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INDEX

A

Acclimatization/acclimation

age and, 14, 15

air-conditioning and, 196, 199-200

and aldosterone levels, 268, 274

and appetite, 19-20, 107, 109, 200-201

B complex vitamin supplementation and, 148-149

body weight and, 107-108, 195

defined, 7, 108

dietary requirements following, 107-108

and energy requirements, 19, 29-30, 45, 109

and exercise, 62-63, 262

and food intake, 28, 29-30, 48, 185

and gastrointestinal functioning, 81

and gender differences in response to heat stress, 13-14

glycogen sparing effect, 65

heat illness symptoms during, 288-290

and lactate levels, 65, 66

and metabolic rate, 11, 59, 61, 63, 104-105, 108

NaCl balance during, 247-255, 259-260, 268-269

and nitrogen loss from sweating, 206

and oxygen uptake, 59, 62, 105, 108

physique and, 194-195

and plasma renin activity, 268, 269, 274

and plasma volume, 274

and sodium/NaCl intakes, 17-18, 248, 262, 270, 277

and sweat rates, 16, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96

and thermoregulation, 7, 16, 55, 70, 92

vitamin C and, 48-49, 148-149, 152, 159, 160, 169

see also Temperature (environmental)

Acute-phase response, 122, 123, 125, 126-127

Adiposity, and sweating response, 96

Adrenocorticotropic hormone synthesis, 150

Aero Medical Laboratory, 97

Aerobic fitness

age and, 14

nitrogen losses and, 111



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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations INDEX A Acclimatization/acclimation age and, 14, 15 air-conditioning and, 196, 199-200 and aldosterone levels, 268, 274 and appetite, 19-20, 107, 109, 200-201 B complex vitamin supplementation and, 148-149 body weight and, 107-108, 195 defined, 7, 108 dietary requirements following, 107-108 and energy requirements, 19, 29-30, 45, 109 and exercise, 62-63, 262 and food intake, 28, 29-30, 48, 185 and gastrointestinal functioning, 81 and gender differences in response to heat stress, 13-14 glycogen sparing effect, 65 heat illness symptoms during, 288-290 and lactate levels, 65, 66 and metabolic rate, 11, 59, 61, 63, 104-105, 108 NaCl balance during, 247-255, 259-260, 268-269 and nitrogen loss from sweating, 206 and oxygen uptake, 59, 62, 105, 108 physique and, 194-195 and plasma renin activity, 268, 269, 274 and plasma volume, 274 and sodium/NaCl intakes, 17-18, 248, 262, 270, 277 and sweat rates, 16, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96 and thermoregulation, 7, 16, 55, 70, 92 vitamin C and, 48-49, 148-149, 152, 159, 160, 169 see also Temperature (environmental) Acute-phase response, 122, 123, 125, 126-127 Adiposity, and sweating response, 96 Adrenocorticotropic hormone synthesis, 150 Aero Medical Laboratory, 97 Aerobic fitness age and, 14 nitrogen losses and, 111

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations riboflavin and, 142 and sweating, 91, 95 and thermoregulatory response, 15, 16, 55, 70, 92 Age and aerobic fitness, 14 and body water, 87 and fluid requirements, 14-15, 92, 93 and heat tolerance, 14-15 and sweat rates, 14-15, 16, 91-92, 93, 95 and thermoregulation, 91-92 and vitamin E, 167 Aldosterone biosynthesis and release, 260, 263, 264-265, 268, 272 273 Amino acid metabolism, 143, 147 Aminotransaminase reactions, 144 Anemia folate deficiency and, 147 pernicious, 146 ''sports'' vs iron deficiency, 23, 120-121 Anorexia nervosa, 203 Antacids, 81 Antioxidants, 21, 24, 46, 51, 118, 126, 149, 151, 154, 159 fatty acid, 156 multivitamin supplement, 155 Appetite, 109 acclimatization and, 19-20, 107, 109 and body weight set point, 192-193 brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and, 192, 193 defined, 26, 188-189, 299 environmental temperature and, 189-190, 199-207 fever and, 203 food temperature and, 204-205 humidity and, 196 internal mechanisms in, 297-299 light and, 205 ration components and, 46 research needs on, 207-208 seasonal changes in, 30, 202-203 skin temperature and, 212 stress and, 29, 197 and thermic effect of food, 199 Arginine-vasopressin, 260, 263, 267, 268, 269-270 Army Regulations (AR) 40-25 (1985), 5-6, 307-327 40-250 Nutrition (1947), 5 Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C Aspirin, 76, 203 B B complex vitamins deficiencies, 138, 147, 149 and energy metabolism, 20-21, 141, 159 functions of, 138-139 and physical performance, 147-148 MRDAs vs RDAs, 20-21 recommendations, 149, 159 requirements for, 159 supplementation, 148-149 sweat losses of, 48-49, 148, 159 see also individual B vitamins Beriberi, 139 Beta-carotene, 154, 155, 160 Beta-endorphin levels, 80 Biotin deficiencies, 147 functions, 147 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Blood flow/circulation age and, 15 exercise in the heat and, 65, 68-70, 80 fluid losses and, 12 and gastrointestinal functioning, 77 and heat transfer, 6-7, 12, 68-70 hepatic, 71 skeletal muscle metabolism and, 65 skin, 68-70 see also Plasma/serum Body fat and environmental temperature, 190-191 and sweating, 94-95 Body mass, on NaCl diets during acclimatization, 250 Body temperature age and, 15 and appetite, 201, 203, 212-13 body weight and, 47 cephalic, 201, 298-299

