Index

A

Academic research, see University research

Adoption and diffusion of technology, 17, 38-40, 49-51, 67-76

and federal policy, 6, 8, 93-97

Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 4-5, 17, 24n, 78, 98, 106n, 107 n

Aerospace industry, 11, 12-13, 25n

Automation, 44, 74-75

Automobile industry, 35, 36, 37, 108n

B

Basic research, 62-64

expenditures, 42, 62, 85n

federal support for9, 20

industrial support, 59n

in universities, 63-64

Battery Consortium, 105n

Benchmarking, 35, 71, 109n

Best practice techniques, 40, 103-104n, 105n

C

Canada

and foreign direct investment, 47, 48

foreign-sourcing, 50

R&D facilities in U.S., 50

Capital investment, 2, 38, 74-76, 93

Capital markets, 65, 86n

Civilian Technology Corporation, 5, 107-108n, 109n

Cold War11, 53

Commercialization see Dual-use technologies

Communications industries, 11, 13, 56n

Competition, and innovation, 29-31, 65

see also International competition

Computer-integrated equipment, 35, 74

Concurrent engineering, 36-37

Consortia, 5, 94, 98, 99, 100, 105n

Cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs), 17, 24n, 78, 99, 105n

Customer relations, 37, 57n, 70

D

Defense, see Military technology;

National security

Defense Advanced Research Projects agency (DARPA), 105-106n

Demand-oriented policy instruments, 4, 98, 107n

Department of Commerce, Japanese technology transfer programs, 100

Department of Defense,

see also Military technology

Department of Defense (DOD),

see also Military technology;

National security

Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Supply System (CALS), 105 n

federal laboratory support, 12

R&D funding, 59

university support, 11, 13, 23n

Department of Energy (DOE)

laboratories, 23n

Deregulation, see Regulation and deregulation

Developing countries, 38, 40, 57n

Development, see Product development;

Research and development

Dual-use technologies, 23n,

see also Spillover and spinoff technologies

military-based, 12-13, 53-54, 56n, 60n, 78, 88n, 105-106n

E

Economic policy, 3, 5, 6, 8, 18-19, 25-26n, 93-95, 101-103

Education

fellowship program, 3, 96-97, 105n

of labor force, 2, 3, 71-74, 87n, 92, 95-96

of scientist and engineers, 23n, 63-64, 70, 85n

Electronics industry, 12-13

semiconductors, 60n, 86n

Employment, see Labor force;

Scientists and engineers

Engineering, see Product development;

Scientists and engineers

Europe, high-tech trade, 45-47

Experimental Technology Incentives Program (ETIP), 107n

Exports, 44-47, 65, 68, 99-101,

see also Trade

high-tech products, 44

F

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, 5, 26n, 101, 102



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Index A Academic research, see University research Adoption and diffusion of technology, 17, 38-40, 49-51, 67-76 and federal policy, 6, 8, 93-97 Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 4-5, 17, 24n, 78, 98, 106n, 107 n Aerospace industry, 11, 12-13, 25n Automation, 44, 74-75 Automobile industry, 35, 36, 37, 108n B Basic research, 62-64 expenditures, 42, 62, 85n federal support for9, 20 industrial support, 59n in universities, 63-64 Battery Consortium, 105n Benchmarking, 35, 71, 109n Best practice techniques, 40, 103-104n, 105n C Canada and foreign direct investment, 47, 48 foreign-sourcing, 50 R&D facilities in U.S., 50 Capital investment, 2, 38, 74-76, 93 Capital markets, 65, 86n Civilian Technology Corporation, 5, 107-108n, 109n Cold War11, 53 Commercialization see Dual-use technologies Communications industries, 11, 13, 56n Competition, and innovation, 29-31, 65 see also International competition Computer-integrated equipment, 35, 74 Concurrent engineering, 36-37 Consortia, 5, 94, 98, 99, 100, 105n Cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs), 17, 24n, 78, 99, 105n Customer relations, 37, 57n, 70 D Defense, see Military technology; National security Defense Advanced Research Projects agency (DARPA), 105-106n Demand-oriented policy instruments, 4, 98, 107n Department of Commerce, Japanese technology transfer programs, 100 Department of Defense, see also Military technology Department of Defense (DOD), see also Military technology; National security Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistics Supply System (CALS), 105 n federal laboratory support, 12 R&D funding, 59 university support, 11, 13, 23n Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, 23n Deregulation, see Regulation and deregulation Developing countries, 38, 40, 57n Development, see Product development; Research and development Dual-use technologies, 23n, see also Spillover and spinoff technologies military-based, 12-13, 53-54, 56n, 60n, 78, 88n, 105-106n E Economic policy, 3, 5, 6, 8, 18-19, 25-26n, 93-95, 101-103 Education fellowship program, 3, 96-97, 105n of labor force, 2, 3, 71-74, 87n, 92, 95-96 of scientist and engineers, 23n, 63-64, 70, 85n Electronics industry, 12-13 semiconductors, 60n, 86n Employment, see Labor force; Scientists and engineers Engineering, see Product development; Scientists and engineers Europe, high-tech trade, 45-47 Experimental Technology Incentives Program (ETIP), 107n Exports, 44-47, 65, 68, 99-101, see also Trade high-tech products, 44 F Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, 5, 26n, 101, 102

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Federal Express, 57n Federal laboratories, 10, 12, 22-23n, 99 cooperative research and development agreements, 17, 24n, 78, 99, 105n funding, 10 military research, 12, 23n private-sector collaboration22-23n, 99 scientists and engineers, 10 Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs), 22-23n Federal procurement, 14, 25n, 106n, 107n Federal technology programs, see also Cooperative research and development agreements; Dual-use technology; Federal laboratories Military technology basic research, 9, 20 decentralization of, 6 direct R&D funding, 9-14, 23n, 78, 80, 98 interagency cooperation, 5, 19, 26n, 87n private-sector relations, 4-5, 16-18, 24-25n university support, 1120, 23-24n, 85n Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986, 24n Fellowship programs, 3, 96-97, 105n Flexible manufacturing systems see Lean production Foreign direct investment, 46-47 see also Multinational corporations and federal technology policy, 6 in U.S., 47-48, 50, 58n65, 86n U.S. abroad, 48-50 Foreign sourcing, 50, 59 France and foreign direct investment, 47, 48 foreign-sourcing, 50 high-tech production and trade, 21, 46, 47, 86 R&D funding, 41-42, 62, 78, 81 scientists and engineers, 12, 23n, 43 G General Mills Food Group, 57n General Motors, 36 Generic technologies, 17, 31, 77-80, 88n Germany apprenticeship programs, 73, 87n and foreign direct investment, 47, 48 foreign-sourcing, 50 high-tech production and trade, 21, 44, 45, 46, 47 productivity, 87n R&D funding, 10, 41-43, 58n, 62, 78 scientists and engineers, 12, 23n, 43 G.I. Bill of Rights, 23n Government programs, see Federal laboratories; Federal technology programs; State government Technology policy Gross national product (GNP) high-tech shares of, 86n R&D shares of, 42-43, 58n H Health care, 4, 98 Human resources, see Labor force; Scientists and engineers I Imports, see also Trade manufacturing inputs, 50, 59n penetration rates, 45-47, 58n, 65 quotas, 108n Industrial modernization programs, 3, 94, 95, 96, 105n Information technology, 56n, 57n Infrastructural technologies, 4, 17, 77-80, 88n, 89n, 98 Innovation, see International technology development; Product development; Research and development; Technology transfer Intellectual property rights, 16, 100 Intensity of industrial technology, 1, 2, 15, 26-27n, 42-43, 93 International competition, 2, 21, 31, 77-80, 92 and federal policy, 6, 8, 82-83, 100-106n high-tech products, 44-47, 87n and technology development, 65, 92 International economic integration, 2, 40-41, 44-45, 92, see also Foreign direct investment; International competition; Multinational corporations; Trade International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000, 38 International technology development, 2, 3140-45, 59n, 92 corporate alliances, 50-51 exchange of personnel, 82 and federal policy, 5, 6, 14, 82-83, 99-101 R&D facilities abroad, 50, 59n R&D investment, 50-51 U.S. industry adoption, 5, 49, 55, 65, 80-83, 99 Intraindustry trade, 58n, 67 Investment, see Capital investment; Foreign direct investment; Venture capital Italy high-tech trade, 46, 47 J Japan and foreign direct investment,47 foreign-sourcing , 50 high-tech production and trade, 21, 44,45, 46, 47, 86n production methods, 32, 35, 36-39, 43-44, 57n, 59n productivity, 87n R&D facilities in U.S. , 50 R&D funding, 10, 41-43, 58n, 62, 78, 81

