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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments—A Selected Bibliography

On the following pages is a selection of references dealing with nutritional requirements in hot environments. This bibliography was compiled from the joint reference lists of the 15 chapters in this report, selected references from a computer-based literature search conducted in 1991, and references recommended by the invited speakers as background reading for the workshop participants. As a result, references that are historical in nature are included in this listing with the most current studies of nutrition in the heat.

Adlerkreutz, H., K. Kosunen, K. Kuoppasalmi, A. Pakarinen, and S. Karonen 1977 Plasma hormones during exposure to intense heat. Proc. Cong. Int. Med. 13:346–355.

Adolph, E.F., and associates 1947 Physiology of Man in the Desert. New York: Interscience Publishers.

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 1972 Food Consumption of Households in the U.S., Seasons and Year 1965–66. Report no. 12, MC 7473(72). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. March.

Aldashev, A.A., B.I. Kim, O.A. Kolesova, V.L. Reznik, and V.V. Subach 1986 Indices of the nutritional status of workers in the oil and gas production industry adapting to the extreme conditions of an arid zone. (in Russian) Vopr. Pitan. May-June (3):25–28.



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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations B Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments—A Selected Bibliography On the following pages is a selection of references dealing with nutritional requirements in hot environments. This bibliography was compiled from the joint reference lists of the 15 chapters in this report, selected references from a computer-based literature search conducted in 1991, and references recommended by the invited speakers as background reading for the workshop participants. As a result, references that are historical in nature are included in this listing with the most current studies of nutrition in the heat. Adlerkreutz, H., K. Kosunen, K. Kuoppasalmi, A. Pakarinen, and S. Karonen 1977 Plasma hormones during exposure to intense heat. Proc. Cong. Int. Med. 13:346–355. Adolph, E.F., and associates 1947 Physiology of Man in the Desert. New York: Interscience Publishers. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 1972 Food Consumption of Households in the U.S., Seasons and Year 1965–66. Report no. 12, MC 7473(72). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. March. Aldashev, A.A., B.I. Kim, O.A. Kolesova, V.L. Reznik, and V.V. Subach 1986 Indices of the nutritional status of workers in the oil and gas production industry adapting to the extreme conditions of an arid zone. (in Russian) Vopr. Pitan. May-June (3):25–28.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Allan, J.R., and C.G. Wilson 1971 Influence of acclimatization on sweat sodium concentration. J. Appl. Physiol. 30:708–712. Anderson, R.A., M.M. Polansky, and N.A. Bryden 1984 Strenuous running: Acute effects on chromium, copper, zinc and selected variables in urine and serum of male runners. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 6:327–336. Anderson, R.A., N.A. Bryden, M.M. Polansky, and P.A. Deuster 1988 Exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained men consuming a constant diet. J. Appl. Physiol. 64:249–252. Andersson, B., and B. Larsson 1961 Influence of local temperature changes in the preoptic area and rostral hypothalamus on the regulation of food and water intake. Acta Physiol. Scand. 