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Issues in Risk Assessment References Anderson, E.L. and the Carcinogen Assessment Group of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1957. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. Br. J. Cancer 11:161-169. Balmain, A., and K. Brown. 1988. Oncogene activation in chemical carcinogenesis. Adv. Cancer Res. 51:147-182. Barbacid, M. 1987. ras genes. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 56:779-827. Cavender, F.L., B.T. Cook, N.P. Page, V.J. Cogliano, and A.M. Koppibar. 1986. Carcinogenicity Assessment of Chlordane and Heptachlor/heptachlor Epoxide. EPA 600/6-87/004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Clement Associates, Inc. 1988. Comparative Potency Approach for Estimating the Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Interim Final Report. Contract #68-02-4403, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1990. Proliferative and genotoxic cellular effects in 2-acetylaminofluorene bladder and liver carcinogenesis: Biological modeling of the EDO1 study. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 104:79-93. Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1991. Genetic errors, cell prolifera
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Issues in Risk Assessment Mantel, N., and W.R. Bryan. 1961. "Safety" testing of carcinogenic agents. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27:455-470. Moolgavkar, S.H. 1988. Biologically motivated two-stage model for cancer risk assessment. Toxicol. Lett. 43(1-3):139-150. Moolgavkar, S.H., and D.J. Venzon. 1979. Two-event models for carcinogenesis: Incidence curves for childhood and adult tumors. Math. Biosci. 47:55-77. Moolgavkar, S.H., and A.G. Knudson. 1981. Mutation and cancer: A model for human carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66(6):1037-1052. Moolgavkar, S.H., and G. Luebeck. 1990. Two-event model for carcinogenesis: Biological, mathematical, and statistical considerations. Risk Anal. 10:323-341. Moolgavkar, S.H., A. Dewanji, and D.J. Venson. 1988. A stochastic two-stage model for cancer risk assessment. I. The hazard function and the probability of tumor. Risk. Anal. 8:383-392. Moolgavkar, S.H., E.G. Luebeck, M. de Gunst, R.E. Port, and M. Schwarz. 1990a. Quantitative analysis of enzyme-altered foci in rat hepatocarcinogenesis experiments I: Single agent regimen. Carcinogenesis 11:1271-1278. Moolgavkar, S.H., F.T. Cross, G. Luebeck, and G.E. Dagle. 1990b. A two-mutation model for radon-induced lung tumors in rats. Radiat. Res. 121:28-37. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 191 pp. Nebert, D.W. 1989. The Ah locus: Genetic differences in toxicity, cancer, mutation, and birth defects. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 20:153-174. Nebert, D.W. 1991a. Polymorphism of human CYP2D genes involved in drug metabolism: Possible relationship to interindividual cancer risk. Cancer Cells 3:93-96. Nebert, D.W. 1991b. Identification of genetic differences in drug metabolism: Prediction of individual risk of toxicity or cancer. Hepatol. 14:398-401. Nebert, D.W., D.D. Petersen, and A. Puga. 1991. Human Ah locus polymorphism and cancer: Inducibility of CYPIAI and other genes
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