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that is, people eat what they are told by advertisers or induced by incentives to eat.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Research Recommendations

Almost any systematic research on the effects of heat on appetite would be welcome. Beyond the general and vague conclusion that heat suppresses appetite—and possibly renders cooler foods more palatable—researchers are forced to surmise where they would prefer to know. Studies of the following sort would be most desirable, although the list is somewhat arbitrary and certainly not exhaustive:

  • Straightforward studies that examine food intake in environments in which the temperature has been artificially elevated, in comparison with food intake in normal or cooled environments. Such studies should examine (a) quantity consumed, (b) preference shifts among macronutrients and/or basic food groups, and (c) preference shifts for heated versus cooled versions of the same foods.

  • Similar studies conducted in thermoneutral, heated, and cooled environments during summer versus winter. Whether living in an air-conditioned environment mitigates the effects of environmental heat should be investigated.

  • Variations on the foregoing studies in which adaptation periods are varied: (a) short-term adaptations over the course of minutes or hours (as when one acclimates to an air-conditioned room) and (b) long-term adaptation (for example, at the beginning of a heat wave versus after a week or two of a heat wave).

  • Studies on the effects on appetite of humidity manipulations in conjunction with heat manipulations.

  • Studies of the effects of heat on appetite in situations where the subjects' ad lib consumption is monitored with a specific view to determining whether appetite suppression occurs because meal size decreases and meal frequency remains constant, or because meal frequency decreases and meal size stays constant. These studies should address whether heat enhances satiety or impairs hunger.

  • Studies of the thermic effect of different diets. Do different macronutrients have different thermic effects? Enough to bother about?

  • Studies of the thermic effects of food at different temperatures.

  • Studies of the palatability of foods at different temperatures while manipulating environmental temperature and, if possible, body temperature.

  • Alliesthesia studies like that of Cabanac (1971) to determine whether



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