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DR. NESHEIM: Any questions?

PARTICIPANT: Mike Sawka mentioned yesterday that discomfort is closely related to skin temperature. I wonder if you think that a feeling of discomfort in the heat would also affect appetite, and if that might be part of the appetite suppression mechanism—as opposed to solely internal body temperature?

DR. HERMAN: Certainly. I know that if you manipulate skin temperature directly, at least in nonhuman animals, that you will get a suppression of appetite. Of course we don't have subjective discomfort ratings in that situation, but I can't help but think heat discomfort would be very much a factor.

PARTICIPANT: Do you know of any studies that have tried to pinpoint whether it was blood temperature, skin temperature, a certain anatomical section, or physiological section that might be impacting on that sensation of heat discomfort?

DR. HERMAN: No, the manipulation was too crude and the measurement was just done at the skin surface. We also don't know whether there were cascading effects to the internal environment.

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