25.  

The deadline for the first applications affected by this rule was January 10, 1991. It will therefore be some months before the initial impact of the new requirement can be reviewed. For the NIH's initial thoughts on compliance, see Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 1990, PHS Workshop: Education and Training of Scientists in the Responsible Conduct of Research, March 8-9, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C.

26.  

Based on presentation given by Floyd Bloom at the workshop described in DHHS, PHS Workshop, 1990, and on subsequent telephone conversations.

27.  

Universities have also taken action in response to the NIH requirements for dealing with misconduct in research (see n. 5 above). However, this requirement simply calls for rules to deal with misconduct and therefore does not emphasize fostering responsible conduct.

28.  

For example, programs such as the recent symposium titled "Ethical Issues in Research," sponsored by the FIDIA Research Foundation, Georgetown University, April 29-30, 1991.

29.  

The institutional reforms discussed below generally have foci that are much broader than science and engineering per se. However, fostering responsibility in sciences and engineering research certainly finds a home under the broader umbrellas of these reforms.

30.  

For a description of one such course recently developed at Florida State University, see Gilmer, P. J., and M. Rashotte, 1989/1990, "Marshalling the resources of a large state university for an interdisciplinary 'science, technology, and society' course," Journal of College Science Teaching (December/January):150-156.

31.  

For a summary of the development of STS studies, focusing particularly on research, see Hollander, R., and N. Steneck, 1990, "Science- and engineering-related ethics and values studies: characteristics of an emerging field of research," Science, Technology, and Human Values 15(January):84-104.

32.  

University of Minnesota College of Agriculture, 1990, Project Sunrise Third Annual Report: July 1989 - June 1990, University of Minnesota; and conversations with Mark L. Brenner, associate dean, University of Minnesota Graduate School.

33.  

It is recognized that there are differences between science and engineering. Generally, engineers get more deeply into their subjects during their undergraduate years than do scientists.

34.  

Presentation given by R. William Butcher at the workshop described in DHHS, PHS Workshop, 1990, and subsequent conversations with Stanley J. Reiser.

35.  

Other broad programs have been or are being established at Indiana University, Dartmouth College, Wayne State University, Harvard University, and Princeton University, to mention only a few. Special discipline- or profession-based programs (e.g., medical ethics or engineering ethics) exist on many campuses.

36.  

Interview, Robert DeHaan, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Emory University, November 1990, and a brief conversation with Billy E. Frye, vice president for academic affairs and provost, Emory University.

37.  

Conversations with David Smith, director, Poynter Center, Indiana University, and from descriptions of the Catalyst Program.

38.  

One influence that is not specifically related to science and engineering research but that may have a bearing on how much respect policies relating to responsibility in research receive is the gender bias that is found in many of these policies. Some still exclusively use male pronouns. Equally insensitive is the practice of noting in a footnote that "Masculine parts of speech are hereafter presumed to include the feminine" (Harvard University Faculty of Medicine, 1990, Policy on Conflicts of Interest and Commitment, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; see also University of Michigan, 1989, Guidelines). The lack of sensitivity to inclusively is one more factor that bears on atmosphere and helps or undermines efforts to foster responsibility.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement