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References

Anderson, E.L. and the Carcinogen Assessment Group of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295.

Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1957. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. Br. J. Cancer 11:161-169.


Balmain, A., and K. Brown. 1988. Oncogene activation in chemical carcinogenesis. Adv. Cancer Res. 51:147-182.

Barbacid, M. 1987. ras genes. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 56:779-827.


Cavender, F.L., B.T. Cook, N.P. Page, V.J. Cogliano, and A.M. Koppibar. 1986. Carcinogenicity Assessment of Chlordane and Heptachlor/heptachlor Epoxide. EPA 600/6-87/004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

Clement Associates, Inc. 1988. Comparative Potency Approach for Estimating the Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Interim Final Report. Contract #68-02-4403, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1990. Proliferative and genotoxic cellular effects in 2-acetylaminofluorene bladder and liver carcinogenesis: Biological modeling of the EDO1 study. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 104:79-93.

Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1991. Genetic errors, cell prolifera



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THE TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS 217 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. REFERENCES Anderson, E.L. and the Carcinogen Assessment Group of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1957. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. Br. J. Cancer 11:161-169. Balmain, A., and K. Brown. 1988. Oncogene activation in chemical carcinogenesis. Adv. Cancer Res. 51:147-182. Barbacid, M. 1987. ras genes. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 56:779-827. Cavender, F.L., B.T. Cook, N.P. Page, V.J. Cogliano, and A.M. Koppibar. 1986. Carcinogenicity Assessment of Chlordane and Heptachlor/heptachlor Epoxide. EPA 600/6-87/004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Clement Associates, Inc. 1988. Comparative Potency Approach for Estimating the Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Interim Final Report. Contract #68-02-4403, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1990. Proliferative and genotoxic cellular effects in 2- acetylaminofluorene bladder and liver carcinogenesis: Biological modeling of the EDO1 study. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 104:79-93. Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1991. Genetic errors, cell prolifera

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THE TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS 218 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. tion, and carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 51:6493-6505. Cohen, S.M., D.T. Purtilo, and L.B. Ellwein. 1991. Pivotal role of increased cell proliferation in human carcinogenesis. Mod. Pathol. 4:371-382. Ellwein, L.B., and S.M. Cohen. 1988. A cellular dynamics model of experimental bladder cancer: Analysis of the effect of sodium saccharin in the rat. Risk Anal. 8:215-221. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1980. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. EPA 440/5-80-069. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Washington, D.C. Available as NTIS 81-117806. Gaillie, B.L., J.A. Squire, A. Goddard, J.M. Dunn, M. Canton, D. Hinton, X. Zhu, and R.A. Phillips. 1990. A biology of disease: Mechanisms of oncogenesis in retinoblastoma. Lab. Invest. 62:394-408. Goyette, M.C., K. Cho, C.L. Fasching, D.B. Levy, K.W. Kinzler, C. Paraskeva, B. Vogelstein, and E.J. Stanbridge. 1992. Progression of colorectal cancer is associated with multiple tumor- suppressor gene defects but inhibition of tumorigenicity is accomplished by correction of any single defect via chromosome transfer. Mol. Cell Biol. 12:1387-1395. Greenfield, R.E., L.B. Ellwein, and S.M. Cohen. 1984. A general probabilistic model of carcinogenesis: Analysis of experimental urinary bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis 5 (4):437-445. Hollstein, M., D. Sidransky, B. Vogelstein, and C.C. Harris. 1991. p53 mutations in human cancers. Science 253:49-53. IRDC (International Research and Development Corporation). 1973. Chlordae: Eighteen-month oral carcinogenesis: Analysis of experimental urinary bladder cancer. Report to Velsicol Corporation. Kopp, A., and C.J. Portier. 1989. A note on approximating the cumulative distribution function of the time to tumor onset in multistage models. Biometr. 45:1259-1263. Luebeck, E.G., S.H. Moolgavkar, A. Buchman, and M. Schwarz. 1991. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls in rat liver: Quantitative analysis of enzyme-altered foci. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 111:469-484.

