Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$49.00



View/Hide Left Panel

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. TP-90-20. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

Albert, R.E., M.L. Miller, T.E. Cody, W. Barkley, and R. Shukla. 1991. Cell kinetics and benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts in mouse skin tumorigenesis. Pp. 115-122 in Chemically-Induced Cell Proliferation: Implications for Risk Assessment, B.E. Butterworth, T.J. Slaga, W. Farland, and M. McClain, eds. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Allen B., K.S. Crump, and A.M. Shipp. 1988. Is it possible to predict the carcinogenic potency of a chemical in humans using animal data? Pp. 197-209 in Carcinogen Risk Assessment: New Directions in the Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects, R.W. Hart and F.D. Hoerger, eds. Banbury Report #31. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.

Ames, B.N., and L.S. Gold. 1990. Too many rodent carcinogens: Mitogenesis increases mutagenesis. Science 249:970-971.

Anderson, R.L., and the Carcinogen Assessment Group of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295.

Andersen M.E., H.J. Clewell, III, M.L. Gargas, F.A. Smith, and R.H. Reitz. 1987. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and the risk assessment process for methylene chloride. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 87:185-205.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 67 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. REFERENCES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. TP-90-20. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. Albert, R.E., M.L. Miller, T.E. Cody, W. Barkley, and R. Shukla. 1991. Cell kinetics and benzo[a] pyrene-DNA adducts in mouse skin tumorigenesis. Pp. 115-122 in Chemically-Induced Cell Proliferation: Implications for Risk Assessment, B.E. Butterworth, T.J. Slaga, W. Farland, and M. McClain, eds. New York: Wiley-Liss. Allen B., K.S. Crump, and A.M. Shipp. 1988. Is it possible to predict the carcinogenic potency of a chemical in humans using animal data? Pp. 197-209 in Carcinogen Risk Assessment: New Directions in the Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects, R.W. Hart and F.D. Hoerger, eds. Banbury Report #31. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Ames, B.N., and L.S. Gold. 1990. Too many rodent carcinogens: Mitogenesis increases mutagenesis. Science 249:970-971. Anderson, R.L., and the Carcinogen Assessment Group of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1983. Quantitative approaches in use to assess cancer risk. Risk Anal. 3:277-295. Andersen M.E., H.J. Clewell, III, M.L. Gargas, F.A. Smith, and R.H. Reitz. 1987. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and the risk assessment process for methylene chloride. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 87:185-205.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 68 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Anderson, R.L., R.R. Lefever, and J.K. Maurer. 1988. Comparison of the responses of male rats to dietary sodium saccharin exposure initiated during nursing with responses to exposure initiated at weaning . Food Chem. Toxicol. 26:899-907. Armitage, P., and R. Doll. 1961. Stochastic Models for Carcinogenesis. Pp. 19-38 in Proceedings of the 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Vol. 4. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Bernstein, L., L.S. Gold, B.N. Ames, M.C. Pike, and D.G. Hoel. 1985. Some tautologous aspects of the comparison of carcinogenic potency in rats and mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 5:79-86. Cavalieri, R.R., and R. Pitt-Rivers. 1981. The effects of drugs on the distribution and metabolism of thyroid hormones. Pharmacol. Rev. 33:55-80. Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1990a. Cell proliferation in carcinogenesis. Science 249:1007-1011. Cohen, S.M., and L.B. Ellwein. 1990b. Proliferative and genotoxic cellular effects in 2- acetylaminofluorene bladder and liver carcinogenesis: Biological modeling of the ED01 study. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 104:79-93. Crouch, E.A.C., R. Wilson, and L. Zeise. 1987. Tautology or not tautology? J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 20:1-10. Crump, K. 1984. An improved procedure for low dose carcinogenic risk assessment from animal data. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 5(4-5):339-348. Danse, L.H., F.L. van Velsen, and L.A. van der Heijden. 1984. Methylbromide: Carcinogenic effects in the rat forestomach. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 72:262-271. DeVito, M.J., T.H. Umbreit, T. Thomas, and M.A. Gallo. 1991. An Analogy Between the Actions of the Ah Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor for Use in the Biological Basis for Risk Assessment of Dioxin. Banbury Conference on the Biological Basis for Dioxin Risk. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. DHEW (Department of Health Education and Welfare). 1979. Bioassay of Reserpine for Possible Carcinogenicity. DHEW Publication No. NIH 79-1749. Department of Health Education and Welfare, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Diehl, J.H., R.A. Guilmette, B.A. Muggenberg, F.F. Hahn, and I.Y.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 69 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Chang. 1992. Influence of dose rate on survival time for 239PuO2-induced radiation pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis in dogs. Radiat. Res. 129:53-60. Doll, R. 1971. The age distribution of cancer: Implications for models of carcinogenesis. J. R. Stat. Soc. A37:133-166. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Methyl Bromide. Prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment and the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, D.C. Feron, V., C.F. Hendriksen, A.J. Speek, H.P. Til, and B.J. Spit. 1981. Lifespan oral toxicity study of vinyl chloride in rats. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 19:317-333. Fox, A., and P. Collier. 1977. Mortality experience of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride in Great Britain. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 344:1-10. Gaylor, D.W. 1989. Preliminary estimates of the virtually safe dose for tumors obtained from the maximum tolerated dose. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 9:101-108. Gold, L.S., C.B. Sawyer, R. Magaw, G.M. Backman, M. de Veciana, R. Levinson, N.K. Hooper, W.R. Havender, L. Bernstein, R. Peto, M.C. Pike, and B.N. Ames. 1984. A carcinogenic potency database of the standardized results of animal bioassays. Environ. Health Perspect. 58:9-21. Gold, L.S., M. de Veciana, G.M. Backman, R. Magaw, P. Lopipero, M. Smith, M. Blumenthal, R. Levinson, L. Bernstein, and B.N. Ames. 1986a. Chronological supplement to the carcinogenic potency database: Standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1982. Environ. Health Perspect. 67:161-200. Gold, L.S., L. Bernstein, J. Kaldor, G. Backman, and D. Hoel. 1986b. An empirical comparison of methods used to estimate carcinogenic potency in long-term animal bioassays: Lifetable vs summary incidence data. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 6:263-269. Gold, L.S., J.M. Ward, L. Bernstein, and B. Stern. 1986c. Association between carcinogenic potency and tumor pathology in rodent carcinogenesis bioassays. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 6:677-690. Gold, L.S., T.H. Slone, G.M. Backman, R. Magaw, M. Da Costa, P. Lopipero, M. Blumenthal, and B.N. Ames. 1987a. Second chro

