A
Members of the Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government

Alan K. ''Scotty'' Campbell, panel vice chairman, is Visiting Executive Professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He was Vice Chairman of the Board and Executive Vice President of ARA Services, Inc. (1980–1990), where he continues as a member of the Board. Dr. Campbell was named Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) when it was established in January 1979. Prior to that he was Chairman of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, where he led the effort to pass the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, which created OPM and the Senior Executive Service. Before entering government, he was Dean of the Lyndon Baines Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas and Dean of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. Dr. Campbell is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration.

Stephen J. Lukasik, panel vice chairman, is retired Vice President for Technology at the TRW Space and Defense Sector. Before TRW, he was at the Xerox, Rand, and Northrop Corporations. A physicist, he was Deputy Director and Director of the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1967–1974, where he was twice awarded the Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal. Subsequently, Dr. Lukasik was Chief Scientist at the Federal Communications Commission, 1979–1982, where he was responsible for management of nongovernment use of the radio spectrum.

Ernest Ambler is Director Emeritus, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (1978–1989). Dr. Ambler, a physicist, had served at NIST since 1953, becoming head of the Institute of Basic Standards



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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government A Members of the Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government Alan K. ''Scotty'' Campbell, panel vice chairman, is Visiting Executive Professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He was Vice Chairman of the Board and Executive Vice President of ARA Services, Inc. (1980–1990), where he continues as a member of the Board. Dr. Campbell was named Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) when it was established in January 1979. Prior to that he was Chairman of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, where he led the effort to pass the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, which created OPM and the Senior Executive Service. Before entering government, he was Dean of the Lyndon Baines Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas and Dean of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. Dr. Campbell is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration. Stephen J. Lukasik, panel vice chairman, is retired Vice President for Technology at the TRW Space and Defense Sector. Before TRW, he was at the Xerox, Rand, and Northrop Corporations. A physicist, he was Deputy Director and Director of the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1967–1974, where he was twice awarded the Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal. Subsequently, Dr. Lukasik was Chief Scientist at the Federal Communications Commission, 1979–1982, where he was responsible for management of nongovernment use of the radio spectrum. Ernest Ambler is Director Emeritus, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (1978–1989). Dr. Ambler, a physicist, had served at NIST since 1953, becoming head of the Institute of Basic Standards

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government in 1968 and Deputy Director in 1973. He has received many awards and honors, including the President's Award for Distinguished Civilian Service (1979). William M. Kaula is Professor of Geophysics and Chair, Departments of Geophysics & Space Physics and Earth & Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (1963–). He has served at the Army Map Service as Chief, Division of Geodosy (1957–1960), at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center as a research scientist (1960–1963), and at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as Chief, National Geodetic Survey (1984–1987). Dr. Kaula is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Howard M. Messner is Executive Vice President of the American Consulting Engineers Council. He was in the federal service from 1962 to 1987, holding positions at NASA, Office of Management and Budget, Congressional Budget Office, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). He was Assistant Director for Management Improvement and Evaluation at OMB (1977–1983), DOE Comptroller (1983) and Assistant Administrator for Administration and Resources Management at EPA (1983–1987). Mr. Messner is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration. Janet L. Norwood is Senior Fellow at The Urban Institute, where she works on labor market and statistical policy issues. Dr. Norwood was Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for three four-year terms (1979–1991), appointed by presidents of both parties. She served under six secretaries of the Department of Labor (DOL) and received many honors and awards, including the Presidential Rank Award as a member of the Senior Executive Service, the National Public Service Award, and DOL's highest honor, the Philip Arnow award. She is a member of the National Institute of Statistical Science and of the National Academy of Public Administration. Alan Schriesheim is Director of the Argonne National Laboratory and Professor of Chemistry at the University of Chicago (1984–). Before Argonne, he spent nearly 30 years at Exxon Research and Engineering,

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government where he held a number of technical management positions, including Director, Corporate Research, and General Manager of Engineering Technology. He was affiliated with the National Institute of Standards and Technology before joining Exxon in 1956. Dr. Schriesheim. is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Bruce L. R. Smith is Senior Staff member, Center for Public Policy Education, The Brookings Institution (1980–). A political scientist, he was a senior staff member of the Rand Corporation (1964–1966) and Professor of Political Science, Columbia University (1966–1979). Dr. Smith served in the government as Director, Policy Assessment, Bureau of Oceans, International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State (1979–1980).

