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142 SElTlNG PRIORITIES FOR LAND CONSERVATION g~ ^ _ ,_ ~ CR ^ o Z pet ^ ~ U. e 3 ~ v Vet Q Cat Q A U. - PI o - a - 3 ID 6 o as 6 -, 3 Z ~ a o A: ca go V, 8 o Go U} U. l .~ m z - U, 0 ._ m ~s - - ~ c) .e o - :-:::::~: :::-:~:::::: .:::::~:~::::::: ^ ` --::~ v ~ ^ ~ ~-.~ :~ . ~ ~ ~ -o ~:.:~:~::: :-.:-:: ~ - ~ - . = _-> ~ 3 0: : . . : :U::::::::: V C~ 2~"'"" ~ V ~ ~ ~; g: ~ 3 C). ~ G ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ::: :;1:::::::::::::::: .. .......... ..~.................. .............. .............. .............. : : : ::: : ~ . ::ff::::::::::::::::: , C~ 00 C~ 00 g 0\ C~ o U. V

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144 SErllNG PRIORITIES FOR LA. CONSERVATION 1 t; _. YOU CO - CQ C) o ~ U. ~ o _-8 ~ o oat o ~ ._ ~ a " lo of 8 8 A 8 8 - U. ~ ...,;......................................... .~ ....... ~. q _ -, m . .... Cal ~.. _ . . . U) . ~..p - - - - :: ~ ~. ~ ~ ~.. ~.................................. = ............................................................................. ;~` 0 0 .0 q) Z.e ~ ~ g o~ 6 ~ V .o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ .^ a= ~ ~ ._ ~ ~ _ ~ U. toot LIZ ~ ~ C~ V) Us Cal 8 Cal Cal ~- a ~ o lo Q lo lo - lo Cal Can = o .c = -

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NOON 147 . . _ ., .....~.... .,.,~... _ ~ ~ 3 Al o ~ ~ 2 o ~ o j a ~ ~ ~ ~ =-' o^ o oo o lo ........ ........ ........ ........ ..... ; ;.;.;. :::::::: .,.,~..... jig .., - . _ : a,::: . ~ ...... .~2..2 v :-.~3::: ~ , . .~. . ,, - . I. at, ;. . '_ I... ~ .....~.. ~ ._ ,. ~ ' 3 ...,$...= .. ... . lo, . . ........ .......... ....... ..~... o .-,.-.-. g ... - o ..,~,,,,.= ........ ::::::::::::::: ........ ........ ::::::::::::::: ........ ::::::::::::::: ........ . ........ lo,. . . o ~1. Q .m o ....~. _ =. o ~ ~C) ........ ........ ........ ........ .............. :::::::: :::::::: ..~. A .,u=',,.,, g . ~. ^ ..,v,,,.. :::::::: .............. ....... ....... ....... ..... :::::::: :::::::: .............. ............ ;. :::::::: .,~...,.m ~ .. to .--,... .; ;;. :::::::: :::::::: ::;::::: :::::::: :::::::: :::::::: ;.^ . - , :~::: ::~::: ., hi, . .,, I.,.,,, a< , !~ pal . 5;. . . - ,. .,..m,,.,. a' :: o::: . I,.. ., I.,... id, ...... .. . _ .. . .~. . . , . . ~~ . . _ :.&~:::.: CO ~ o ~ ._ _' a! - ~ ~4 ~ o o o c~ o o o - 4 o - ~a .t ~- 2 (Q:' "'" " ':.2 2 ' :.' U'

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148 SETTING PRIORITIES FOR LAND CONSERVATION 3~8 OCR for page 139

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152 SEl-llNG PRIORITIES FOR LAND CONSERVATION DU participates in Me implementation of NAWMP, which involves grassroots partnerships to protect private and public lands. Table 6-1 is a list of current NAWMP projects; DU is a partner in most of them. Each potential site identified by DU is visited by a DU biologist. For each habitat project considered, an evaluation identifies the following: Type of habitat and acreage involved; Waterfowl and other wetland wildlife species expected to benefit; Type of development and enhancement activities; Long-term management objectives as well as operations and man- agement techniques to be used; Biological considerations, e.g., average water depth to be main- tained, plant types and distribution, proximity of nesting cover to the wetland, anticipated nesting success, surrounding land use, waterfowl abundance, probability of disease outbreaks, uniqueness of habitat, importance to endangered species, and frequency of hunting in the area; Public relations values, including proximity to population centers, importance to members, and potential for fundraising; Other considerations, such as cost effectiveness, conformance with NAWMP, and cooperators in the project; Estimated cost, sources of funding, type of acquisition, and term of agreement if fee-simple acquisition is not involved. The prominent acquisition devices used by DU are the purchase of fee-simple title and Me purchase or donation of an easement. However, DU is not committed to the exclusive use of any particular device. According to DU, fee-simple title acquisition of land should be used to purchase Be most environmentally sensitive areas where no other com- parable habitat remains and to purchase core areas or key tracts of land in an otherwise larger area of enhancement and preservation. DU recognizes that neither the public nor private sector has sufficient fiends to purchase all the habitat deemed essential. Furthermore, contin- uing expenses are associated wig managing the land once it is acquired. For these and over reasons, DU uses conservation easements as well as outright purchase. DU invests in the enhancement and preservation of critical habitats owned by others Trough matching aid to restore state habitats and pri- vate land programs. In these cases, DU requires a site-specific agree- ment or other appropriate contract.

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NONPROFIT ORGANIZAT70NS 155 information suggests a low chance of success, TNC might attempt pres- ervation, because extinction is permanent, and science often is wrong. Preserve Configuration and Justification The PS&D states that preserve~esign theory suggests that preserves should be as round as possible (to minimize edge) and connected by corridors to facilitate migration. But preserve shape and juxtaposition are difficult to control, because of ownership patterns and past habitat disturbance. If an EO does become extinct on a preserve, TNC will consider reintroduction from elsewhere. Usually, tracts available for preserves are much smaller than desirable preserve size, but accumulating several unconnected tracts containing rare EO's might reduce the probability of extinction, because if local extinctions occur, reintroductions are possible. Opinion on He value of corridors varies. The concept is not well defined, according to a member of the TNC board of directors (Stol- zenburg, 1991), and corridors are considered an inadequate substitute for suitable habitat. SimberIoff and Cox (1987) point out also that corridors can provide access for parasites, predators, pests, fire, and poachers. Noss and Harris (1986) are strong advocates of corridors, and Stol- zenburg (1991) described three studies that demonstrate the efficacy of corridors for maintaining populations: Harper in Brazil found Hat corri- dors are essential for maintaining antbirds in patches of jungle, Bennet in Australia discovered that corridors provide transportation and a con- dun' for gene exchange, and Merriam in Canada found that woodIots connected by wooded fencerows demonstrate a continual process of extinction and recolonization by small mammals and birds (Sto~zenburg, 1991~. Some TNC conservation efforts have incorporated corridors. Merrill Lynch (INC, Norm Carolina) designed He corridor in the 30,000-acre Pinhook Swamp reserve in northern Florida that was a cooperative effort between TNC and the Forest Service. Lynch is planning a multicorri- dored project 436,000 acres of the Alligator River Wildlife Refuge (in collaboration with He Fish and Wildlife Service, TNC, and The Conser- vation Fund) targeted for black bear and red wolf protection (Sto~zen- burg, 1991~. And TNC's The Last Great Places" initiative clearly is

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