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China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration
Activities include a joint U.S.-China program between NOAA and SMA involving air and sea interactions in the tropical West Pacific. From December 1985 to 1990, one ship completed eight cruises, and data from these expeditions were published in January 1992 in a book of common papers. A second program, the Australian Monsoon Experiment, is a trilateral U.S.-China-Australia program. The third CAS observation program, "Air-Sea Interaction in the Tropical West Pacific and Interannual Variability of Climate," operated from 1985 to 1989.
TOGA-Monsoon Climate Research
Monsoon climate research involves CAS, SMA, and selected universities and focuses on eastern Asian monsoons. One cooperative program between SMA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), "PRC-U.S. Cooperative Studies on Eastern Asian Monsoons," began in 1983 and will terminate in 1992. A monograph, Eastern Asian Monsoons, is in press.
Monitoring of El Niño Events
This aspect of Chinese involvement in TOGA began in 1986 and is coordinated by the SMA. As part of this program, the Climate Monitoring Bulletin has been published monthly since 1989. The SOA, under the US-PRC Protocol on Cooperation in Marine and Fishery Science and Technology, and CAS as a group under the Chinese National Climate Committee (CNCC), are both studying the air-sea interaction directly in accordance with the TOGA project. Even though SMA and universities are involved in TOGA, the information presented to the panel predominantly described CAS activities.
From 1985 to 1990, nine expedition cruises (each lasting for 2 months) were conducted during winter months in the tropical (25° N and 10° S) western Pacific (west of 150° E) by two vessels, Science No. 1 and Experiment No. 3. The cruises focused on the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and other materials at the air-sea interface by using approximately 20 kinds of measuring equipment. Four billion data have been indexed and stored in a data bank that can be used for air-sea interaction studies, ground-truthing, and other research purposes. Following the PRC-USA Bilateral Coordinating Group Meeting on TOGA/COARE cooperation held in Guangzhou early in September 1991, CAS research vessels Science No. 1 and Experiment