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations clothing and, 12 environmental temperature and, 89 esophageal, 69 exercise in the heat and, 13-14, 56-58, 89, 90 evaporative heat loss and, 6-7, 65-68 fever, 203 and food intake control, 191, 201-202, 298 and gastrointestinal functioning, 11, 49, 79-80, 192 gender differences in, 13-14, 94 and hunger and satiety, 27-28 metabolic rate and, 56-58, 70 NaCl intake and, 260, 269 skin, 69, 212, 298 stress and, 28, 196-197 and sweat rates, 12, 67, 91, 96 see also Thermogenic effect of eating Body water avenues of loss and gain, 88-89 distribution, 87, 88 sweat rate, 89 Body weight below-normal, 28 body temperature and, 47 and caloric intake, 99, 100, 103 eating behavior and, 225-226, 230 environmental temperature and, 190-191, 195-196, 201, 298, 300 hypothalamic disturbances and, 192 light exposure and loss of, 205 MRE intake and loss in, 216, 218-219 NaCl diet and, 257 seasonal variation in, 202, 205 set point, 192-193, 195, 197, 202, 208, 298 Burning foot syndrome, 145 C Caffeine, 35, 175, 176 Calcium, 24 exercise and absorption of, 49 metabolism, 154, 156, 170 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 pantothenate, 148 Caloric intake acclimatization and, 19, 29-30, 45, 109 and B vitamin intake, 139-140, 159 body weight and, 99, 100, 103 clothing and, 101, 103 deficiency, 110, 111 eating conditions and, 220-224 environmental temperature and, 19-20, 98, 99, 101, 199-205, 300 exercise and, 19, 49, 101 and heat stress, 27 and metabolic rate, 99 from military rations, 215-216, 218-219 physical fitness and, 98 and protein intake, 19 seasonal changes in, 30 social eating and, 231-232 time of day and, 235 by troop and ration types, 102 and weight loss in hot climates, 30, 300 Capillary permeability, 77 Capsaicin, 25, 178-179, 184-185 Carbohydrate intakes acclimatization and, 29 body weight and, 100 chromium regulation of metabolism of, 119 deficiency, 110, 111, 112 environmental temperature and, 19-20, 98, 100, 101, 206, 300 intestinal absorption during exercise, 80-81 from MREs, 46-47 and nitrogen excretion, 111 percentage of calories provided by, 100 physical fitness and, 98 seasonal changes in preferences for, 206 thermic effects of, 198 thiamin and, 139, 140 by troop and ration types, 102 and vitamin B6, 145 vitamin B12 and, 146 World War I requirements, 5 Cardiac diseases, magnesium and, 125

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Cardiovascular performance dehydration and, 68 heat stress and, 59, 61, 68-70, 71 hypohydration and, 13 water and, 87 Carnitine, 149 Carotenoids, 154; see also Vitamin A Carpopedal spasms, 125 Catecholamines, 149 Cellular oxidation, 141 Ceruloplasmin, 125, 126 Chloride in electrolyte-carbohydrate beverages, 23 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Chromium deficiency, 119-120 exercise and, 23 intakes, 119 metabolic functions of, 119 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 research needs on, 120 sweat losses of, 23, 120 urinary excretions, 119 Chronic fatigue syndrome, 125 Cimetidine, 76 Citric acid, 175, 177 Climate and body weight set point, 195-196 energy expenditure and, 105 humidity, 196 and physique, 194-195 see also Acclimatization; Temperature (environmental) Clothing and caloric intake, 99, 101 and sweat rates, 12, 65, 67 Collagen biosynthesis, 149 Committee's task, 3-4 Constipation, 33-34 Copper deficiency, 124 intakes, 127 metabolism, exercise and heat and, 125-127 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 plasma and tissue concentrations, 127 sweat losses of, 24, 127 zinc intake and, 24, 124 Cortisol, 150 Cyanocobalamin, see Vitamin B12 Cytochrome oxidase, 126 Cytokines, vitamin E supplementation and, 167 D Dehydration age and, 15 and arginine-vasopressin, 269-270 and constipation, 33-34 defined, 68 and electrolyte loss, 16 and food intake, 28, 36, 47-48, 298 and gastrointestinal functioning, 49, 76 gender and, 13 and heart rate, 12-13 heat stress and, 13 life-threatening fluid loss, 12, 87 and lipid peroxidation, 158 sweat rate and, 12, 36, 68, 71 Diarrhea, 77, 81, 89 Diet, elemental semihydrolyzed, 81 Dietary deficiencies, 110-113 Digestion, see Gastrointestinal functioning 2, 3–Diphosphoglycerate synthesis, 135 E Eating patterns and body weight, 191, 225-226 brain temperature and, 27 environmental temperature and, 200 factors affecting, 24-31, 35, 46 humans, 199-200 meal shifts and duration, 35, 230 nonhumans, 200-202 social/psychological aspects of, 34-35, 229-233 and thermoregulation, 26, 189, 192-198 tobacco use and, 35 see also Food intake Electrolyte balance and fluid requirements, 15-16, 49 and food preferences, 180