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government B Statistics on Federal Scientists and Engineers This appendix consists of tables of statistics on federal government scientists and engineers. The data were taken from a series of reports produced by the Division of Science Resources Studies at the National Science Foundation (NSF). They were published annually through 1988. The 1989 report was drafted but not issued due to budgetary and staff shortages at NSF. More recent reports have not been attempted. The data for the NSF reports came directly from tapes of the central personnel data file of the Office of Personnel Management. They cover all civilians employed full time by the federal government (1) who are in one of the occupational series defined as science and engineering (as listed in Table B-2) and (2) who hold at least a bachelors degree (NSF, 1989:1–2). The tables are: B-1. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and by Sex, 1989 B-2. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and Series, 1988 and 1989 B-3. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Type of Work Activity, 1989 B-4. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and Scientific/Engineering Field, 1989 B-5. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Department and Agency, 1989 B-6. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and by Degree Level, 1989

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government TABLE B-1. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and by Sex, 1989 Occupational Group All Women Men TOTAL 223,343 32,803 190,539 Scientists 111,988 24,104 87,884 Physical sciences 26,556 3,940 22,616 Mathematics and statistics 9,668 2,322 7,346 Computer sciences 24,262 7,774 16,488 Life sciences 33,839 5,517 28,322 Social sciences 14,271 3,712 10,559 Psychology 3,392 839 2,553 Engineers 111,355 8,699 102,655 Industrial 3,080 447 2,633 Materials 1,253 174 1,079 Chemical and related 1,709 298 1,411 Civil engineering 18,404 1,755 16,649 Electrical and electronics 34,774 2,520 32,254 Mechanical and related 27,561 1,830 25,731 Other engineering 24,574 1,675 22,898   SOURCE: NSF, 1991.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government TABLE B-2. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and Series, 1988 and 1989 Occupational Group and Series 1988 1989 Change TOTAL 217,618 223,343 +2.6% Scientists 109,400 111,988 +2.4 Physical sciences 26,548 26,556 -* Astronomy and space sciences 471 475   Chemistry 7,331 7,269   General physical sciences 5,511 5,655   Geodosy 290 276   Geology 2,503 2,438   Geophysics 592 582   Hydrology 2,236 2,267   Metallurgy 345 294   Meteorology 2,067 2,134   Physics 3,839 3,798   Health physics 570 598   Oceanography 710 682   Textile technology 83 88   Mathematics and statistics 9,773 9,668 -1.1 Actuarial science 141 157   Mathematics 2,531 2,455   Mathematical statistics 989 969   Operations research 3,828 3,864   Statistics 2,284 2,223   Computer sciences 22,706 24,262 +6.9 Life sciences 33,152 33,839 +2.1 General biological sciences 5,308 5,570   Microbiology 1,908 1,933   Agricultural sciences 10,549 10,459     Agricultural extension 53 54     Agricultural management 3,516 3,532     Agronomy 325 327     Horticulture 103 99     Husbandry 111 112     Soil conservation 4,707 4,625     Soil science 1,734 1,710

