References

BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) 1989 Employment Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975–1989. Bulletin 2339. October. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Bowen, William G., and Julie Ann Sosa 1989 Prospects for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences: A Study of Factors Affecting Demand and Supply. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Braddock, Douglas J. 1992 Scientific and technical employment, 1990–2005. Monthly Labor Review (February 1992):28-41.

Bureau of the Census 1989 Projections of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex, and Race, 1988 to 2080. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1018 (Series 18 Supplement). January. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

1990 United States Population Estimates, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1045. January. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Burrelli, Joan 1991 Supply and Demand for Chemists. Unpublished report to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, December 10, Washington, D.C.


Campbell, Alan K., and Linda S. Dix, eds. 1990 Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.



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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government References BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) 1989 Employment Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975–1989. Bulletin 2339. October. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Bowen, William G., and Julie Ann Sosa 1989 Prospects for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences: A Study of Factors Affecting Demand and Supply. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Braddock, Douglas J. 1992 Scientific and technical employment, 1990–2005. Monthly Labor Review (February 1992):28-41. Bureau of the Census 1989 Projections of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex, and Race, 1988 to 2080. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1018 (Series 18 Supplement). January. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1990 United States Population Estimates, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1045. January. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Burrelli, Joan 1991 Supply and Demand for Chemists. Unpublished report to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, December 10, Washington, D.C. Campbell, Alan K., and Linda S. Dix, eds. 1990 Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government 1990 New Thinking and American Defense Technology. August. New York: Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. CBO (Congressional Budget Office) 1986 Employee Turnover in the Federal Government. February. Washington, D.C. 1990 Federal White-Collar Pay Reform: Costs and Financing. September. 1991 Changing the Classification of Federal White-Collar Jobs: Potential Management and Budgetary Impacts. July. Connors, Edward A. 1991 Unpublished report to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, December 10, Washington, D.C. CSC (Civil Service Commission) 1972 Report of the Job Evaluation and Pay Review Task Force to the Civil Service Commission. Czujiko, R., and B. G. Silbernagel 1991 1990 faculty workforce survey. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 36(June): 1723–1731. Ellis, Susanne D., and Patrick J. Mulvey 1990 Employment Survey 1989. AIP Pub. No. R-282.13. November. New York: American Institute of Physics. 1991 Employment Survey 1990. AIP Pub. No. R-282.14. November. New York: American Institute of Physics. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 1990 ORD Workforce '89. March. Report No. RD-674. Office of Research Development, EPA. Washington, D.C. Falk, Charles E. 1991 Quantitative inputs to federal technical personnel management. Pp. 95–109 in Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, Alan K. Campbell and Linda S. Dix, eds. Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Finn, Michael G. 1991 Personnel shortage in your future?: Engineers and scientists will be in short supply, several projections say, but education and economics could change the outlook. Research Technology Management (January–February):24-27. GAO (General Accounting Office) 1987 Federal Workforce: Pay, Recruitment, and Retention of Federal Employees. February 10. GAO/GGD-87-37. 1988 Federal Personnel: Observations on the Navy's Personnel Management Demonstration Project. May 3. GAO/GGD-88-79. 1990a The Public Service: Issues Affecting Its Quality, Effectiveness, Integrity, and Stewardship. GAO/GGD-90-103. 1990b Federal Pay: Comparisons with the Private Sector by Job and Locality. May 15. GAO/GGD-90-81FS. 1990c Recruitment and Retention: Inadequate Pay Cited as Primary Problem by Agency Officials. September 11. GAO/GGD-90-117. 1990d Federal Recruiting and Hiring: Making Government Jobs Attractive to Prospective Employees. August 22. GAO/GGD-90-105. 1991a Federal Pay: Private Sector Salary Differences by Locality. April 29. GAO/GGD-91-63FS. 1991b NASA Personnel: Shortages of Scientists and Engineers Due to Retirements Unlikely in the 1990s. June 17. GAO/NSIAD-91-185. 1991c Federal Recruiting and Hiring: Authority for Higher Starting Pay Useful But Guidance Needs Improvement. September 10. GAO/GGD-91-22. Gressle, Sharon S. 1990 Federal Government General Schedule Salary Increases Compared with Index Data. March 8. 90-134 GOV. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Harris, Patricia A. 1991 Computer Specialists in Federal Agencies: Study of Quality-Related Factors (1990). June. Personnel Research and Development Report Number WQR 91-02. Washington, D.C.: Office of Personnel Management. IDA (Institute for Defense Analyses) 1990 Study II of Scientists and Engineer on the DoD Laboratories. July. IDA Paper P-2589, prepared for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition (Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering (Research and Advanced Technology). Alexandria, Va.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Institute of Medicine 1988 A Healthy NIH Intramural Program: Structural Change or Administrative Remedies? Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Laurent, Anne 1991 Pay reform rules waive the ban on "double dippin." Federal Times . February 25:3, 17. Levine, Arnold S. 1982 Managing NASA in the Appollo Era. NASA Special Publication 4102. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Mahan, Clarence E. 1990 Letter to Alan Fechter, Executive Director, Office of Science and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council, from Clarence E. Mahan, Director, Office of Research Program Management, EPA, Washington, D.C. April 11. McClure, Donald E. 1991 1990 annual AMS/MAA survey (second report). Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 38(May/June):411-419. Millburn, George P. 1989 Recruitment and Retention of DoD Scientists and Engineers. August 16. Paper presented at Personnel Research Conference by the Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering (Research and Advanced Technology). Washington, D.C. MSPB (Merit Systems Protection Board) 1989a The Senior Executive Service: Views of Former Federal Executives . October. 