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations intestinal absorption, 81 NaCl diet and, 254 and performance capacity, 15-16 Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverages, 23, 81, 82 Endotoxemia, 77, 78, 79, 81 Endotoxin, 203 Endurance athletes/runners, 77, 119, 121, 123, 146 B complex supplementation and, 148 fatty acid mobilization and, 143 gender and, 13-14 mineral losses and, 24, 117, 119-120 nitrogen losses and, 111 Energy expenditure climate and, 105 submaximal exercise and, 103-107 Energy needs and intakes B vitamins and, 20, 140, 143, 159 MRDAs and RDAs, 8-9 working in the heat and, 49 see also Caloric requirements Energy production, vitamins and, 20-21, 141 Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire, 278, 288 Epileptic-type convulsions in, 125 Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Erythrocyte enzyme stimulation test, 139 glutathione reductase activity, 141 Exercise in the heat acclimatization and, 62-63 acute, 144, 157 and appetite, 190 and caloric requirements, 101 chronic, 141, 150-151 cycling, 60, 63, 64, 69, 85, 104, 108, 118, 140, 144, 145-146, 157 and electrolyte balance, 16 and energy expenditure, 103-107 and energy requirements, 49 gender and, 13 and glucose levels, 64, 71 and glycogen utilization, 64 intensity and training, 90-91, 106 and intestinal absorption, 80-81 jogging, 141 and lactate levels in plasma or muscle, 61-62, 64-65 and lipid peroxidation, 21, 46, 118 and metabolism, 6, 7, 13, 58-68, 71 mild, 81 and mineral metabolism and requirements, 117-118 and niacin requirements, 143 oxygen uptake response to, 62, 64, 79, 104 physiological responses to, 6-11, 55-71 prolonged high-intensity, 67, 127 and respiratory exchange ratio, 61-62 riboflavin requirements, 142 running, see Runners and serum ferritin, 23 skin blood flow and circulatory response, 68-70, 80 stair-stepping, 62, 63 strenuous, 117, 119 submaximal, 7, 13, 61, 62, 64, 71, 103-107 sustained, 47 swimming, 144, 157 temperature (core) responses to, 56-58 thermogenic effects, 197 thiamin requirements, 139 treadmill, 60, 63, 79-80, 90, 91, 104, 140, 141, 142, 144, 148, 155 and triglyceride utilization, 64 and urine and sweat urea, 112-113 walking, 105, 111, 141, 142 and water requirements, 67, 81, 90-91 see also Runners F Fat (dietary) intakes body weight and, 100 deficiency, 110, 111 environmental factors and preferences for, 26, 28, 29

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations environmental temperature and, 98, 100, 101, 300 and heat stress, 27, 46-47, 298 MRE content, 46-47 organoleptic changes in hot environments, 47 percentage of calories provided by, 100 physical fitness and intakes, 98 preferences for, 198 thermic effects of, 198 by troop and ration types, 102 vitamin B12 and, 146 World War I requirements, 5 Fat-soluble vitamins functions, 154 requirement for hot environments, 21 storage/retention, 154 see also individual vitamins Fatty acid antioxidant, 156 metabolism, 138-139 mobilization, 143 oxidation, 142 synthesis, 147 Fever, and appetite, 203 Flavor defined, 174 food temperature and, 204 research needs on perceptions of, 181 Fluid intakes age and, 14-15 electrolyte balance and, 15-16 and food intake, 47-48 gender and, 13-14, 33-34 palatability of water and, 34 recommendations, 50 requirements for hot environments, 11-16 see also Water requirements Fluids avenues of loss and gain, 12, 88-89 determinants of losses, 87-88 electrolyte-carbohydrate beverages, 23 interstitial volume, 88 lost as sweat, 67-68 Fluoride MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Folate/folic acid deficiency, 146, 147 forms and functions, 147 and physical performance, 147 MRDAs and RDAs, 8-9, 159, 160 temperature and exercise effects of requirements, 20-21 supplementation, 147 sweat losses of, 138 see also Biotin Food and Agriculture Organization Committee on Caloric Requirements, 101 Vitamin B12 RDA, 21 Food Consumption Survey, 301 Food flavors chemical irritation/chemesthesis, 178-179 menthol, 185 spicy "hot," 178-179, 185-185 tactile perception, 175, 178 see also Olfaction; Taste Food intakes accessibility of food and, 226 acclimatization and, 28, 29-30, 48, 109 in battle situations, 31-32, 52 cephalic effect, 28, 192 and constipation, 33-34 constraints on, 225-229 cost aspects of food availability and, 226 defined, 26, 188-189 and dehydration, 28, 36, 47-48, 298 eating conditions and, 218-224 environmental concerns, 33 and environmental temperature, 26-27, 33, 187, 199-205, 297-298 factors influencing, 25-26, 47, 50 field observations of, 33-36 fluid intake and, 47-48 food temperature and, 25, 26, 197-198 gastrointestinal effect, 28, 192 and hyperthermia, 27, 47, 191, 193, 201, 298 ice cream, 206 NaCl intake and, 299 nutrition understanding and, 35

