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Woteki, C., C. Johnson, and R. Murphy 1986 Nutritional status of the U.S. population: Iron, vitamin C, and zinc. Pp. 21–39 in What is America Eating? Proceedings of a Symposium, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Young, A.J. 1990 Energy substrate utilization during exercise in extreme environments. Pp. 65–117 in Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 18, K. E. Pandolf, ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins.

DISCUSSION

DR. NESHEIM: Thank you, Dr. Clarkson. We have a few minutes for questions or comments.

DR. EVANS: Well, we have one paper that we published in January and two more that are about to be published in which we have looked at the effects of vitamin E supplementations on skeletal muscle damage, circulating and skeletal muscle cytokine (CK) levels, and neutrophil generation.

And it appears that vitamin E has a profound effect in subjects that are over 60 in terms of altering all of their responses so that they look like young people in terms of CK release and neutrophil generation and monocyte function.

But it has very little effect in young people in all of those things and it may well be that membrane function is very different in old people as compared to young people.

But the other thing that vitamin E does is that it causes almost a total suppression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) production which may also have some very interesting effects. If IL-1 is necessary for adaptation to increased use, vitamin E may have some not such great effects.

PARTICIPANT: Dr. Clarkson, I was particularly interested in how you arrived at the quantitative figure of 250 milligrams (mg) for vitamin C.

DR. CLARKSON: That is what Strydom (Strydom et al., 1976) actually used in his paper. He used 250 milligrams as a supplement as well as 500 mg.

PARTICIPANT: Did he titrate the dose or was that just something that he chose?

DR. CLARKSON: I believe he based it on the Henshel et al. earlier study, (Henschel et al., 1944b) and it was no different. That graph depicting the 250 mg and the 500 mg dose showed no difference between the two doses. So 250 mg seems to be sufficient.

PARTICIPANT: You know it seems to be striking that all of the potential



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