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 70 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. nological supplement to the carcinogenic potency database: Standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1984 and by the National Toxicology Program through May 1986. Environ. Health Perspect. 74:237-329. Gold, L.S., G.M. Backman, M.K. Hooper, and R. Peto. 1987b. Ranking the potential carcinogenic hazards to workers from exposures to chemicals that are tumorigenic in rodents. Environ. Health Perspect. 76:211-219. Gold, L.S., T.H. Slone, and L. Bernstein. 1989a. Summary of carcinogenic potency and positivity for 492 rodent carcinogens in the carcinogenic potency database. Environ. Health Perspect. 79:259-272. Gold, L.S., L. Bernstein, R. Magaw, and T.H. Slone. 1989b. Interspecies extrapolation in carcinogenesis: Prediction between rats and mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 81:211-219. Gold, L.S., T.H. Slone, G.M. Backman, S. Eisenberg, M. Da Costa, M. Wong, N.B. Manley, L. Rohrbach, and B.N. Ames. 1990. Third chronological supplement to the carcinogenic potency database: Standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1986 and by the National Toxicology Program through June 1987 . Environ. Health Perspect. 84:215-286. Haseman, J.K. 1985. Issues in carcinogenicity testing: Dose selection. Fund. Appl. toxicol. 5:66-6678. Henderson, B., and S. Preston-Martin. 1990. Increased cell proliferation as a cause of human cancer. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Cancer Research 31:513-515. Hiasa, Y., Y. Kitahori, M. Ohshima, T. Fujita, T. Yuasa, N. Konishi, and A. Miyashiro. 1982. Promoting effects of phenobarbital and barbital on development of thyroid tumors in rats treated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine. Carcinogenesis 3:1187-1190. Hill, R.N., L.S. Erdreich, O.E. Paynter, P.A. Roberts, S.L. Rosenthal, and C.F. Wilkinson. 1989. Thyroid follicular cell carcinogenesis. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 12:629-697. Hiraga, K., and Fujii, T. 1981. Induction of tumors of the urinary system in F344 rats by dietary administration of sodium o-phenylphenate. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 19:303-310. Hiraga, K., and Fujii, T. 1984. Induction of tumors of the urinary bladder in F344 rats by dietary administration of o-phenylphenol.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 71 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Food. Cosmet. Toxicol. 22:865-870. Hoel, D.G., J.K. Haseman, M.D. Hogan, J. Huff, and E.E. McConnell. 1988. The impact of toxicity on carcinogenicity studies: Implications for risk assessment. Carcinogenesis 9:2045-2052. Huff, J., and D.P. Rall. 1992. Relevance to humans of carcinogenesis results from laboratory animals toxicology studies. Pp. 433-440 and 453-457 in Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 13th ed., J.M. Last and R.B. Wallace, eds. Norwalk, Ct.: Appleton & Lange. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1974. Some aromatic amines, hydrazine, and related substances, N-nitroso compounds and miscellaneous alkylating agents. Pp. 271-275 in IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, Vol. 4. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1979. Some monomers, plastic and synthetic elastomers, and acrolein. Pp. 377-438 in IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Vol. 19. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1986a. Long-term and Short-term Assays for Carcinogens: A Critical Appraisal, R. Montesano, H. Bartsch, H. Vainio, J. Wilbourn, and H. Yamasaki, eds. IARC Science Publications #83. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 575 pp. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1986b. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. 3. The Design and Analysis of Long-term Animal Experiments, J.J. Gart, D. Krewski, P.N. Lee, R.E. Tarone, and J. Wahrendorf, eds. IARC Science Publications #79. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 219 pp. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1991. Preamble. Pg. 21 in chlorinated drinking-water; chlorination by-products; some other halogenated compounds; cobalt and cobalt compounds. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 52. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Ito, N., M. Hirose, and S. Takahashi. 1991. Cellular proliferation and

