committees of the National Research Council, including some on biology and renewable resources, agriculture and the environment, and innovative mosquito control. He served as chairman of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development from 1975-1980 and of the Environmental Studies Board of the National Research Council from 1981-1982.

HUGH POPENOE is professor of soils, agronomy, botany, and geography, and director of the Center for Tropical Agriculture and International Programs (Agriculture) at the University of Florida. He received his Ph.D. in soils science from the University of Florida in 1960. Since then his principal research interest has been in the area of tropical agriculture and land use. His early work on shifting cultivation is one of the major contributions to this system. He has traveled and worked in most of the countries in the tropical areas of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. His current interests include improving indigenous agricultural systems of small landholders, particularly with the integration of livestock and crops. Currently, he is on the international advisory committee of the National Science Foundation and serves as U.S. board member for the International Foundation of Science.

NOEL D. VIETMEYER, study director and technical writer for this study, is a senior program officer of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science and technology that are important for the future of developing countries.

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