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations observational data on, 299-301 osmotic factors in, 299 palatability and, 109, 173-175, 198 preferences in hot environments, 26, 29-31, 34, 46, 48, 181, 184-185 , 198, 204-205 psychological factors in, 181 recommendations for improving, 50 research needs, 51 and salivary flow, 179 seasonal changes in, 30-31, 47 situational influences on, 31-32, 224-236 social factors in, 32, 34-35, 229-233 stress and, 28-29, 36, 47 surveys of troops, 99 tactile perception and, 25, 175, 178, 198 taste and, 173-177, 198 thermogenic effects of, 27-28, 31, 189, 190, 204-205 thermostatic theory of, 298 time of day and, 233-236, 240-241, 242, 243 Free radicals, 156, 158 G Gastrointestinal functioning aspirin use and, 76 body temperature and, 11, 28, 49 dehydration and, 49 food intake and, 28 food temperature and, 204 gastric emptying, 11, 49, 79-80, 202, 204 heat stress and, 49, 75-82 hemorrhage and intestinal ischemia, 76-77 importance of manifestations with exercise-heat stress, 76-79 intestinal absorption, 11, 75, 80-81, 85 intestinal motility, 11, 49, 80 iron supplements and, 121 prevention and management of distress, 81-82 research needs on, 51 sampling methods, 85 symptoms of distress, 11, 76, 81 vitamin C and, 76, 81, 170-171 Gender and acclimation to heat, 13-14 and body temperature, 94 and body water, 87 and endurance, 13-14 and fluid intakes, 13-14, 33-34 and fluid requirements, 14-15, 91-92 and food preferences, 26, 185 hormonal responses to low-salt diets, 274-275 and metabolism, 196 and MRDAs, 8-9 and sweat rates, 13-14, 16, 91-92, 93, 94 and thermoregulation, 91-92, 196 Gla-protein, 156 Gluconeogenesis, 143, 144 Glucose beverages, gastric emptying of, 80 hepatic, 64, 71 metabolism, 138-139 serum, during exercise in the heat, 64 tolerance, 119 Glutathione peroxidase synthesis, 118 status, 155 Glycogen depletion, 19, 112 phosphorylase, 144 sparing effects, 65 synthesis, 147 utilization during exercise, 65 Glycogenolysis, 13 Glycolysis, 64, 142 H H2 blockers, 81 Heart rate dehydration and, 12-13 heat stress and, 70, 89, 90 NaCl intake during acclimation trials and, 252, 260, 269 see also Cardiovascular performance Heat acclimatization, see Acclimatization

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Heat cramps, 252, 255 Heat exhaustion, 18, 149, 248, 252, 254, 255, 278, 288 Heat illness diet construction for study of, 293 evaluation of overall index of subjective feelings, 286-288, 292 method of study, 278-279, 291 procedure for studying, 279 questionnaire, 278, 288 subjects in study, 278-279 tabulation of symptoms, 279-286 Heat loss convective/radiative, 68-70 evaporative, 65, 67-68, 70, 89 mechanisms, 6-7, 11, 55-56 metabolic rate and, 56 physique and, 28 see also Sweating Heat shock, 151 Heat stress acute, determinants, 11, 12, 28 and cardiovascular performance, 59, 61, 68-70, 71 and food intake, 27, 28-29, 298 and gastrointestinal functioning, 49, 75-82, 85 gender differences in response to, 13-14 and lipid peroxidation, 158 and metabolic rate, 58-64 muscular exercise and, 56 and oxygen uptake, 59, 106 and skeletal muscle metabolism, 64-65 thermoregulation and, 7 and vitamin B12 status, 147 vitamin C and, 152-153 and weight loss, 298 Heat stroke, 12, 77, 79, 151-152, 252 Heat syncope, 248, 252, 255 Hematopoiesis, 138, 143 Hot tabs, 34, 228, 229 Humidity, 12, 196, 207 Hunger body temperature and, 298 defined, 26, 188, 299 research needs on, 52 stress and, 29, 197 Hydration importance of, 48, 70 recommendations, 50 and weight loss in hot climates, 30 Hyperphagia, 193, 203 Hypertension, 247 Hyperthermia environmental temperature and, 57 fever, 203 food intake and, 27, 47, 191, 193, 201, 298 and mucosal lesions, 77 psychogenic, 196 skin and muscle blood flow and, 70 sweat losses during, 12, 24 temperature of food and, 198 Hypohydration and cardiovascular performance, 13 and gastric emptying, 80 physical exercise and, 16 and undernutrition, 110 Hyponatremia, 291 Hypoxia, 52, 64, 77, 158 Hypozincemia, 123 I Immune response, 24, 154 Injury prevention, 149, 151 Interleukin-1, 167, 203 Interleukin-6, 122 Iodide, sweat losses of, 23 Iodine intakes, 118 metabolism, exercise and heat and, 118 MRDAs and RDAs, 8-9, 118 sweat losses of, 118 Iodized salt, 118 Iron deficiency, 23, 120-121 metabolism, exercise and heat and, 120-121 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 supplements, 23, 120-121 sweat losses of, 120, 121 and zinc absorption, 23, 121 Ischemic enteropathy, 77, 79