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THE TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS 219 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Mantel, N., and W.R. Bryan. 1961. "Safety" testing of carcinogenic agents. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27:455-470. Moolgavkar, S.H. 1988. Biologically motivated two-stage model for cancer risk assessment. Toxicol. Lett. 43(1-3):139-150. Moolgavkar, S.H., and D.J. Venzon. 1979. Two-event models for carcinogenesis: Incidence curves for childhood and adult tumors. Math. Biosci. 47:55-77. Moolgavkar, S.H., and A.G. Knudson. 1981. Mutation and cancer: A model for human carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66(6):1037-1052. Moolgavkar, S.H., and G. Luebeck. 1990. Two-event model for carcinogenesis: Biological, mathematical, and statistical considerations. Risk Anal. 10:323-341. Moolgavkar, S.H., A. Dewanji, and D.J. Venson. 1988. A stochastic two-stage model for cancer risk assessment. I. The hazard function and the probability of tumor. Risk. Anal. 8:383-392. Moolgavkar, S.H., E.G. Luebeck, M. de Gunst, R.E. Port, and M. Schwarz. 1990a. Quantitative analysis of enzyme-altered foci in rat hepatocarcinogenesis experiments I: Single agent regimen. Carcinogenesis 11:1271-1278. Moolgavkar, S.H., F.T. Cross, G. Luebeck, and G.E. Dagle. 1990b. A two-mutation model for radon-induced lung tumors in rats. Radiat. Res. 121:28-37. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 191 pp. Nebert, D.W. 1989. The Ah locus: Genetic differences in toxicity, cancer, mutation, and birth defects. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 20:153-174. Nebert, D.W. 1991a. Polymorphism of human CYP2D genes involved in drug metabolism: Possible relationship to interindividual cancer risk. Cancer Cells 3:93-96. Nebert, D.W. 1991b. Identification of genetic differences in drug metabolism: Prediction of individual risk of toxicity or cancer. Hepatol. 14:398-401. Nebert, D.W., D.D. Petersen, and A. Puga. 1991. Human Ah locus polymorphism and cancer: Inducibility of CYPIAI and other genes

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THE TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS 220 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. by combustion products and dioxin. Pharmacogen. 1:68-78. Nebert, D.W., A. Puga, and V. Vasiliou. 1993. Role of the Ah receptor and the dioxin-inducible [Ah] gene battery in toxicity, cancer and in signal transduction. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (In press) Portier, C.J. 1987. Statistical properties of a two-stage model of carcinogenesis. Environ. Health Perspect. 76:125-131. Portier, C.J., and L. Edler. 1990. Two-stage models of carcinogenesis, classification of agents, and design of experiments. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 14:444-460. Quinn, D.W. 1989. Calculating the hazard function and probability of tumor for cancer risk assessment when the parameters are time-dependent. Risk Anal. 9:407-413. Takahashi, T., M.M. Nau, I. Chiba, M.J. Birrer, R.K. Rosenberg, M. Vinocour, M. Levitt, H. Pass, A.F. Gazdar, and J.D. Minna. 1989. p53: A frequent target for genetic abnormalities in lung cancer. Science 246:491-494. Tan, W.-Y. 1991. Stochastic Models of Carcinogenesis. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 249 pp. Thorslund, T.W., and G. Charnley. 1988. Quantitative dose-response models for tumor-promoting agents. Pp. 245-256 in Carcinogen Risk Assessment: New Directions in Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects , R.W. Hart and F.D. Hoerger, eds. Banbury Report #31. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Thorslund, T.W., C.C. Brown, and G. Charnley. 1987. Biologically motivated cancer risk models. Risk Anal. 7:109-119. Thyssen, J., J. Althoff, G. Kimmerle, and U. Mohr. 1981. Inhalation studies with benzo[a]pyrene in Syrian golden hamsters. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66:575-577. Williams, G.M., and S. Numoto. 1984. Promotion of mouse liver neoplasms by the oranochlorine pesticides chlordane and heptachlor in comparison to dichlorordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Carcinogenesis 5:1689-1696. Vogelstein, B., E.R. Fearon, S.R. Hamilton, S.E. Kern, A.C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A.M.M. Smits, and J.L. Bos. 1988. Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N.E. J. Med. 319:525-532. Weinberg, R.A. 1988. The genetic origin of human cancer. Cancer

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