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 72 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. stomach carcinogenesis induced by antioxidants. Pp. 43-52 in Chemically Induced Cell Proliferation: Implications for Risk Assessment, B.E. Butterworth , T.J. Slaga, W. Farland, and M. McClain, eds. New York: Wiley-Liss. Jordan, V.C., and C.S. Murphy. 1990. Endocrine pharmacology of antiestrogens as antitumor agents. Endocr. Rev. 11:578-610. Karstadt, M., R. Bobal, and I.J. Selikoff. 1981. A survey of availability of epidemiologic data on humans exposed to animal carcinogens. Pp. 223-245 in Quantification of Occupational Cancer, R. Peto and M. Schneiderman, eds. Banbury Report #9. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Kimbrough, R., and R.E. Linder. 1974. Induction of adenofibrosis and hepatomas of the liver in BALB/cJ mice by polychorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254). J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:547-552. Kimbrough, R.D., R.A. Squire, R.E. Linder, J.D. Strandberg, R.J. Montalli, and V.W. Burse. 1975. Induction of liver tumors in Sherman strain female rats by polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1260. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 55:1453-1459. Kluwe, K.M., J.K. Haseman, J.F. Douglas, and J.E. Huff. 1982. The carcinogenicity of dietary DEHP in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 10:797-815. Kodell, R.L., D.W. Gaylor, and J.J. Chen. 1990. Carcinogenic potency correlations: Real or artifactual? J. Toxicol. Ind. Health. Submitted. Konishi, N., B.A. Diwan, and J.W. Ward. 1990. Amelioration of sodium barbital-induced nephropathy and regenerative tubular hyperplasia after a single injection of streptozotocin does not abolish the renal tumor-promoting effect of barbital sodium in male F344/NCr rats. Carcinogenesis 11:2149-2156. Krewski, D., D.W. Gaylor, A.P. Soms, and M. Szyszkowicz. 1990 (Appendix B). Correlation Between Carcinogenic Potency and the Maximum Tolerated Dose: Implications for Risk Assessment. Paper prepared for the Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology, September 4, 1990, Washington, D.C. Krewski, D., D. W. Gaylor, and M. Szyszkowicz. 1991. A model-free approach to low dose extrapolation. Environ. Health Perspect. 90:279-285. Landers, J.P., and N.J. Bunce. 1991. The Ah receptor and the mecha

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 73 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. nism of dioxin toxicity. Biochem. J. 276:273-287. Lee, K.P., H.J. Trochimowicz, and C.F. Reinhardt. 1985. Pulmonary response of rats exposed to titanium dioxide by inhalation for 2 years. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 79:179-192. Maltoni, C., G. Lefemine, A. Ciliberti, G. Cotti, and D. Carretti. 1981. Carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride monomer: A model of risk assessment on an experimental basis. Environ. Health Perspect. 41:3-29. Mantel, N., and W.R. Bryan. 1961. Safety testing of carcinogenic agents. J. Nat. Canc. Inst. 27:455-470. Mauderly, J.L., R.K. Jones, W.C. Griffith, R.F. Henderson, and R.O. McClellan. 1987. Diesel exhaust is a pulmonary carcinogen in rats exposed chronically by inhalation. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 9:208-221. McClain, R.M. 1989. The significance of hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and altered thyroid function in rats: Implications for thyroid gland neoplasia. Toxicol. Pathol. 17:294-306. McClain, R.M., R.C. Posch, T. Bosakowski, and J.M. Armstrong. 1988. Studies on the mode of action for thyroid gland tumor promotion in rats by phenobarbital. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 94:254-265. McClain, R.M., A.A. Levin, R.C. Posch, and J.C. Downing. 1989. The effect of phenobarbital on the metabolism and excretion of thyroxine in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 99:216-228. McConnell, E.E. 1989. The maximum tolerated dose: The debate. J. Amer. Coll. Toxicol. 8:1115-1120. Medinsky, M.A., J.S. Dutcher, J.A. Bond, R.F. Henderson, M.B. Snipes, J.W. McWhinney, L.S. Birnbaum, and Y.S. Cheng. 1985. Uptake and excretion of carbon-14 methyl bromide as influenced by exposure concentration. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 78:215-225. Melnick, R.L., J. Huff, B.J. Chou, and R.A. Miller. 1990. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in C57BL/6 × C3HF1 mice at low exposure concentrations. Cancer Res. 50:6592-6599. Metzger, B., E. Crouch, and R. Wilson. 1989. On the relationship between carcinogenicity and acute toxicity. Risk Anal. 9:169-177. Mitchell, A.M., J.C. Lhugenot, J.W. Bridges, and C.R. Elcombe. 1985. Identification of the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from DEHP. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 80:23-32.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 74 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Moolgavkar, S.H., and D.J. Venzon. 1979. Two-event models for carcinogenesis: Incidence curves for childhood and adult tumors. Mathemat. Biosci. 47:55-77. Moolgavkar, S.H., and A.G. Knudson. 1981. Mutation and cancer. A model for human carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66:1037-1052. Neal, J., and R.H. Rigdon. 1967. Gastric tumors in mice fed benzo( a)pyrene: A quantitative study. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 25:553-557. Nebert, D.W. 1991. Proposed role of drug-metabolizing enzymes: Regulation of steady state levels of the ligands that affect growth, homeostasis, differentiation, and neuroendocrine functions. Mol. Endrocrin. 5:1203-1214. Oppenheimer, J.H., G. Bernstein, and M.I. Surks. 1968. Increased thyroxine turnover and thyroidal function after stimulation of hepatocellular binding of thyroxine by phenobarbital. J. Clin. Invest. 47:1399-1406. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment), U.S. Congress. 1987. Identifying and Regulating Carcinogens. OTA-BP-H-42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. November. Paynter, O.E., G.J.Burin, R.B. Jaeger, and C.A. Gregorio. 1988. Goitrogens and thyroid follicular cell neoplasia: Evidence for a threshold process. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 8:102-119. Peto, R., M.C. Pike, L. Bernstein, L. S. Gold, and B.N. Ames. 1984. The TD50: A proposed general convention for the numerical description of the carcinogenic potency of chemicals in chronic-exposure animal experiments. Environ. Health Perspect. 58:1-8. Poland, A., and J.C. Knutson. 1982. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: Examination of the mechanism of toxicity. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22:517-554. Portier, C.J., S.C. Hedges, and D.G. Hoel. 1980. Age-specific models of mortality and tumor onset for historical control animals in the National Toxicology Program's carcinogenicity experiments. Cancer Res. 46:4372-4378. Preston-Martin, S., M.C. Pike, R.K. Ross, and B.E. Henderson. 1991. Epidemiologic evidence for the increased cell proliferation model of carcinogenesis. Pp. 21-34 in Chemically Induced Cell Proliferation: Implications for Risk Assessment, B.E. Butterworth, T.J. Slaga, W.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 75 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Farland, and M. McClain, eds. New York: Wiley-Liss. Reitz, R.H., P.G. Watanabe, M.J. McKenna, J.F. Quast, and P.J. Gehring. 1980. Effects of vinylidene chloride on DNA synthesis and DNA repair in the rat and mouse: A comparative study with dimethylnitrosamine. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 52:357-370. Reitz, R.H., T.R. Fox, J.F. Quast, E.A. Hermann, and P.J. Watanabe. 1984a. Molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of orthophenylphenol and its sodium salt. Chem. Biol. Interact. 43:99-119. Reitz, R.H., T.R. Fox, J.F. Quast, E.A. Hermann, H.D. Kirk, and P.J. Watanabe. 1984b. Biochemical factors involved in the effects of orthophenylphenol (OPP) and sodium orthophenylphenate (SOPP) on the urinary tract of male F344 rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 73:345-349. Reitz, R.H., A.L. Mendrala, R.A. Corley, J.F. Quast, M.L. Gargas, M.E. Andersen, D.A. Staats, and R. B. Conolly. 1990. Estimating the risk of liver cancer associated with human exposures to chloroform using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 105:443-459. Reuzel, P.G., H.C. Dreef-van der Meulen, V.M. Hollanders, C.F. Kuper, V.J. Feron, and C.A. van der Heijden. 1991. Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity study of methyl bromide in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 29:31-39. Rieth, J.P., and T.B. Starr. 1989a. Chronic bioassays: Relevance to quantitative risk assessment of carcinogens. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 10:160-173. Rieth, J.P., and T.B. Starr. 1989b. Experimental design constraints on carcinogenic potency estimates. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 27:287-296. Roe, F.J.C. 1988. How do hormones cause cancer? Pp. 259-272 in Theories of Carcinogenesis, O.H. Iversen, ed. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. Sabourin, P.J., J.D. Sun, J.T. MacGregor, C.M. Wehr, L.S. Birnbaum, G.W. Lucier, and R.F. Henderson. 1990. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 103:452-462. Safe, S. 1986. Comparative toxicology and mechanism of action of polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins and dibenzofurans. Annu. Rev.

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 76 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 26:371-399. Sawyer, C., R. Peto, L. Bernstein, and M.C. Pike. 1984. Calculation of carcinogenic potency from long-term animal carcinogenesis experiments. Biometrics 40:27-40. Scott, B.R. 1988. Early and Continuing Effects of Combined Alpha and Beta Irradiation of the Lung: Phase II Report. Division of Regulatory Applications, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Scott, B.R., F.F. Hahn, M.B. Snipes. G.J. Newton, A.F. Eidson, J.L. Mauderly, and B.B. Boecker. 1990. Predicted and observed eraly effects of combined alpha and beta lung irradiation. Health Phys. 59:791-805. Shubik, P., ed. 1978. Special Problems with Carcinogenicity Protocols. Toxicology Forum. Sipes, I.G., and A.J. Gandolfi. 1991. Biotransformation of toxicants. Pp. 88-126 in Caserett and Doull's Toxicology, M.O. Amdur, J. Doull, and C.D. Klaassen, eds. 4th ed. New York: Pergamon Press. Sontag, J.M., N.P. Page, and U. Saffiotti. 1976. Guidelines for Carcinogen Bioassay in Small Rodents. Carcinog. Tech. Rep. Series 1. DHEW Publication (NIH 76-801). Bethesda, Maryland.: National Cancer Institute. Stephenson, R.P. 1956. A modification of receptor theory. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 11:379-. Tennant, R.W., M.R. Elwell, J.W. Spalding, and R.A. Griesemer. 1991. Evidence that toxic injury is not always associated with induction of chemical carcinogenesis. Mol. Carcinogen. 4:420-440. Tischler, A.S., R.A. Delellis, G. Nunnemacher, and H.J. Wolfe. 1988. Acute stimulation of chromaffin cell proliferation in the adult rat adrenal medulla. Lab. Invest. 58:733-735. Tischler, A.S., L.A. Ruzicka, S.R. Donahue, and R.A. Delellis. 1989. Chromaffin cell proliferation in the adult rat adrenal medulla. Int. J. Devel. Neurosci. 7:439-448. Tischler, A.S., R.M. McClain, H. Childers, and J. Downing. 1991. Neurogenic signals regulate chromaffin cell proliferation and mediate the mitogenic effects of reserpine in the rat adrenal medulla. Lab. Invest. 65:374-376. Turnbull, G.J., P.N. Lee, and F.J.C. Roe. 1985. Relationship of body