52:75–89. Andron, R.I. 1991 Gastrointestinal bleeding in runners. Ann. Intern. Med. 114(5):429. Anonymous 1953 Background of symposium on nutrition under climatic stress. (Reprinted from Activities Report, 5(2):1–12. Published by The Research and Development Associates, Food and Container Institute, Inc.) Armstrong, L.E., and K.B. Pandolf 1988 Physical training, cardiorespiratory physical fitness and exercise-heat tolerance. Pp. 199–226 in Human Performance Physiology and Environmental Medicine at Terrestrial Extremes, K.B. Pandolf, M.N. Sawka, and R.R. Gonzalez, eds. Indianapolis, Ind.: Benchmark Press. Armstrong, L.E., D.L. Costill, W.J. Fink, M. Hargreaves, I. Nishibata, D. Bassett, and D.S. King 1985a Effects of dietary sodium on body and muscle potassium content during heat acclimation. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 54:391–397. Armstrong, L.E., R.W. Hubbard, P.C. Szlyk, W.T. Matthew, and I.V. Sils 1985b Voluntary dehydration and electrolyte losses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 56:765–70 Armstrong, L.E., D.L. Costill, and W.J. Fink 1985c Influence of dehydration on competitive running performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 17:456–461. Armstrong, L.E., R.W. Hubbard, B.H. Jones, and J.T. Daniels 1986 Preparing Alberto Salazar for the heat of the 1984 Olympic Marathon. Physician Sportsmeal. 14(3):73–81. Armstrong, L.E., D.L. Costill, and W.J. Fink 1987 Changes in body water and electrolytes during heat acclimation: Effects of dietary sodium. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 58:143–148. Armstrong, L.E., R.W. Hubbard, W.J. Kraemer, J.P. DeLuca, and E.L. Christensen 1987 Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion during strenuous exercise. Ann. Sports Med. 3:182–189. Armstrong, L.E., J.P. De Luca, E.L. Christensen, and R.W. Hubbard 1990 Mass-to-surface area index in a large cohort. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 83:321–329.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Aruoma, O.I., T. Reilly, D. MacLaren, and B. Halliwell 1988 Iron, copper and zinc concentrations in human sweat and plasma; the effect of exercise. Clin. Chim. Acta 177:81–88. Ashworth, A., and A.D.B. Harrower 1967 Protein requirements in tropical countries: Nitrogen losses in sweat and their relation to nitrogen balance. Br. J. Nutr. 21(4):833–843. Avellini, B.A., E. Kamon, and J.T. Krajewski 1980 Physiological responses of physically fit men and women to acclimation to humid heat. J. Appl. Physiol. Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 49(2):254–261. Balaban, E.P., J.V. Cox, P. Snell, R.H. Vaugh, and E.P. Frenkel 1989 The frequency of anemia and iron deficiency in the runner. Meal. Sci. Sports Exerc. 21:643–648. Banderet, L.E., and H.R. Lieberman 1989 Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res. Bull. 22:759–762. Barclay, G.R., and L.A. Turnberg 1988 Effect of moderate exercise on salt and water transport in the human jejunum. Gut 29:816–820. Bartoshuk, L.M., K. Rennert, H. Rodin, and J.C. Stevens 1982 Effects of temperature on the perceived sweetness of sucrose. Physiol. Behav. 28:905–910. Baska, R.S., F.M. Moses, and P.A. Deuste 1990 Cimetidine reduces running-associated gastrointestinal bleeding. Dig. Dis. Sci. 35(8):956–960. Bass, D.E., C.R. Kleeman, M. Quinn, A. Henschel, and A.H. Hegnauer 1955 Mechanisms of acclimatization to heat in man. Med. Anal. Rev. 34:323–380. Bean, W.B., and L.W. Eichna 1943 Performance in relation to environmental temperature. Reactions of normal young men to a simulated desert environment. Fed. Proc. 2:144–158. Beighton, P. 1971 Fluid balance in the Sahara. Nature 223(317):275–277. Beisel, W.R., R.F. Goldman, and R.J.T. Joy 1968 Metabolic balance studies during induced hyperthermia in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 24(1): 1–10. Beller, G.A., J.T. Maher, L.H. Hartley, D.E. Bass, and W.E.C. Wacker 1975 Changes in serum and sweat magnesium levels during work in the heat. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 46:709–712. Bonner, R.M., M.H. Harrison, C.J. Hall, and R.J. Edwards 1976 Effect of heat acclimatization on intravascular responses to acute heat stress in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 41:708–713. Booth, G., and J.M. Strang 1936 Changes in temperature of the skin following the ingestion of food. Arch. Int. Med. 57:533–543.