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations K Kanamycin, 79 Ketosis, 112 Krebs cycle, 145, 147 L Lactate levels, plasma or muscle, 13, 61, 64-65, 66, 146, 157, 158 Light, and appetite, 205 Lipid peroxidation, 21, 46, 118, 156, 157, 158, 159 metabolism, 119 Low-salt diets acclimation and work in the heat, 262, 268 and aldosterone biosynthesis and release, 260, 263, 264-265, 268, 272-273 and arginine-vasopressin, 260, 263, 267, 268, 269-270 blood sampling, 262-263 and body temperature, 269 design of study, 261 and heart rate, 269 methodology for study of, 261-263 and plasma renin activity, 260, 263, 266-267, 268, 269, 272-273 radioimmunoassays, 263 statistical analysis, 263 subjects, 261 and urinary sodium excretion, 265, 269 M Macronutrients, see Caloric requirements; Protein Magnesium, 24 deficiency, 125, 135 and 2, 3-Diphosphoglycerate synthesis, 135 erythrocyte uptake, 135 lymphocyte uptake of, 134 metabolism, exercise and heat and, 124-125 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 sweat losses of, 24, 124 and work capacity, 125 Manganese MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Metabolism acclimatization and, 11, 59, 61, 63, 108 anaerobic, 61-62, 64, 71, 106 basal, 109-110 and body temperature, 56-58, 70 and caloric intake, 99 environmental temperature and, 60, 89, 110 evaporative heat loss, 6, 65-68 exercise in the heat and, 6, 7, 13, 56, 58-68, 90, 104, 107 gender differences in, 196 and heat stress, 58-61, 71 and lactate levels in plasma or muscle, 61 light and, 205 rate, 6, 7, 11, 13, 55, 56, 58-64, 70, 89, 90 and respiratory exchange ratio, 61-62 resting, and dietary-induced thermogenesis, 13, 109-110 skeletal muscle, 11, 55, 64-65 and sweating, 92 Metallothien, liver concentration, 23, 122 Military rations A-rations, 223-224 adequacy for hot environment, 46 acceptability to troops, 216-217, 221, 232, 234 all-environment, survival, 112 beverages, 34, 243 breakfast, 240-243 C rations, 243 caloric intake from, 215-216, 218-224 compatibility of foods in MREs, 34, 35, 46, 50 heating of, 227-229 intake determinants, 32, 47-48, 109 laboratory and field differences in intakes, 220-224, 300 meals, ready to eat (MREs), 32, 34-35, 46-47, 122-123, 216, 217, 220-223, 234, 274 menu composition, 216, 217, 234 nutrient intakes by type, 102

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations nutritional composition, 46-47, 50 on-the-go food items, 241, 242 operational, 17, 18, 22, 50, 122-124, 215-220, 225, 234, 236 recommendations, 35-36, 50 restricted, 17 sodium/salt in, 17, 18, 260, 274 T-rations, 35, 230-231 underconsumption problem, 215-216, 236 vitamin/mineral fortification, 22, 35-36 and weight loss, 215 zinc intake from, 123 Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs) adequacy for hot environments, 6, 22, 24, 36, 45, 46, 48 basis for, 20-21 comparison with other RDAs, 8-9, 20-21 current, 5-6, 307-327 history, 4-5 revision, 5 Minerals changes in requirements for hot environments, 22-24, 48-49, 127-128 deficiencies and food preferences, 180 and physical performance, 52, 117 research needs on, 52, 120, 127-128 supplements, 22, 117 sweat losses, 22, 36, 45, 117, 127 see also individual minerals Molybdenum MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Monosodium glutamate, 174 Morale, 35 Mucosal lesions, 77 Muscle building, 159 damage prevention, 155, 158, 167 lactate levels, 13, 61, 64-65, 66 glycogen utilization, 64, 143 soreness, 151, 158 triglyceride utilization, 64 Muscular activity and heat production, 11 N NaCl diets body mass (morning), 250, 257 and body temperature, 260 and heart rates, 260 methods for evaluating, 248-249 and physical performance, 252-254 plasma/serum volume changes during exercise in the heat, 252-254, 260 preexercise blood measurements, 250, 252 responses during heat acclimation trials, 252 and subjective reports of heat illness, 277-290 sweat rates, 252 urinalysis, 250, 251, 257 see also Low-salt diets Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 30 Neutrophil generation, 167 Niacin deficiency, 142 and energy metabolism, 20, 143, 159 exercise and, 142-143 forms and functions, 142, 143 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 overdose, 143 and physical performance reduction, 168 recommendations, 149, 159 status assessment, 142-143 sweat losses of, 138, 143 see also B complex vitamins Nicotinic acid, see Niacin Night blindness, 154 Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 79, 81; see also Aspirin Nuclear-biological-chemical protective clothing, 12, 65, 67 Nutrient intakes adequacy in hot climates, 31 functional indicators of status, 51 of North American ground troops, 102 research needs on, 51 seasonal changes and, 30