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Occupational Group and Series 1988 1989 Change Animal sciences 1,312 1,336     Entomology 704 704     Physiology 502 526     Zoology 106 106   Plant sciences 1,957 2,022     Botany 162 167     Plant pathology 319 330     Plant physiology 334 340     Plant protection and quarantine 1,142 1,185   Forestry 5,755 5,819     Forestry 5,684 5,749     Forestry products technology 71 70   Fishery and wildlife 3,717 3,973     Fishery biology 1,369 1,486     General fish and wildlife admin. 181 192     Wildlife biology 1,600 1,742     Wildlife refuge management 567 553     Other life sciences 2,531 2,567     Food technology 267 293     Genetics 347 345     Pharmacology 400 385     Range conservation 1,153 1,140     Ecology 364 404     Toxicology 115 160   Social sciences 13,934 14,271 +2.4 Anthropological sciences 684 738     Archeology 638 688     General anthropology 46 50   Economics 5,509 5,475   Foreign agricultural affairs 189 196   Social science 2,893 3,167   Sociology 59 68   Geography and cartography 4,083 4,117     Geography 227 227     Cartography 3,634 3,669     Land surveying 222 221   Community planning 517 510.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Occupational Group and Series 1988 1989 Change   Psychology 3,287 3,392 +3.2 Engineers 108,218 111,355 +2.9   Industrial 3,091 3,080 -0.4   Materials 1,195 1,253 +4.9   Chemical and related 1,831 1,709 -6.7     Ceramic 67 59       Chemical 1,764 1,650     Civil engineering 18,628 18,404 -1.2     Civil 15,760 15,380       Environmental 2,868 3,024     Electrical and electronics 32,521 34,774 + 6.9     Electrical 5,531 5,569       Computer N/A 1,214       Electronics 26,990 27,991     Mechanical and related 26,882 27,561 +2.5     Aerospace 8,768 9,254       Mechanical 13,591 13,572       Naval architecture 1,203 1,201       Nuclear 3,320 3,534     Other engineering 24,070 24,574 +2.1     General 19,944 20,431       Agricultural 384 388       Architecture 1,739 1,765       Fire prevention 133 143       Mining 422 397       Petroleum 453 435       Safety 593 619       Welding 101 109       Biomedical 301 287   SOURCE: For 1988 figures, NSF, 1989:Table B-1; for 1989 figures, NSF, 1991. NOTE: * means the change was less than 0.1 percent.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government TABLE B-3. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Type of Work Activity, 1989 Activity Total Scientists Engineers TOTAL 223,343 111,988 111,355 Research 22,932 18,386 4,546 Development 33,213 7,247 25,966 Design 17,775 364 17,411 Data collection, processing, and analysis 16,691 14,864 1,827 Natural resources operations 16,878 15,649 1,229 Management 15,379 5,184 10,195 Installation, operations, and maintenance 12,766 350 12,416 Planning 8,194 4,729 3,465 Test and evaluation 10,432 2,534 7,898 Research contract and grant administration 1,173 832 341 All other activities 45,395 19,627 25,768 Activity unknown 22,515 22,222 293   SOURCE: NSF, 1991.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government TABLE B-4. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and Scientific/Engineering Field, 1989 Occupational Group All Defense Nondefense TOTAL 223,343 111,176 112,167 Scientists 111,988 34,711 177,277 Physical sciences 26,556 8,557 17,999 Mathematics and statistics 9,668 5,434 4,234 Computer sciences 24,262 12,890 11,372 Life sciences 33,839 1,994 31,845 Social sciences 14,271 4,723 9,548 Engineers 111,355 76,465 34,890 Industrial 3,080 2,914 166 Materials 1,253 847 406 Chemical and related 1,709 981 728 Civil engineering 18,404 10,576 7,828 Electrical and electronics 34,774 27,373 7,401 Mechanical and related 27,561 19,913 7,648 Other engineering 24,574 13,861 10,713   SOURCE: NSF, 1991.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government TABLE B-5. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Department and Agency, 1989 Department/Agency Total Scientists Engineers TOTAL 223,343 111,988 111,355 Agriculture 28,584 26,041 2,543 Commerce 8,172 7,382 790 Defense 111,176 34,711 76,465 Air Force 18,593 4,968 13,625 Army 36,940 11,873 25,067 Navy 47,882 11,993 35,889 Other Defense 7,761 5,877 1,884 Energy 4,453 1,546 2,907 Health and Human Services 8,560 8,180 380 Interior 14,950 12,069 2,881 Transportation 5,400 1,046 4,354 Veterans Affairs 5,156 3,994 1,162 Environmental Protection Agency 5,448 3,359 2,089 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 12,840 1,602 11,238 National Science Foundation 402 348 54 Tennessee Valley Authority 3,394 784 2,610 All others 14,808 10,926 3,882   SOURCE: NSF, 1991.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government TABLE B-6. Federal Scientists and Engineers by Occupational Group and by Degree Level, 1989 Occupational Group All Ph.D. MS/MA BA/BS Prof'l Unknown TOTAL 223,343 22,012 50,010 145,667 1,615 4,039 Scientists 111,988 18,748 27,566 63,280 1,008 1,386 Physical 26,556 7,720 6,982 11,197 277 380 Math/stats 9,668 1,149 3,522 4,915 64 18 Computer 24,262 345 4,304 18,986 130 497 Life 33,839 5,711 6,604 20,873 333 318 Social 14,271 1,583 5,263 7,072 186 167 Psychology 3,392 2,240 891 237 18 6 Engineers 111,355 3,264 22,444 82,387 607 2,653 Industrial 3,080 16 584 2,421 16 43 Materials 1,253 187 358 698 7 3 Chemical 1,709 186 323 1,104 8 88 Civil 18,404 305 3,900 13,658 145 396 Electrical 34,774 769 6,216 26,878 129 782 Mechanical 27,561 1,031 4,859 20,794 101 776 Other 24,574 770 6,204 16,834 201 565   Source: NSF, 1991.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government C Profiles of the Personnel Management Demonstration Projects NOTE: These profiles are adapted from Appendixes B and C of a report of the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, Federal Personnel Research Programs and Demonstration Projects: Catalysts for Change, Washington, D.C., December 1992. 1. Navy Personnel Management Demonstration Project (China Lake) The Navy demonstration project, begun in 1980, is being conducted at the Naval Air Warfare Division (formerly the Naval Weapons Center), China Lake, California, and at the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (formerly the Naval Oceans Systems Center), San Diego, California. The project covers almost 8,000 white-collar employees—scientists, engineers, technicians, administrative personnel, technical specialists, and clerical staff. The project was extended twice, the last time in 1988 to run until 1995. The project's focus is to simplify personnel management and make line managers the primary decisionmakers for major personnel management issues, such as classification, compensation, and performance appraisal. The Navy hopes to enhance the effectiveness and productivity of its laboratories through this simplification and increased management involvement. To achieve the project goals, the demonstration project tests: A simplified classification system that consolidates job series into five career paths and combines several General Schedule (GS) grades into broad pay bands (up to six); A performance appraisal system that links pay to performance;