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Brandenberger, G., V. Candas, M. Follenius, J. Libert, and J. Kahn 1986 Vascular fluid shifts and endocrine responses to exercise in the heat: Effects of rehydration. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 55:123–129. Brebner, D.F., and D.M. Kerslake 1964 The time course of the decline in sweating produced by wetting the skin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 175:295–302. Brobeck, J.R. 1948 Food intake as a mechanism of temperature regulation. Yale J. Biol. Med. 20:545–552. Brouha, L., P.E. Smith, Jr., R. De Lanne, and M.E. Maxfield 1960 Physiological reactions of men and women during muscular activity and recovery in various environments. J. Appl. Physiol. 16:133–140. Brouns, F., W.H.M. Saris, and N.J. Rehrer 1987 Abdominal complaints and gastrointestinal function during long-lasting exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 8:175–189. Brown, N.E., M.M. McKinley, L.E. Baltzer, and C.F. Opurum 1985 Temperature preferences for a single entree. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 85:1339–1341. Brune, M., B. Magnusson, H. Petsson, and L. Hallberg 1986 Iron losses in sweat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43:438–443. Burch, G.E., and N.P. DePasquale 1962 Hot Climates, Man and His Heart. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. Burse, R.L. 1979 Sex differences in human thermoregulatory response to heat and cold stress. Hum. Factors 21:687–699. Buskirk, E.R. 1951 The Effect of Heat on Nutrient Requirements: Animal Experiments. Excerpt from: H.H. Mitchell and M. Edman Chapter III Diet in a Hot Environment. Pp. 42–95 in Nutrition and Climatic Stress. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. 1981 Some nutritional considerations in the conditioning of athletes. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 1:319–350. Buskirk, E.R., and D.E. Bass 1957 Climate and Exercise. Technical Report EP-61, U.S. Army Quartermaster Research and Development Center, Natick, Mass. Buskirk, E.R., P.F. Iampietro, and B.E. Welch 1957 Variations in resting metabolism with changes in food, exercise and climate. Metabolism 6:144–153. Calvino, A.M. 1986 Perception of sweetness: The effects of concentration and temperature. Physiol. Behav. 36:1021–1028. Chen, J.D., Z.Y. Yang, S.H. Ma, and Y.C. Zhen 1990 The effects of Actinidia sinensis Planch (kiwi) drink supplementation on athletes training in hot environments. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 30:181–184.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Clarkson, P.M. 1991 Vitamins and trace minerals. Pp. 123–175 in Ergogenics: Enhancement of Performance in Exercise and Sport. Vol. 4 of Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Indianapolis, Ind.: Benchmark Press. Cleland, T.S., S.M. Horvath, and M. Phillips 1969 Acclimatization of women to heat after training. Int. Z. Angew. Physiol. 27:15–24. Collier, G. 1989 The economics of hunger, thirst, satiety and regulation. Pp. 136–154 in The Psychology of Human Eating Disorders: Preclinical and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Vol. 575 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Collins, K.J., and J.S. Weiner 1962 Observations on arm-bag suppression of sweating and its relationship to thermal sweat-gland fatigue. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 161:538–556. 1968 Endocrinological aspects of exposure to high environmental temperature. Physiol. Rev. 48:785–839. Collins, K.J., T.P Eddy, A. Hibbs, A.L. Stock, and E.F. Wheeler 1971 Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 2. Heat acclimatization and nutrient balances. Br. J. Indu. Med. 28(3):246–258. Conn, J.W. 1949 Acclimatization to heat. Adv. Int. Med. 3:337. 1963 Aldosteronism in man: Some clinical and climatological aspects. Part 1. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 183:775–781. Consolazio, C.F. 1963 The energy requirements of men living under extreme environmental conditions. 