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TABLE 14-6 The 22 Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) Items Constituting the Index of Subjective Heat Illness

ESQ Symptom No.

Description

1

Lightheaded

2

Headache

4

Dizzy

5

Faint

7

Coordination off

8

Short of breath

9

Hard to breathe

11

Heart beating fast

16

Muscle cramp

17

Stomach cramps

19

Weak

27

Constipated

30

Warm

33

Sweaty

38

Body parts numb

41

Vision blurry

52

Lost appetite

53

Sick

55

Thirsty

56

Tired

62

Irritable

63

Restless

post hoc tests (p < .05) of the means plotted in Figure 14-1 showed that (a) the two diet groups differed from one another only on the first 2 days of heat acclimation, with the 4-g salt group demonstrating significantly more heat illness, and (b) each group acclimated to the heat such that by the fourth day of heat acclimation the SHI had reached a level that did not differ from any of the succeeding days (that is, reduction in the SHI had reached asymptote).

Discussion

Many of the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion reported by Armstrong et al. (1987) were also prominent in this study. The results of the present study indicate that, regardless of diet group, the predominant symptoms during heat acclimation are warmth, sweatiness, weakness, irritability and restlessness, and rapid heart beat. In addition, dizziness and disturbed coordination occur most often during the first 2 days of heat acclimation.



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