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Nutritional needs of troops Committee's task, 3-4 early appraisals, 97-103 evidence of changes for work in hot environments, 45-46 MRDA adequacy, 46 temperature changes in desert environments and, 48 World War I, 5 Nutrition understanding, 35 O Obesity, and sweating, 96 Olfaction and eating patterns, food preferences, and intakes, 24-26 environmental temperature and, 180 food temperature and, 204 Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, 3, 22, 32, 33, 34, 36, 46, 47, 48, 87, 113 Overtraining, 76 Oxygen uptake acclimation and, 105, 108 activity level and, 104 aerobic/anaerobic fractions during exercise, 105-106, 147 B complex vitamins and, 147-148 environmental temperature and, 104, 108 and heat illness symptoms, 292 heat stress and, 59, 62, 64, 79 as measure of vitamin supplementation effects, 167-168 pantothenic acid supplementation and, 146 physical fitness and, 108 during rest, 104 and sweating, 91 vitamin E and, 157, 158 P Pantothenic acid deficiency, 145 and exercise, 145-146 forms and functions, 145 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 supplementation, 146 sweat losses of, 138, 146 see also B complex vitamins Pellagra, 142 Phosphorus, 24 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 Physical fitness and nutrient intakes of troops, 98 and oxygen uptakes, 108 see also Aerobic fitness Physical performance at high altitudes, 157-158 hyperthermia and, 70 hypohydration and undernutrition and, 110 iron deficiency and, 23, 120 magnesium deficiency and, 125 NaCl diet and, 254 vitamin supplementation and, 137-138, 140, 141-142, 144, 146, 150, 154-155, 156, 157-158 see also Endurance Physiological changes from exercise in heat, 6-7 and food preferences, 180-181 gastrointestinal functioning, 11 from heat stress, 7, 11 Physique and acclimatization, 194-195 and heat loss, 28 Plasma renin activity, 260, 263, 266-267, 268, 269, 272-273 Plasma/serum aldosterone, 254, 255 beta-endorphin levels, 80 ceruloplasmin, 125 chromium levels, 23 ferritin levels, 23, 120-121 lactate levels, 64, 106, 146, 157, 158 osmolality, 95, 269 selenium levels, 23 volume changes during exercise in heat, 69, 82, 88, 95, 250, 252-254 , 260, 268, 273, 274 Potassium in electrolyte-carbohydrate beverages, 23 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 sweat losses of, 24

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Prickly heat, 153 Protein intakes acclimatization and, 29 body weight and, 100 caloric intakes and, 19, 100 changes in requirements for hot environments, 18-19, 45, 47, 112 deficiency, 110, 111, 112 environmental temperature and, 98, 100, 101, 205, 206, 298 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9, 45 physical fitness and, 98 seasonal changes in intakes, 30 sweat losses of nitrogen, 19 thermogenic effects of, 27, 198 by troop and ration types, 102 and urine volume required for excretion, 19, 89, 113 vitamin B6 and, 143, 145, 159 vitamin B12 and, 146, 170 World War I requirements, 5 Psychiatric disturbances, magnesium deficiency and, 125 Psychological factors, and food preferences, 181 Pyrexia, 18-19 Pyridoxine, see Vitamin B6 Pyrophosphate, 139 Q Quartermaster Climatic Research Laboratory, 99 R Rations, see Military rations RDAs MRDAs compared with, 8-9 for hot climates, 20-21 Recommendations acclimatization, 208 activity levels, 208 changes in MREs, 35-36, 50 delivery systems and feeding situations, 50, 236 food intakes, 50, 208 food preferences, 208 hydration, 50 practical, for working in hot environments, 208 vitamin intakes, 159-160 Research needs alliesthesia studies, 207-208 antioxidant vitamins for reduction of heat stress, 51, 158, 160 chromium studies, 120 effects of heat on appetite, 207-208, 301-302 factors that affect food intake, 51 flavor perception, 181-182 food intake under operational conditions, 52 functional indicators of nutritional status, 51 gastrointestinal function in heat, 51 metabolic effect of food intake, 52 mineral intake and physical performance, 52, 127-128 satiety signals in heat, 52 thermic effect of food, 207 Riboflavin deficiency, 141 and energy metabolism, 20, 141, 159 exercise and, 141-142 forms and functions, 20, 141 heat stress and, 142 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 recommendations, 149, 159 status assessment, 141 supplementation, 142 sweat losses of, 138, 142 see also B complex vitamins Rickets, 155, 156 Runners B complex vitamin supplementation, 148 chromium losses, 119 copper concentrations in, 126 diuretic-induced weight loss, 13 epileptic-type convulsions in, 125 gastrointestinal distress in, 76, 77, 85, 171 histological observations after maximal distance training run, 79 hyperthermia, 57 magnesium metabolism, 124 marathon, 124, 171