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Higher than the minimum starting salaries for new hires; Recruitment bonuses; A system which encourages changes in behavior for employees experiencing drug and/or alcohol problems by suspending penalties for misconduct and poor performance; and Modified lay-off procedures where performance is the primary criterion for retention. The University of Southern California's Graduate School of Public Administration developed the original evaluation plan, but Coopers and Lybrand were contracted to do the first evaluation. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) took over as the outside evaluator in 1982 and is being paid by the Navy for the service. Fourteen reports have been published to date. The evaluations were unable to measure whether the labs' productivity and efficiency have been enhanced by the demonstration project. However, the evaluations showed that pay banding is a workable concept. Some key findings are as follows: The classification system is simpler and less time-consuming, permitting managers to take a more active role; Starting salaries for scientists have increased substantially; Large pay increases for good performance have greatly strengthened the link between performance and pay; Turnover among high performers has decreased; Supervisors believe they are more empowered to make personnel decisions; and Employee approval of the project has reached an all-time high, with 70 percent favoring the project.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government 2. Alternative Personnel Management System at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Congress directed OPM and NIST to jointly design a demonstration project to be conducted by the director of NIST. Covering slightly over 2,500 white-collar employees in Gaithersburg, Maryland—scientists, engineers, technicians, clerks, administrative staff, and others—the project was implemented on January 1, 1988, and was scheduled to run until December 31, 1992. In December 1991, OPM granted a 33-month extension because NIST radically revised its performance management system. The project is designed to improve hiring and retention of high-quality personnel by adopting such approaches as total compensation comparability (TCC), where compensation includes basic pay, bonuses, allowances, retirement benefits, health and life insurance benefits, and leave benefits. The director of NIST has not exercised TCC. Instead, the director opted to adjust pay based on the general federal cost-ofliving pay increases, since TCC would make salaries of some covered positions above the going market rate. NIST is conducting the project on a cost-neutral basis—that is, the costs of salary increases would not exceed the costs NIST would incur with the usual federal pay increases. NIST is testing: A simplified classification system that combines job series into four career paths and consolidates GS and GM grades into five broad pay bands; Examination of the applicants' qualifications and their employment without going through the OPM hiring process; A performance appraisal system that links pay to performance; Pay differentials for supervisors; Recruitment and retention bonuses; A flexible probationary period for scientists and engineers; and

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Sabbaticals for scientists and engineers. The enabling legislation required OPM to fund and conduct the evaluation; OPM contracted out the evaluation aspect to the University Research Corporation. After a year, HumRRO International, Inc., became the outside evaluator in 1990. NIST has conducted one internal evaluation. These evaluations found that: NIST exclusively hired candidates without going through the OPM hiring process, a step that shortened hiring time; Time to classify jobs was reduced; Employees viewed the adjectival ''fully successful'' rating negatively, resulting in significant changes to the performance appraisal system; The quality of scientists and engineers hired remained unchanged—i.e., NIST consistently hired quality employees before and after implementation of the project; and Turnover was not a problem before or after the implementation of the project. 3. Department of Agriculture Demonstration Project The Agriculture project was implemented in July 1990 and is scheduled to run until July 1995. Its purposes are to test a flexible and responsive recruitment and selection program for new hires that will facilitate the attainment of a diverse, well-qualified workforce and increase the reliability of decisions to grant career tenure to scientists. To meet these goals, the project is testing: A streamlined examining and selection system featuring category groupings instead of numerical rating and ranking;

