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TABLE 6-13 Rate of Onset of Deficiency Syndromes in Working Men Exposed to Complete Deficiency of One or More of the Important Nutrients

Nutrient

Times Before Earliest Effects on Performance Appear in Complete Deficiency

Deficiency Syndrome and End Result

Water

A few hours

Easy fatigue, poor performance, eventual exhaustion of dehydration

Kcal

2 or 3 days

Easy fatigue, poor performance

Carbohydrate

Several days

Easy fatigue; poor performance; eventually, nutritional acidosis

Protein

Probably several weeks

Late result, nutritional edema

Fats

Many months

Earliest effects not known

 

SOURCES: Adapted from Johnson (1943) and Young (1977).

promised. Unpublished investigations from the University of Minnesota in the 1950s revealed that a loss of 125 g nitrogen was associated with measurable physiological deterioration, including a significant reduction in walking endurance and aerobic power. A review of the effects of prolonged semi-starvation has been set forth in a classic study by Keys et al. (1950). A further discussion of negative nitrogen balance based on the experience of those working at the University of Minnesota was prepared by Taylor and Keys (1958).

Undernutrition is always a problem in military operations for various reasons, among them psychological stress, supply problems, food prepara

TABLE 6-14 Cumulative Nitrogen Excretion (Urine and Sweat) During 16 Days on a 1000-kcal Carbohydrate Diet

 

 

Control Mean Weight (kg)

Nitrogen Excreted, g (± SD)

N

Water Allowance

 

Urine

Sweat

Urine + Sweat

6

900 ml per day

75.4

136.72 ± 10.13

5.02 ± 0.39

141.74 ± 20.44

6

1800 ml per day

73.0

109.94 ± 21.18

5.09 ± 0.48

115.03 ± 21.45

13

Ad libitum

69.1

83.79 ± 14.14

5.41 ± 1.39

89.20 ± 14.74

 

SOURCE: Adapted from Grande et al. (1957).



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