OCR for page 67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 77 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. weight to longevity and to risk of development of nephropathy and neoplasia in Sprague- Dawley Rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 23:355-362. Umbreit, T.H., and M.A. Gallo. 1988. Physiological implications of estrogen receptor modulation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol. Lett. 42:5-14. Wada, S., M. Hirose, S. Takahashi, S. Okazaki, and N. Ito. 1990. Para-methoxyphenol strongly stimulates cell proliferation in the rat forestomach but is not a promoter of rat forestomach carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 11:1891-1894. Ward, J.M., N. Konishi, and B.A. Diwan. 1990. Renal tubular cell or hepatocyte hyperplasia is not associated with tumor promotion by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in B6C3F1 mice after transplacental initiation with N-nitrosoethylurea. Exp. Pathol. 40:125-138. Whitlock, J.P. 1986. The regulation of cytochrome P-450 expression. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 26:333-369. Williams, G.M., ed. 1988. Sweeteners: Health Effects. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc. Zeise, L., R. Wilson, and E. Crouch. 1984. Use of acute toxicity to estimate carcinogenic risk. Risk Anal. 4(3):187-199. Zeise, L., E.A.C. Crouch, and R. Wilson. 1985. Reply to comments: On the relationship of toxicity and carcinogenicity. Risk Anal. 5(4):265-270. Zeise, L., E.A.C. Crouch, and R. Wilson. 1986. A possible relationship between toxicity and carcinogenicity. J. Amer. Coll. Toxicol. 5(2):137-151.

OCR for page 67
About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 78