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Authority to hire for locally identified shortage occupations without going through the OPM hiring process; Discretionary use of modified qualification standards; Recruitment incentives, including cash payments and reimbursements for relocation travel and transportation expenses; and A 3-year probationary period for scientists to allow managers to fully assess employee performance before granting tenure. The Department of Agriculture projects that over the life of the project, 5,000 new hires—including white-collar and blue-collar positions at randomly selected units of the Forest Service and the Agricultural Research Service—will be covered by the demonstration project. The project has not been operating long enough for an evaluation. 4. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration Demonstration Project The project—implemented in June 1989 and scheduled to run until June 1994—covers 2,100 white-collar employees in several air traffic control facilities in the Chicago, New York City, Oakland, and Los Angeles areas. It tests the use of retention allowances or bonuses of at least 20 percent of base pay, to attract and retain well-qualified, full-performance-level personnel to control air traffic, operate and maintain airway facilities, and certify and inspect aircraft and operators in the four hard-to-fill locations. 5. PACER SHARE: A Federal Productivity Enhancement Program (terminated) PACER SHARE was implemented in February 1988 by the Air Force's Directorate of Distribution at the Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan Air Force Base, California, and ran until February 1993.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government In 1991, the project was amended because the Directorate reorganized, a step that brought approximately 60 percent of the 1,700 participating employees under the management of the Defense Logistics Agency. The goals of the project were to increase organizational productivity and enrich the quality of worklife by adopting the principles of total quality management. The concepts being tested were: A simplified classification system that consolidated 66 job series into 6 broad categories and combined white-collar and blue-collar pay grades in 4 broad pay bands; A group performance rating instead of the individual performance rating; An incentive system that motivates and rewards organizational productivity by sharing any cost savings realized equally between the agency and employees (cost savings are realized only if the same work is performed for a lower labor cost or more work is performed for the same labor cost); A flexible on-call employment program geared to adjust to changing workload and budgets; and Revised supervisory grading criteria which reflect job responsibilities and the difficulties of carrying them out instead of the number and grades of subordinates. The Defense Manpower Research Center, a component of the Rand Corporation's National Defense Research Institute, was the outside evaluator for the first 3 years of the project. The Navy Personnel Research and Development Center was the external evaluator for the remainder of the project. OPM published an Implementation Report in August 1989, while Rand published its baseline report in 1990 and the first-year evaluation in 1991. Some key findings for the first year are as follows:

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government Employee morale worsened during the first year of the project. The low morale was attributed to uncertainty about how pay and promotions were to be determined under pay banding and the inability of the sponsoring organization to pay productivity gainshares; No conclusive evidence was found that PACER SHARE led to cost savings (the cost/benefit aspect of the project was the main focus of the evaluation for the first year); and Error rates in shipping orders were maintained during the first year (a period of great change because of the project's implementation as well as DOD's downsizing), but it took longer to ship the orders. The decline in timeliness was partly attributed to difficulties in implementing a new automated warehouse system at the time. 6. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airway Science Curriculum Demonstration Project (terminated) Implemented in 1982 and extended once in 1987 (for the purpose of validating the results), the project was terminated in 1991 by mutual agreement of FAA and OPM when it became clear that FAA would not be able to hire enough candidates and obtain meaningful data to validate the results. The project, which was implemented immediately after the air traffic controllers' strike and their subsequent dismissal in 1981, tested an alternative selection process for four major FAA occupations: air traffic controller, aviation safety inspector, electronics technician, and computer specialist. The purpose was to facilitate the rebuilding of FAA's workforce after the strike. The project tested the use of an FAA-developed Airway Science curriculum (which was being offered by some colleges and universities) as an alternative to the traditional testing process conducted by OPM. The performance of graduates of the Airway Science curriculum was to be compared to that of traditional hires to determine whether Airway Science graduates perform better in their jobs.

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Improving the Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers: A Report to the Carnegie Commision on Science, Technology and Government FAA was responsible for conducting the evaluation, closely monitored by OPM. FAA contracted with Research Management Consultants, Inc. (RMCI) to perform this function. RMCI has published one report. After one year of testing, the staffing level of air traffic controllers had increased, but the results were not conclusive for the other occupations (i.e., personnel hiring for flight standards and airway facilities did not significantly increase). It appears that the retention allowance was a factor in employee decisions to transfer to participating facilities.