3. Extremely hot environments. Pp. 65–77 in World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. vol. 27, G.H. Bourne, ed. New York: Hafner Publishing. 1966 Nutrient requirements of troops in extreme environments. Army Research and Development Newsmagazine 11:24–27. Consolazio, C.F., and R. Shapiro 1964 Energy requirements of men in extreme heat. Pp. 121–124 in Environmental Physiology and Psychology in Arid Conditions: Proceedings of the Lucknow Symposium. Liège, Belgium: United Nations. Consolazio, C.F., F. Konishi, R.V. Ciccolini, J.M. Jamison, E.J. Sheehan, and W.F. Steffen 1960 Food consumption of military personnel performing light activities in a hot desert environment. Metabol. 9(5):435–442. Consolazio, C.F., R. Shapiro, J.E. Masterson, and P.S.L. McKinzie 1960 Caloric Requirements of Men Working in an Extremely Hot Desert Environment. Report No. 246. Denver, Colo.: United States Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory. 1961 Energy requirements of men in extreme heat. J. Nutri. 73:126–134.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Consolazio, C.F., Le Roy O. Matoush, R.A. Nelson, R.S. Harding, and J.E. Canham 1963 Excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium and iron in human sweat and the relation of each to balance and requirements. J. Nutr. 79:407–415. Consolazio, C.F., Le Roy O. Matoush, R.A. Nelson, and G.A. Leveille 1963 The Excretion of Lipid and Lipid Substances in Human Sweat. Report No. 280. United States Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory. Denver, Colo. Consolazio, C.F., Le Roy O. Matoush, R.A. Nelson, J.A. Torres, and C.J. Isaac 1963 Environmental temperature and energy expenditures. J. Appl. Physiol. 18:65–68. Consolazio, C.F., R.A. Nelson, Le Roy O. Matoush, R.C. Hughes, and P. Urone 1964 Trace mineral losses in sweat. Pp. 1–12 in report no. 284 of U.S. Army no. 3A12501A283 (Military Internal Medicine), Subtask no. 03 (Biochemistry), U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory, Fitzsimmons General Hospital, Denver, Colo. Consolazio, C.F., Le Roy O. Matoush, R.A. Nelson, G.J. Isaac, and J.E. Canham 1966 Comparisons of nitrogen, calcium and iodine excretion in arm and total body sweat. Am. J. Clin. Nutri. 18:443–448. Consolazio, C.F., H.L. Johnson, and H.J. Krzywicki 1970 Energy metabolism during exposure to extreme environments. Unnumbered report. U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory, Fitzsimmons General Hospital. Denver, Colo. Costill, D.L., R. Cote, E. Miller, T. Miller, and S. Wynder 1975 Water and electrolyte replacement during repeated days of work in the heat. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 46:795–800. Costill, D.L., R. Cote, and W. Fink 1976 Muscle water and electrolytes following varied levels of dehydration in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 40:6–11. Couzy, F., P. Lafargue, and C.Y. Guezennec 1990 Zinc metabolism in the athletes: Influence of training, nutrition and other factors. Int. J. Sports Med. 11:263–266. Crowdy, J.P., M.F. Haisman, and H. McGavock 1971 The effects of a restricted diet on the performance of hard and prolonged physical work. Report 2/71. Army Personnel Research Establishment. Crowdy, J.P., C.F. Consolazio, A.L. Forbes, M.F. Haisman, and D.W. Worsley 1982 The metabolic effects of a restricted food intake on men working in a tropical environment. Hum. Nutri.: Appl. Nutri. 36:325–344. Davies, J., M. Harrison, L. Cochrane, R. Edwards, and T. Gibson 1981 Effect of saline loading during heat acclimatization on adrenocortical hormones . J. Appl. Physiol. 50:605–612. de Castro, J.M. 1988 Physiological, environmental, and subjective determinants of food intake in humans: A meal pattern analysis. Physiol. Behav. 44:651–659. de Castro, J.M., and E.S. de Castro 1989 Spontaneous meal patterns of humans: Influence of the presence of other people. Am. J. of Clin. Nutr. 50:237–247.