east China and typhoons. On the coastal zone per se, a large, multidisciplinary, national-scale coastal zone program was conducted between 1980 and 1986. Individual coastal provinces were responsible for work on their shorelines. Unfortunately, no references or results were available. More generally, the Department of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, headed by Zhang Qiaomin, will be useful for research relevant to LOICZ. XI'AN LABORATORY OF LOESS AND QUATERNARY GEOLOGY The Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology was established in 1984. Under the management of the Xi'an branch of CAS, the director is Liu Tungsheng, China's senior and leading scholar of geology, who also is a member of the PAGES Scientific Committee. Designated as an open laboratory in 1987, it employs a scientific staff of 10 and additional research fellows and students. This laboratory is one of the leading centers for research on past climate change, and an application has been made to be named a national key laboratory. Its research program is organized around a central theme of documenting past climate change as recorded stratigraphically in the Loess Plateau from 2.5 million years ago to predict future climate trends and impacts. Researchers address this task by studying the properties, textures, and formation processes of loess and other Quaternary sediments. Loess in China covers 600,000 km2; it is the largest loess deposit in the world. By virtue of its location on the Loess Plateau itself, the laboratory is near suitable geologic sites for carrying out field observations and experiments.
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration Research Highlights Scientists can carry out a broad range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical measurements that provide the basis for investigations of past climate change in North China, including geologic observations in the field and measurements by microscopy in the laboratory (An Zhisheng, Zhu Yizhi, and Zhou Jie, PIs), spore pollen analysis (Li Xiaoqiang, PI), radiocarbon dating (Zhou Weijian and Jiang Yu, PIs), stable isotope measurements (Liu Yu and Su Fuqin, PIs), thermo luminescence dating (Xie Jun, PI), magnetostratigraphy (Zheng Hongbo, PI), and chemical element analysis of present day dust aerosol (Zhang Xiaoye, PI). Laboratory scientists have now established proxy sequences of paleoclimates and environments on time scales of 2.5 million years, 150,000 years, and 20,000 years B.P. for the Loess Plateau. Three of the major results are noteworthy: A theory has been put forth that paleo-Asian monsoon is a controlling factor in environmental changes in central China, for example, that variation in monsoon circulation may have caused variation in temperature, moisture, soil conditions, and plant growth during the past 20,000 years. A distributional model has been developed for paleoenvironments around 18,000 years before present and at the Holocene optimum 9,000 to 5,000 years before present. An abrupt event about 10,000 to 11,000 years before present has been discovered when the summer monsoon weakened and the winter monsoon strengthened, corresponding to the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Scientists have actively sought to establish collaboration with researchers at other institutions, including laboratories in the United Kingdom and the United States. An Zhisheng and Stephen Porter, University of Washington, are conducting a comparative study of the chronology and dynamics of Late Quaternary climate and environmental changes between central China and the northwestern United States. Based on research undertaken for the China and America Air-Sea Experiments (CHAASE), An Zhisheng, Zhang Xiaoye, and Richard Arimoto, University of Rhode Island, are conducting a comparative study of the atmospheric transport of soils by focusing on the interannual variability in the atmospheric dust concentrations and the meteorological conditions responsible for the concentration differences (Appendix C). Results of the laboratory's research have been published in Chi-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration nese and foreign journals. One recent publication, in English, Loess, Environment and Global Change, edited by Liu Tungsheng (1991), is a timely and useful compilation of paleoclimate studies of loess in China. Notably, the papers presented in this volume demonstrate a wide diversity of institutions represented by collaborating authors and a solid degree of international collaboration with researchers from Europe and the United States. XINJIANG INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY, PEDOLOGY, AND DESERT RESEARCH The mission of the CAS Xinjiang Institute of Biology, Pedology, and Desert Research, under the leadership of Xia Xuncheng, is to study the arid environment of western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, including microclimate, soils, hydrology, vegetation, and land use. The institute is particularly concerned with the effects of land use change and climate change on desert and desert riparian vegetation; it is also concerned with water conservation and water management. The institute administers five experiment stations, one of which, the Fukang Desert Ecosystem Observation and Experiment Station, was visited by panel members. This station is a new and fairly well-equipped facility near the desert margin. The laboratory is equipped for basic soil physical and chemical measurements, and maintains a complement of basic microclimate stations in various desert environments. The station is new and facilities are still being developed. In contrast to the instrumentation of the atmospheric institutes, this ecological station had relatively less expertise in climatological measurements, and future collaboration could aid in enhancing the quality and comprehensiveness of microclimate studies. Research focuses more on local ecological and environmental problems than on large-scale changes, however it is documenting climate change and ecological change. Scientists study a transect from desert at the southern edge of the Junggar Basin to a glacial lake (Tianchi, a MAB reserve) in the nearby montane region of the Tianshan Mountains. This transect provides an interesting cross section of an area influenced strongly by climate variability and change and by intense human land use. Opportunities for collaboration on both ecological and human dimensions of global change are excellent. An additional opportunity to develop an even longer desert-mountain transect exists between the Fukang station and the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology's Tianshan Glaciology Research Station. Despite this opportunity, global change research is a new priority for
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration the station research group, and, consequently, it is not a well-developed area of strength. Personnel seemed enthusiastic and knowledgeable about their region. The training of the more senior scientists is fairly conventional (disciplinary) but these individuals seemed open-minded and broad in their interests. Younger scientists included a sprinkling of scientists with strong interests in plant physiology and biogeochemistry. This institute could be a good partner in potentially excellent research documenting the interaction of climate variability (clearly documented changes in regional hydrology have occurred over the past decade in the Tianshan Mountains and their watersheds) and human land use. Collaboration with the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research program could be particularly fruitful, given the existence of several CERN activities in the region. The documented reductions in rain and snowfall over the 1980s in this region permit use of (possibly) natural climate variability to probe the response of arid mountain-desert landscapes to climate change. ZHONGSHAN UNIVERSITY Although panel members were not able to visit Zhongshan University, research from that university was described during a panel member's visit to the CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology. Chen Shixun, a circulation modeler from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, has worked with someone at Colorado State University and his work is rather limited due to insufficient computing power. He does not interact with the researchers at the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Nevertheless, he presented some interesting modeling work that linked climate features with winds and shoreline geomorphology, which would be pertinent to LOICZ. NOTES 1. AVHRR data are received by the State Meteorological Administration Satellite Center from stations in Beijing and Guangzhou. A third station in Urumqi in western China has not been operating for some time. Peking University's Institute for Remote Sensing Technology and Application has a ground station that also receives AVHRR data. 2. The project is based on the long-term impact of climate and air pollution on the forest in Mantounguog Forest Observation Station. 3. The objective is to provide specific data on China's forest ecology for input to global change studies. The methodology includes soils and plant classification and their mapping, experimental studies of material and energy flows, measurements of atmospheric gas concentrations (CO2, nitrogen oxides, SO2, and O3), and the comparison of differences between atmosphere in urban Beijing and nearby mountain atmo-
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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration sphere. Comparisons will be made in different seasons. Trends will be monitored for 5 years and will include some computer modeling. Mountain area studies will be conducted at the CAS Beijing Forest Ecosystem Station, which is located about 2 hours west of Beijing. The cost of the project is 1.8 million yuan, and funding is from SSTC and NSFC (Feng Zongwei and Zhuang Yahui, PIs). 4. Tropical and Subtropical Ecosystems is edited at the Dinghushan station. Volumes include papers about Dinghushan. It is published in Chinese with English abstracts and graphs.
Representative terms from entire chapter: