Biographical Information About the Committee

HARVEY BROOKS is Benjamin Peirce Professor of Technology and Public Policy (Emeritus) and former dean of Engineering and Applied Physics at Harvard University (1957–1975). Before coming to Harvard as professor of applied physics in 1950, he had been associate head of the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory of General Electric in Schenectady, New York, from 1946 to 1950. Trained originally as a theoretical physicist at Yale, Cambridge, and Harvard universities, he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, and is a former president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1970–1975). From 1975 to 1986, he headed the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard.

JOHN S. FOSTER, JR., is a chairman of the Defense Science Board. He is a former vice president for science and technology of TRW Inc. He received his B.S. degree from McGill University in 1948 and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1952. He then joined Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he eventually became director while also being named associate director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Foster joined TRW in 1973 as vice president for energy research and development. He retired from TRW in 1988 and at that time was elected to become a director of TRW Inc. He continues to serve TRW as a consultant. Foster has served as director of Defense Research and Engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense and has served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the Army Scientific Advisory Panel, the Ballistic Missile Defense Advisory Committee of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and as a panel consultant to the President's Science



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Biographical Information About the Committee HARVEY BROOKS is Benjamin Peirce Professor of Technology and Public Policy (Emeritus) and former dean of Engineering and Applied Physics at Harvard University (1957–1975). Before coming to Harvard as professor of applied physics in 1950, he had been associate head of the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory of General Electric in Schenectady, New York, from 1946 to 1950. Trained originally as a theoretical physicist at Yale, Cambridge, and Harvard universities, he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, and is a former president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1970–1975). From 1975 to 1986, he headed the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. JOHN S. FOSTER, JR., is a chairman of the Defense Science Board. He is a former vice president for science and technology of TRW Inc. He received his B.S. degree from McGill University in 1948 and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1952. He then joined Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he eventually became director while also being named associate director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Foster joined TRW in 1973 as vice president for energy research and development. He retired from TRW in 1988 and at that time was elected to become a director of TRW Inc. He continues to serve TRW as a consultant. Foster has served as director of Defense Research and Engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense and has served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the Army Scientific Advisory Panel, the Ballistic Missile Defense Advisory Committee of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and as a panel consultant to the President's Science

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Advisory Committee. Foster is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. H. NORMAN ABRAMSON is a retired executive vice president of Southwest Research Institute. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1950 and M.S. in engineering mechanics in 1951, both from Stanford University, and his Ph.D. in engineering mechanics from the University of Texas in 1956. Abramson's work on problems of dynamic behavior of liquid propellants in rockets and spacecraft have earned him an international reputation. He has also made important contributions in the field of ship structural analysis and dynamics, particularly as an authority in hydroelasticity. Besides serving as manager or principal investigator of more than a score of significant research projects, he has also been extensively sought after as a technical consultant by a large number of governmental agencies and industrial concerns. Abramson is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has served as a member of numerous national and international professional, scientific, and governmental advisory committees. JOHN A. ARMSTRONG is a member of the IBM Corporate Management Board and, as vice president of science and technology, is responsible for ensuring IBM's techonological excellence and leadership in research. He received his A.B. degree in physics from Harvard College in 1956 and his Ph.D. in 1961 from Harvard University for research in nuclear magnetic resonance at high pressures. He joined IBM in 1963. His current position at IBM includes management responsibility for the research division, technical strategy development, technical journals and professional relations, and technical personnel development. Armstrong was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 1987. He has also served as chairman of the National Science Foundation's Advisory Committee for Physics and a member of its Special National Science Board Commission on the Future. ERICH BLOCH is a Distinguished Fellow at the Council on Competitiveness. Until 1990 he was for six years director of the National Science Foundation. Before that he was vice president for technical personnel development at IBM Corporation, which he joined in 1952 as an electrical engineer. At IBM in 1962, Bloch headed development of the Solid Logic Technology program, which provided IBM with microelectronic technology for its System/360 computer. For his part in this achievement, Bloch received the National Medal of Technology in 1985. Bloch serves on the Council of the National Academy of Engineering. MICHAEL L. DERTOUZOS is a professor of computer science and electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and director

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of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Born in Athens, Greece, Dertouzos came to the United States for undergraduate study as a Fulbright Scholar. After receiving his Ph.D. from the MIT in 1964, he joined the faculty. In 1974 he was named director of the Laboratory for Computer Science, a center of some 500 researchers that spans the major research areas of computer science and technology. He is the author of six books, the most recent of which is Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge, coauthored with Richard Lester and Robert Solow. The book compares European, Japanese, and U.S. manufacturing practices. Dertouzos is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a corresponding member of the Anthens Academy of Arts and Sciences. BOB O. EVANS is executive vice president of Technology Strategies & Alliances. Before assuming his current position, he was a general partner with Hambrecht & Quist Venture Partners, specializing in information systems and components investments. He then joined IBM where he held a number of R&D and general management positions, the last being vice president for engineering, programming, and technology. Evans was awarded the National Medal of Technology in 1985 and holds numerous professional awards. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has served on several U.S. government advisory boards, as well as university and corporate boards. He holds a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Iowa State University. HAROLD K. FORSEN is senior vice president of Bechtel Corporation, responsible for the Bechtel Technology Group. He received his B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from the California Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. The Bechtel Technology Group includes the Research and Development Operation, Geotechnical Services, Materials and Quality Services, and Bechtel Software, Inc. Before joining Bechtel, Forsen was vice president and director of Exxon Nuclear Company, responsible for the management and direction of their laser isotope separation program. Before that he was a professor of nuclear engineering and director of the Physical Sciences Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. During this time, he also provided consulting services in applied physics and magnetic fusion to the Atomic Energy Commission, Energy Research and Development Administration, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Nuclear Society, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. WILLIAM G. HOWARD, JR., is an independent consulting engineer with clients in microelectronics and technology-based business planning

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areas. Before beginning consulting practice, he was a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering from 1987 to 1990. His focus while at the Academy was in the area of technology commercialization in private industry. Prior to his fellowship at the Academy, Howard was senior vice president and director of research and development at Motorola, Inc. Before joining Motorola in 1969, Howard was an assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned his doctorate. He has served on numerous government and private advisory panels and has served as chairman of the U.S. Department of Commerce's Semiconductor Technology Advisory Committee and chairs a working group of the Department of Defense's advisory group on electron devices. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has held a variety of positions in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. STEPHEN J. KLINE is the Clarence J. and Patricia R. Woodard Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Values, Technology, Science and Society (VTSS) at Stanford University. Kline was one of the four founding members of the Stanford VTSS Program in 1970. Kline's technical interests encompass foundations of thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. He has long been a consultant to a number of companies concerning complex problems in internal flows. The combination of this consulting experience and an interest in VTSS foundation concepts led Kline to create an improved model of innovation in industrial societies in 1984, a model now coming into use worldwide. This led to a concern and active interest in technology policy. Kline is an Honorary Life Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. JAMES F. MATHIS is chairman of the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology, which invests state funds in science and technology initiatives to help the state's economy. He received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University in 1946 and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wisconsin in 1951 and 1953, respectively. He was employed by Exxon for 35 years, retiring in 1984 from the position of vice president of science and technology for Exxon Corporation. In that role he was responsible for overseeing more than $700 million in worldwide R&D programs. Since then, he has consulted with Arthur D. Little, Inc.; the Strategic Decisions Group; ChemShare, Inc,; and many others. In 1985–1986, he was a director of NL Industries. Currently he is a director of Laser Recording Systems, Inc., and the Hanlin Group, Inc. Mathis is a trustee of the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation and of the Rene Dubos Center for Human Environments, Inc. He is a fellow

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and former director of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and many scientific, technical, and environmental organizations. JOHN S. MAYO is president of AT&T Bell Laboratories. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from North Carolina State University. Mayo joined Bell Laboratories in 1955 and throughout his career has played an important role in development of digital technologies. His early research was with the team that produced the first transistorized digital computer. He then worked on digital transmission technology, using the transistor to show the feasibility of T-1 Carrier, the first system for high-speed digital transmission in the telephone plant. Other Bell Labs projects in which Mayo was involved include high-speed pulse code modulation systems, the Telstar satellite, electronic systems for ocean sonar, the 4ESS digital switching system, and development of a wide range of electronic technologies with emphasis on systems assembly, integrated circuits, and photonics devices. Mayo is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received the IEEE's Alexander Graham Bell Medal, Simon Ramo Medal, and C&C Prize. He is a trustee of Polytechnic University and a member of the College of Engineering Advisory Board of the University of California, Berkeley. M. EUGENE MERCHANT is a senior consultant to the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Sciences. He received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Vermont in 1936, and his doctorate of science degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1941. He carried out basic and applied research in manufacturing science and engineering at Cincinnati Milacron, Inc. for 46 years, serving finally as that company's principal scientist. Upon retirement from Milacron in 1983, Merchant joined Metcut Research Associates, Inc. as director of advanced manufacturing research. He is member of the National Academy of Engineering and has been a recipient of a variety of honors and honorary degrees in various countries. Merchant's research has created important advances in the science of manufacturing, including the concepts of the systems approach to manufacturing and the computer-integrated manufacturing system. JOSEPH E. ROWE is associate vice president for research and director of the Research Institute at the University of Dayton. He received his B.S.E.E., B.S.E., M.S.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan and also completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard University. Before moving to the University of Dayton, Rowe was vice president and chief scientist at PPG Industries, Inc. in Pittsburgh. He acquired experience

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in teaching, research, and academic administration at the University of Michigan and Case Western Reserve University. His industrial career includes technology development and management in electronics, computers, glass, coatings, and chemical industries. Rowe has also been employed as a consultant by numerous companies, including ITT, Raytheon, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Hughes Aircraft, Texas Instruments, and Westinghouse. As a consultant, his tasks included research and product development in the areas of microwave devices, gaseous plasmas, solid-state devices, integrated circuits, microwave communications, and computer applications. Rowe is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. ERNEST T. SMERDON is dean of engineering and mines at the University of Arizona. He holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Missouri and completed a year of graduate study in meteorology at the University of Washington. A registered professional engineer, Smerdon was the first director of the Water Resources Institute at Texas A&M University from 1964 to 1968. He then moved to the University of Florida, where he was chairman of the Agricultural Engineering Department and then assistant dean for research in the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. From 1976 until 1982 he served as vice chancellor for academic affairs for the University of Texas System. Smerdon is an active or former member of a number of scientific and affiliated honor societies. He has served as an officer in some of the nation's prominent scientific and education organizations and currently serves on the executive board of the Council of Deans of the American Society of Engineering Education. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. ALBERTUS D. WELLIVER is corporate senior vice president of the Boeing Company. Welliver joined Boeing in 1962 and has held several management and executive positions. He was actively involved in developing new technology in commercial aircraft propulsion systems and engineering technology research and program development activities. His current responsibilities include all engineering and technology development for the Boeing Company. He holds a degree in mechanical engineering from Pennsylvania State University and participated in the Stanford Executive Business Program. Welliver is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Study Director PROCTOR P. REID is a senior program officer with the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in Washington, D.C., where he directs a multiyear program of policy research on technology and economics entitled "Prospering in a Global Economy." During a postdoctoral fellowship with

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the NAE from 1988 to 1990, he served as study director for the NAE Committee on Engineering as an International Enterprise, whose report, National Interests in an Age of Global Technology, was published in 1991. In addition to his work with the Academy, Reid is a professorial lecturer in European studies at the Johns Hopkins University, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, where he received his Ph.D. in international relations in 1989. Before joining the NAE, he was an instructor in political economy at Oberlin College (1986–1987) and worked as a consultant to the National Research Council (1988) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.