Responsibility for determining the nature and severity of disciplinary action should be specified in an institution's policy. This may, but need not necessarily, be done through the institution's regular faculty disciplinary or grievance procedures. Many actions may be available to the institution. Examples include:

  • Removal from particular project,

  • Letter of reprimand,

  • Special monitoring of future work,

  • Probation,

  • Suspension,

  • Reduction of salary,

  • Reduction of rank,

  • Termination of employment.

Consideration also should be given to formal notification of other concerned parties not previously notified, such as:

  • Sponsoring agencies, funding sources;

  • Coauthors, co-investigators, collaborators;

  • Editors of journals in which fraudulent research was published;

  • State professional licensing boards;

  • Editors of journals or other publications, other institutions, sponsoring agencies, and funding sources with which the individual has been affiliated;

  • Professional societies;

  • Where appropriate, criminal authorities.

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