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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations
was Hispanic. The subjects assigned to the 8-g salt group averaged 19.9 years old, 70.9 inches tall, and weighed 169.67 pounds; eight were Caucasian and one was Hispanic.
The ESQ was administered to all participants 13 times during the study. To obtain baseline measures during nonheat exposure days when all were consuming a constant 8 g of dietary salt per day, the ESQ was administered during the afternoons of days 1, 4, and 7. On each of the 10 days of heat acclimation (days 8 to 17), the ESQ was administered at the end of the 8 hours of heat exposure.
Subjective reports of heat illness were assessed in two ways: (a) a tabulation of 12 ESQ symptoms selected for their previously established relationship to exercise in the heat (Armstrong et al., 1987), and (b) the formulation and analysis of an overall index of subjective heat illness.
Release 2.1 of the computer-based statistical package Complete Statistical System (CSS) (StatSoft, 1988) was used to perform all statistical analyses.
Tabulation of Selected ESQ Symptoms
The 12 items on the ESQ that are related to the 9 symptoms of heat illness observed by Armstrong et al. (1987) are displayed in Table 14-2 (4-g salt diet) and in Table 14-3 (8-g salt diet) for each subject for each of the 10 heat acclimation days. The 12 symptoms include stomach cramps (item 17), chilly (item 36), dizzy (item 4), warm and sweaty (items 30 and 33), heart beating fast (item 11), irritability and restlessness (items 62 and 63), disturbed coordination (item 7), weakness (item 19), shivering (item 37), and nausea (item 24). Only those symptoms rated at least "1" by the participant (indicating that the symptom was present regardless of how intense it was felt) are listed in the tables. An analysis of variance of the number of symptoms reported as present differed among days, F (9, 135) = 6.10967, p < .001, with the mean number of symptoms present being greater, by Duncan post hoc tests (p < .05), during the first 2 days of heat acclimation (means = 4.3 and 4.0) than during the remaining 8 heat acclimation days (means = 3.1, 2.9, 3.2, 2.4, 2.5, 2.5, 2.2, and 2.3). Although there was a trend for more symptoms to be reported by subjects in the 4-g diet group (mean = 3.2) than by the 8-g diet group (mean = 2.6), the analysis of variance was not significant with respect to the main effect of diet, F (1,15) = 1.17, p > .20; the interaction between diet and heat acclimation day was also not significant, F (9,135) = 1.775, p > .05. In Tables 14-4 (4-g salt diet)