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3
Revision of 1983 Framework To Incorporate Ecological Risk Assessment

COMPONENTS OF THE 1983 FRAMEWORK

Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (NRC, 1983), often called the "Red Book," proposed a conceptual framework for risk assessment that incorporates research, risk assessment, and risk management (Figure 3-1). Risk assessment was defined as "the characterization of the potential adverse health effects of human exposures to environmental hazards." The overall scheme and terminology proposed in the 1983 report entailed hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Hazard identification was defined as "the process of determining whether exposure to an agent can cause an increase in the incidence of a health condition," including "characterizing the nature and strength of the evidence of causation.'' Dose-response assessment was defined as "the process of characterizing the relation between the dose of an agent administered or received and the incidence of an adverse health effect … as a function of human exposure to the agent," accounting for exposure intensity, age, sex, lifestyle, and other variables affecting human health responses to hazardous agents. Exposure assessment was defined as "the process of measuring or estimating the intensity, frequency, and duration of human exposures to an agent currently present in the environment or of estimating hypothetical exposures that might arise from the release of new chemicals into the environment." Risk characterization was defined



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OCR for page 249
REVISION OF 1983 FRAMEWORK TO INCORPORATE ECOLOGICAL RISK 249 ASSESSMENT original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 3 Revision of 1983 Framework To Incorporate Ecological Risk Assessment COMPONENTS OF THE 1983 FRAMEWORK Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (NRC, 1983), often called the "Red Book," proposed a conceptual framework for risk assessment that incorporates research, risk assessment, and risk management (Figure 3-1). Risk assessment was defined as "the characterization of the potential adverse health effects of human exposures to environmental hazards." The overall scheme and terminology proposed in the 1983 report entailed hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Hazard identification was defined as "the process of determining whether exposure to an agent can cause an increase in the incidence of a health condition," including "characterizing the nature and strength of the evidence of causation.'' Dose-response assessment was defined as "the process of characterizing the relation between the dose of an agent administered or received and the incidence of an adverse health effect … as a function of human exposure to the agent," accounting for exposure intensity, age, sex, lifestyle, and other variables affecting human health responses to hazardous agents. Exposure assessment was defined as "the process of measuring or estimating the intensity, frequency, and duration of human exposures to an agent currently present in the environment or of estimating hypothetical exposures that might arise from the release of new chemicals into the environment." Risk characterization was defined

OCR for page 249
About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.ASSESSMENT REVISION OF 1983 FRAMEWORK TO INCORPORATE ECOLOGICAL RISK FIGURE 3-1 Elements of risk assessment and risk management. 250