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations pantothenic acid supplementation, 146 sprint, 157 vitamin C supplementation, 171 vitamin E supplementation, 157-158 water requirements for, 67, 89, 90 S Salt, 175, 177 Satiety signal, 193-194, 198, 204, 298 social facilitation of eating and, 230 Scurvy, 149 Seasonal affective disorder, 205 Seasonal changes in appetite, 202 in body weight and composition, 202, 300 in food intakes, 30-31, 47, 300-301 and food preferences, 206-207, 301 in nutrient intakes, 30, 300-301 in thyroid activity, 206 Selenium, 23 chromium levels and, 23 intakes, 119 metabolism, exercise and heat and, 118-119 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 supplements, 118 sweat losses of, 119 Serotonin, 149 Serum, see Plasma/serum Skeletal muscle metabolism, 11, 64-65 Skiing, 139 Smokers, vitamin C requirements, 150 Sodium in electrolyte-carbohydrate beverages, 23 intakes, 247, 277 levels for work in heat, 16-18, 22-23 in military-dining-hall food, 17, 18 MRDAs and RDAs, 8-9, 16-17, 247-248 in rations, 17, 18 salicylate, 203 Surgeon General's recommended intakes, 16 sweat losses of, 22, 247, 254, 260, 277 see also Low-salt diets; NaCl diets Stress (psychic) and acute-phase response, 127 and appetite, 29, 197 and body temperature, 28, 196-197 environmental temperature and, 299 and food intake, 28-29, 36, 47 and hunger, 29, 197 intracellular oxidative, 126 MRE use and, 35 and nutrient intakes, 51, 111-112 research needs on, 51 and vitamin C, 150 and zinc absorption, 51, 123-124 see also Heat stress Sucrose, 175, 176 Superoxide dismutase activity, 126 Superoxide radicals, 77 Sweating acclimatization and, 16, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 108 aerobic capacity and, 91, 95 age and, 14-15, 16, 91-92, 93, 95 apparel and, 12, 65, 67 body fat and, 94-95, 96 body temperature and, 67, 90, 96 and dehydration, 12, 36, 68, 71 electrolyte losses through, 15 energy expenditure in, 103-104 environmental conditions and, 12, 25, 65, 71, 89-90 exercise and, 11, 12, 13, 16, 65, 67, 71, 89, 90 gender and, 13-14, 16, 91-92, 93, 94 gland fatigue, 89-90 and heat loss, 7, 11, 65, 67-68 humidity and, 12, 196 and metabolic rate, 92, 108 mineral losses through, 22-24, 117, 118, 120, 123, 127 NaCl diet and, 252 nitrogen losses, 19, 24, 110-111, 206 plasma volume and, 95-96 prediction of rates, 67, 92 rate, 12, 13, 16, 65, 67, 71, 89, 252

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations secretion rate, 11 sodium losses during exercise-heat exposure, 254, 260 vitamin losses through, 20, 137-138, 141, 142, 143, 145, 148, 151, 159 and water requirements, 65, 67 Sweets, environmental temperature and preference for, 29, 175, 198 Swimmers, 126, 144-145 T Taste defined, 173 environmental temperature and, 24-26, 198 sensations, 173-174, 176-177 Temperature (environmental) abrupt shifts in, 200 and appetite, 189-190, 199-207 and body weight/fat, 190-191, 195-196, 201 and caloric intake, 98, 99, 101 and energy expenditure, 103-104 and evaporative heat loss, 70 and food intake, 26-27, 33, 187, 199-205 and food preferences, 29, 30, 204-207, 301 and gastric emptying, 79-80, 202 heat, defined, 188 and hyperthermia, 57 and metabolic rate during exercise, 60, 62, 63, 103, 107, 110 and nutrient intake of troops, 98, 100, 102 and olfaction and taste, 24-25, 26 and oxygen uptake, 104, 106, 108 as satiety signal, 193-194 sensory effects of, 174-180 and taste, 24-26, 173-177 and thermal and circulatory responses, 69 and thiamin requirement, 140 see also Body temperature Thermogenic effects of food appetite and, 190, 199, 297 brown adipose tissue, 192, 193 cephalic phase, 28, 192 gastrointestinal phase, 28, 192, 202 research needs, 190, 207 resting metabolism and, 109-110 source of calories and, 27-28, 192, 198, 298 temperature of food and, 197-198, 204-205 Thermoregulation acclimatization and, 7, 16, 55 activity level and, 197 age and, 15 air conditioning and, 196 climatic adaptation and, 194-196 defined, 7, 189 eating and, 26-27, 31, 189, 192-198 and energy expenditures, 105-106 gender and, 91-92, 196 indices of, 7 internal mechanisms in, 297-298 iron deficiency and, 23, 121 physique and, 194-195 seasonal changes in, 202 set point, 196-197, 202, 203 skin blood flow and, 68-70, 105-106 Thiamin assessment of status, 139 and carbohydrate metabolism, 139 deficiency, 139, 140 and energy metabolism, 20, 140, 159 environmental temperature and requirements for, 140 and exercise performance, 139, 140 MRDAs and RDAs, 8-9, 139-140 recommendations, 149, 159 supplementation, 140 sweat losses of, 138, 141 see also B complex vitamins U Urinary excretion chromium, 23, 119 mineral losses, 22, 23, 119, 122, 127 nitrogen losses from, 110-111 obligatory volume, 89 plasma changes and, 22, 23 sodium, 254, 255, 265, 269 vitamin losses, 142, 144, 153-154, 168