1989b Who Is Leaving the Federal Government? An Analysis of Employee Turnover. August 23. 1990 Why Are Employees Leaving the Federal Government? Results of an Exit Survey. May. 1991 The Title 38 Personnel System in the Department of Veterans Affairs: An Alternate Approach. April. NAPA (National Academy of Public Administration) 1986 The Quiet Crisis of the Civil Service: The Federal Personnel System at the Crossroads. December. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration. 1990 Alternative Personnel Systems: Antidote or Fragmentation. Unpublished abstract of a symposium held by the National Academy of Public Administration. September 26.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government 1991 Modernizing Federal Classification: An Opportunity for Excellence . Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration. National Academy of Sciences 1992 Science and Technology Leadership in American Government: Ensuring the Best Presidential Appointments. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Commission on the Public Service (Volcker Commission) 1989a Leadership for America: Rebuilding the Public Service. Vol. 1, The Report of the National Commission on the Public Service. Washington, D.C. 1989b Leadership for America: Rebuilding the Public Service. Vol. 2, Task Force Reports to the National Commission on the Public Service . Washington, D.C. NRC (National Research Council) 1991 Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing Their Numbers in the 1990s. Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NSB (National Science Board) 1989 Science & Engineering Indicators—1989. NSB 89-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1991 Science & Engineering Indicators—1991. NSB 91-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. NSF (National Science Foundation) 1989 Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1988. NSF 89-322. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1991 Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989. Unpublished statistical tables, Division of Science Resources Studies. OGE (Office of Government Ethics) 1991a Participation in Professional Associations. Memorandum from Stephen Potts, Director, Office of Government Ethics, to Designated Agency Ethics Officials, General Counsels, and Inspectors General. December 9. 1991b Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch. Federal Register, 56(July 23):33811. OMB (Office of Management and Budget) 1993 A Vision of Change for America. February 17. Executive Office of the President.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government OPM (Office of Personnel Management) 1988a Civil Service 2000. Prepared for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Career Entry Group, by the Hudson Institute (William B. Johnston and others). June. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1988b Turnover in the Navy Demonstration Laboratories, 1980–1985. Management Report XI: Evaluation of the Navy Personnel Management Demonstration Project. December. R&D Division, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. 1988c Effects of Performance-Based Pay on Employees in the Navy Demonstration Project: An Analysis of Survey Responses 1979 to 1987. Management Report XII: Evaluation of the Navy Personnel Management Demonstration Project. December. R&D Division, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. 1989a Federal White-Collar Pay System: Report on a Market-Sensitive Study. August. Office of Pay and Performance, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. Washington, D.C. 1989b Research Report I, Framework and Operation of the Government's White Collar Pay System, in Supplement, Federal White-Collar Pay System: Report on a Market-Sensitive Study, Research Reports I through IX. August. Office of Pay and Performance, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. 1989c Research Report II, A Brief History of Market-Sensitive Pay Reform, in Supplement, Federal White-Collar Pay System: Report on a Market-Sensitive Study, Research Reports I through IX. August. Office of Pay and Performance, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. 1989d Research Report III, Federal Employee Turnover Study, in Supplement, Federal White-Collar Pay System: Report on a Market-Sensitive Study, Research Reports I through IX. August. Office of Pay and Performance, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. 1989e Research Report VII, Study of Pay Systems in Federal Agencies Exempt from General Schedule, in Supplement, Federal White-Collar Pay System: Report on a Market-Sensitive Study, Research Reports I through IX. August. Office of Pay and Performance, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. 1989f Occupations of Federal White-Collar and Blue-Collar Workers: Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics. September 30. Office of Workforce Information, OPM.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government 1990 Second Annual Evaluation Report: National Institute of Standards and Technology Personnel Management Demonstration Project. August. PSO-220. Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, Research and Demonstration Division, OPM. 1991a U.S. Office of Personnel Management Demonstration Projects. September 23. One-page profiles of each project. 1991b Recruitment of Scientists and Engineers in Four Navy Laboratories. Management Report XIV for the Navy Personnel Management Demonstration Project. OS91-3, August. Office of Systems Innovation and Simplification, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. OSTP (Office of Science and Technology Policy) 1983 Report of the White House Science Council Federal Laboratory Review Panel—May 1983. May. Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. PHS (Public Health Service) 1989 Recruitment and Retention: Scientific, Medical, and Engineering Positions. October. Office of Personnel Management, Public Health Service. Washington, D.C. Priest, Dana 1991 More government workers are staying put. Washington Post, November 27:A15. Reck, Martin, and Walter G. Mann 1991 Scientists and Engineers in Civilian Agencies: Study of Quality-Related Factors (1990). March. Personnel Research and Development Report Number WQR 91-01. Washington, D.C.: Office of Personnel Management. Rosenthal, Douglas, Margaret Barton, Douglas Reynolds, and Beverly Dugan 1991 Third Annual Evaluation Report: National Institute of Standards and Technology Personnel Management Demonstration Project. Final Report 91-13, October 1. Alexandria, Va.: HumRRO International, Inc. Schay, Brigitte W., K. Craig Simons, Evelyn Guerra, and Jacqueline Caldwell In press. Broad Banding in the Federal Government: Technical Report . Office of Systems Innovation and Simplification, Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. Silvestri, George, and John Lukasiewicz 1991 Outlook 1990–2005: Occupational employment projections. Monthly Labor Review (November 1991):64–94.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government U.S. Congress 1989 [Testimony by NASA Administrator.] February. Wyatt Company 1989 Study of Federal Employee Locality Pay. July. Sponsored by Personnel Systems and Oversight Group, OPM. Washington, D.C.