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations de Castro, J.M., J. McCormick, M. Pederson, and S.N. Kreitzman 1986 Spontaneous human meal patterns are related to preprandial factors regardless of natural environmental constraints. Physiol. Behav. 38:25–29. Deuster, P.A., S.B. Kyle, P.B. Moser, R.A. Vigersky, A. Singh, and E.B. Schoomaker. 1986 Nutritional survey of highly trained women runners. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45:954–962. Deuster, P.A., B.A. Day, A. Singh, L. Douglass, and P.B. Moser-Veillon 1989 Zinc status of highly trained women runners and untrained women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49:1295–1301. Dill, D.B. 1938 Life, Heat and Altitude. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1985 The Hot Life of Man and Beast. P. 185. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. Dill, D.B., H.T. Edwards, P.S. Bauer, and E.J. Levenson 1930/1931 Physical performance in relation to external temperature. Arbeitsphysiologie 3:508–518. Dill, E.B., L.F. SohoIt, D.C. McLean, T.F. Drost, Jr., and M.T. Loughran 1977 Capacity of young males and females for running in desert heat. Med. Sci. Sports. 9(3)137–142. Dimri, G.P., M.S. Malhotra, J. Sen Gupta, T.S. Kumar, and B.S. Aora 1980 Alterations in aerobic-anaerobic proportions of metabolism during work in heat. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 45:43–50. Donhoffer, S., and J. Vonotzky 1947 The effect of environmental temperature on food selection. Am. J. Physiol. 150:329–333. Dreon, D.M., and G.E. Butterfield 1986 Vitamin B6 utilization in active and inactive young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43:816–824. Drinkwater, B.L., ed. 1986 Female Endurance Athletes. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics Publishers. Early, R.G., and B.R. Carlson 1969 Water-soluble vitamin therapy in the delay of fatigue from physical activity in hot climatic conditions. Int. Z. Angew. Physiol. 27:43–50. Eddy, T.P., A.L. Stock, and E.F. Wheeler 1971a Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 3. Energy balances and physique. Brit. J. Indu. Med. 28:330–341. Eddy, T.P., E.F. Wheeler, and A.L. Stock 1971b Nutritional and environmental studies on an ocean-going oil tanker. 4. The diet of seamen. Brit. J. Indu. Med. 28:342–352. Edelman, B., D. Engell, P. Bronstein, and E. Hirsch 1986 Environmental effects on the intake of overweight and normal-weight men. Appetite 7:71–83. Edholm, O.G., and R. Goldsmith 1966 Food intakes and weight changes in climatic extremes. Proc. Nutri. Soc. 25(2):113–119.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Edholm, O.G., R.H. Fox, R. Goldsmith, I.F.G. Hampton, C.R. Underwood, E.J. Ward, H.S. Wolf, J.M. Adam, and J.R. Allan 1964 Report to the Medical Research Council, London: Army Personnel Research Committee, No. APRC64/65. [cited in Edholm, O.G., and R. Goldsmith (1966). Food intakes and weight changes in climatic extremes. Proceedings of the Royal Nutritional Society 25:113–119]. Edison, A.O., R.H. Silber, and D.M. Tennent 1945 The effects of varied thiamine intake on the growth of rats in tropical environment. Am. J. Physiol. 144:643–651. Eichna, L.W., C.R. Park, N. Nelson, S.M. Horvath, and E.D. Palmes 1950 Thermal regulation during acclimatization in a hot, dry (desert type) environment. Am. J. Physiol. 163:585–597. Engell, D., and E. Hirsch 1991 Environmental and sensory modulation of fluid intake in humans. Pp. 382–390 in Thirst: Psychological and Physiological Aspects, D.J. Ramsey and D. Booth, eds., London: Springer-Verlag. Finberg, J.P.M., and G.M. Berlyne 1977 Modification of renin and aldosterone response to heat by acclimatization in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 42:554–558. Finberg, J.P.M., M. Katz, H. Gazit, and G.M. Berlyne 1974 Plasma renin activity after acute heat exposure in nonacclimatized and naturally acclimatized man. J. Appl. Physiol. 36:519–523. Fink, W.J., D.L. Costill, and W.J. Van Handel 1975 Leg muscle metabolism during exercise in the heat and cold. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 34:183–190. Follenius, M., G. Brandenberger, B. Reinhardt, and M. Simeoni 1979 Plasma aldosterone, renin activity, and cortisol responses to heat exposure in sodium depleted and repleted subjects. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 41:41–50. Fordtran, J.S., and B. Saltin 1967 Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption during prolonged severe exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 23(3):331–335. Francesconi, R., J.T. Maher, G. Bynum, and J. Mason 1977 Recurrent heat exposure: Effects on plasma and urinary sodium and potassium in resting and exercising men. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 48:399–404. Francesconi, R.P., M.N. Sawka, and K.B. Pandolf 1983 Hypohydration and heat acclimation: Plasma renin and aldosterone during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 55(6): 1790–1794. 1984 Hypohydration and acclimation: Effects on hormone responses to exercise/heat stress. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 55:365–369. Francesconi, R.P., M.N. Sawka, K.B. Pandoll, R.W. Hubbard, A.J. Young, and S. Muza 1985 Plasma hormonal responses at graded hypohydration levels during exercise/heat stress. J. Appl. Physiol. 59(6): 1855–1860.

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Francesconi, R.P., P. C. Szlyk, I.V. Sils, N. Leva, and R.W. Hubbard 1989 Plasma renin activity and aldosterone: Correlations with moderate hypohydration. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 60:1172–1177. Galvao, E.G. 1950 Human heat production in relation to body weight and body surface. J. Appl. Physiol. 3:21. Gathiram, P., M.T. Wells, J.G. Brock-Utne, B.C. Wessels, and S.L. Gaffin 1987 Prevention of endotoxemia by non-absorbable antibiotics in heat stress. J. Clin. Pathol. 40:1364–1368. Gengler, W.R., F.A. Martz, H.D. Johnson, G.F. Krause, and L. Hahn 1970 Effect of temperature on food and water intake and rumen fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 53:434–437. Gisolfi, C.V. 1973 Work-heat tolerance derived from interval training. J. Appl. Physiol. 35:349–354. Gisolfi, C.V., N.C. Wilson, and B. Claxton 1977 Work-heat tolerance of distance runners. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 301:139–150. Gleeson, M., J.D. Robertson, and R.J. Maughan 1987 Influence of exercise on ascorbic acid status in man. Clin. Sci. 73:501–505. Glenn, J.F., R.E. Burr, R.W. Hubbard, M.Z. Mays, R.J. Moore, B.H. Jones, and G.P. Krueger, eds. 1990 Sustaining Health and Performance in the Desert: A Pocket Guide to Environmental Medicine for Operations in Southwest Asia. Technical Note 91–2. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine . Natick, Mass. Gonzalez, R.R., L.G. Berglund, and A.P. Gagge 1978 Indices of thermoregulatory strain for moderate exercise in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 44:889–899. Graber, C.D., R.B. Reinhold, and J.G. Breman 1971 Fatal heatstroke. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 216:1195–1196. Green, B.G. 1986 Sensory interactions between capsaicin and temperature in the oral cavity. Chem. Sens. 11:371–382. 1990 Effects of thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimulation on the perception of oral irritation. Pp. 171–192 in Chemical Senses. Vol. 2, Irritation, B.G. Green, J.R. Mason, and M.R. Kate, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1991 Oral chemesthesis: The importance of time and temperature for the perception of chemical irritants. Pp. 107–123 in Sensory Science Theory and Applications in Foods, H.T. Lawless, and B.P. Klein, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker. Green, B.G., and S.P. Frankmann 1987 The effect of cooling the tongue on the perceived intensity of taste. Chemical Senses 12(4):609–619. 1988 The effect of cooling on the perception of carbohydrate and intensive sweeteners. Physiol. Behav. 43:515–519.

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