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations volume required for protein excretion, 19, 89, 113 water intakes and, 88 of zinc, 122 U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory, 97 Medical Research Laboratory, 99 Natick Research Development and Engineering Center, 216 Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces, 97, 99 Quartermaster Research and Development Center, 99 Quartermaster Research and Development Command and Medical Nutrition Laboratory, 101 Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 99, 216, 223 V Vegetarians, 146, 170 Vitamin A antioxidant properties, 21, 154, 155 and exercise, 154-155 forms and functions, 154 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9, 21 research needs on, 160 seasonal changes in intakes, 30, 300-301 status assessment, 154 supplementation, 154-155, 160 Vitamin B1, see Thiamin Vitamin B2, see Riboflavin Vitamin B6 carbohydrate intake and, 145 deficiency, 144 and energy metabolism, 20, 159 exercise and, 144 forms and functions, 143-144 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 performance and, 145 protein intake and, 145, 159 recommendations, 149, 159 retention/storage, 144 status assessment, 144 supplementation, 144-145 sweat losses of, 138, 145 urinary excretion of, 144 see also B complex vitamins Vitamin B12 deficiency, 146, 169-170 forms and functions, 146-147 and heat stress, 147 MRDAs and RDAs, 8-9, 159, 160 and physical performance, 146 and protein intake, 146, 170 storage/retention, 138 supplementation, 146 temperature and exercise effects of requirements, 20-21 vitamin C and absorption of, 21, 147, 159, 169 see also B complex vitamins Vitamin C and acclimatization, 21, 48-49, 151-153, 159, 160, 169 antioxidant properties, 21, 51, 151, 155, 159, 160 and body temperature, 152 deficiency, 139, 149, 150-151, 153 exercise and, 150 functions, 139, 149 and gastrointestinal distress, 76, 81, 170-171 and heat stress, 21, 48-49, 151-153 and injury rate, 151 megadoses, 147 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9, 21 and muscle soreness, 151 and physical performance, 150 research needs on, 160 seasonal changes in intakes, 30, 300-301 smokers' requirements for, 150 status assessment, 149-150, 153 supplementation, 149, 150, 151, 152, 159, 160 sweat losses of, 138, 151 urinary excretion of, 153-154 and vitamin B12 absorption, 21, 147, 159, 169 see also B complex vitamins Vitamin D deficiency, 155, 170 and exercise performance, 156

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Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations forms and functions, 154, 155, 156, 159 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9, 21 requirements for hot environments, 21, 160 sources, 155, 156 status assessment, 155 Vitamin E age and, 167 antioxidant properties, 21, 155, 157, 158, 160 deficiency, 156, 157 exercise and, 157 forms and functions, 154, 156, 167 and heat stress, 158 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9, 21 and physical performance, 157-158 research needs, 158, 160 status assessment, 156-157 supplementation, 157, 167 Vitamin K, 138, 154 MRDAs vs RDAs, 10 Vitamins antioxidants, 21, 46 changes in requirements for hot environments, 20-22, 45-46, 48-49 deficiencies, 137, 180 effects of exercise and heat on, 36, 137-160 and energy production, 137, 138 supplementation and physical performance, 137-138, 168-169 sweat losses of, 20, 137-138 see also B complex vitamins; Watersoluble vitamins; individual vitamins W Water accessibility and intakes of, 226, 227 body weight composition, 87 daily intake/output values, 88 deficiency, 110, 111 evaporative losses, 88 fecal losses, 88-89 gastric emptying of, 80 intestinal absorption during exercise, 81, 82 intoxication, 291 and plasma arginine-vasopressin, 269 and plasma volume, 88 preferred temperature for drinking, 185 respiratory losses, 88 Water requirements age and, 92, 93 battlefield, 65 determinants of, 11-12, 87-88, 92 exercise intensity and training and, 45, 90-91 gender and, 91-92 heat acclimatization and, 91 hot-wet vs hot-dry environment, 89-90 prediction of, 92 recommendations, 92-93 for runners, 67 see also Fluid intakes Water-soluble vitamins functions, 138 retention, 138 see also B complex vitamins; individual vitamins Weber illusion, 178 Weight loss, cause in hot climates, 30, 31, 90, 91 World War I, nutrition surveys, 5 World War II, nutritional surveys, 215 Wound healing, 149, 151 Wrestlers, hypohydration-caused weight loss, 13 Z Zinc and copper absorption, 24, 124 intakes, 123 iron intake and absorption of, 23, 121 metabolism, exercise and heat and, 23-24, 121-124 metallothien-induced sequestration of, 23, 122 MRDAs vs RDAs, 8-9 and stress, 51, 123-124 superoxide dismutase activity, 126 supplements, 23-24, 124 sweat losses, 23, 123 urinary excretion of, 122, 123