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scientists and engineers, 12, 23n, 43 technology transfer, 100 Japanese Technical Literature Service, 100, 108n Japanese Technology Evaluation Program (JTEC), 100, 108n Joint ventures and alliances, 36, 77, 89n, 105-106n transnational, 50-51, 59n, 100, 103 Just-in-time production techniques, 35 K Korea R&D facilities in U.S., 50 L Laboratories, see Cooperative research and development agreements; Federal laboratories; Federally funded research and development centers Labor force Education and training, 2, 3, 71-74, 87n, 92, 95-96 and lean production, 32, 35-36 specialization of, 69-70 Lean production, 32-37, 57n, 59n Local industrial clusters, 2, 40, 92 M Malcolm Baldridge Quality Award, 38 Management techniques and structures, 2, 32, 69-71, 92 lean production, 32-37, 57n Manufacturing, 30, 31-32, 44 advanced technology adoption, 44, 74-76 foreign sourcing, 50 high-tech production and trade, 44 lean production, 32-37, 57n mass production, 32-34 product development, 30, 44 productivity, 71, 87n Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTCs), 3, 95, 96, 104n Market structure, 14, 15, 29-30, 64-65 and technology development, 29-31, 65 Mass production, 15, 32-34 Mechatronics, 30 Medical research, 11, 24-25n Military technology, 59-60n, 92, see also National security dependence on commercial development, 1, 55 dual-use, 12-13, 53-54, 56n, 60n, 78, 88n, 105-106n federal laboratories, 12, 23n and federal technology policy, 8 R&D funding, 59-60n scientists and engineers, 14, 24n spillover to industry, 23n, 53-54, 59-60n, 78 university-based13-14 Multinational corporations, 38, 40-41, 47-49, 57n, 67 foreign affiliaties of U.S. firms, 65, 108n R&D investment, 49-50 N National Bureau of Standards, see National Institute of Standardand Technology National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), 38, 104n, 105n National Competitiveness Act of 1993, 108n National Economic Council, 5, 101 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 5, 17, 24n, 78, 108n Advanced Technology Program (ATP), 4-5, 17, 24n, 78, 98, 106n, 107 n Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTCs), 3, 95, 96, 104n State Technology Extension Program (STEP), 3, 95, 104n National Institutes of Health (NIH), 23n, 78 university support, 11, 23n National Science Foundation (NSF), 3, 23n, 78, 96 university support, 23n National security, see also Military technology and federal technology policy, 8 impacts on national R&D priorities, 1, 11-14, 53, 54, 92 New United Motors Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI), 36 Nuclear power, 25n Nuclear weapons research, 23n, 60n Numerically controlled machine tools, 44 O Optoelectronics, 30 Organization structures32, 55, 69-71, 92 lean production, 32-37, 57n Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) productivity, 68, 87n P Package delivery, 57n Panel on Government Role in Civilian Technology, 107-108n Patents, 59n, 86n Pathbreaking technologies, 4, 17, 88n, 89n Pharmaceuticals, 25n Photocopiers, 35, 36 Product development, 25n, 68-71, see also Dual-use technologies; Spin-off and spillover technologies concurrent engineering, 36-37 continuous improvement, 8, 15, 56n, 71 in Japan, 44 and lean production, 36-37 multidisciplinary approaches, 30 service industries, 31-32, 37, 57n, 71 Production and productivity growth rates, 68, 71, 87n high-tech products, 20-21, 44

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Production systems, 2, 69,92 advanced, 44, 74-76 continuous improvement, 8, 31-32 investment, 2 in Japan, 32, 35, 36-39, 43-44 lean v. mass, 32-37, 57n, 70 R&D, 69 Q Quality control, 69 R Regional industrial clusters, 2, 40, 92, 94 Regulation, 16, 25n, 103, 108n Research and development (R&D), see also Basic research; Federal laboratories; International technology development; Military technology; Product development; Scientist and engineers; Technology transfer; University research consortia, 5, 94, 98, 99, 100, 105n direct federal funding, 9-14, 23n, 78, 80, 98 generic technologies, 17, 31, 77-80, 88n incentives, 4-5, 76-77, 97-99, 105-107n intensity of, 1, 2, 15, 26-27n, 42-43, 93 private sector policies, 15, 59n, 68-70, 76 as share of GNP, 42-43, 58n Research and Experimentation (R&E) Tax Credit, 4, 77, 97, 106 n Retail industries, 30, 57n S Scientists and engineers, 11, 23n, 89n defense research, 14, 24n education, 23n, 63-64, 70, 85n federal laboratories, 10 fellowship programs, 3, 96-97, 105n foreign comparisons, 12, 43 industrial, 24n, 70 international exchanges, 82 SEMATECH, 5, 98, 105n Semiconductors, 60n, 86n Service industries production and delivery innovation, 31-32, 37, 57n, 71 productivity, 71, 87n technology fusion, 56n Small business, 3, 74-75, 95, 104n Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, 4-5, 17, 24n, 98, 106n Space technologies, 25n Spin-off and spillover technologies, 13, 16, 20, 23n, 26n, see also Dual-use technologies military-based, 23n, 53-54, 59-60n, 78 Standards, 5, 38 State government, 19, 26n, 94-95 State Technology Extension Program (STEP), 3, 95, 104n Stategic tecnology, 88n Sweden foreign direct investment, 47 R&D funding, 42-43, 58n technology adoption, 58n, 89n T Tax credits, 4, 76-77, 97, 106-107n Technology fusion, 30-31, 56n Technology policy, 5, 9, 16-20, 83-84 and economic policy, 3, 5, 6, 8, 18-19, 25-26n, 93-95, 101-103 diffusion v. mission-oriented, 22n institutional framework, 2, 6, 101-103 international competition, 6, 8, 82-83, 100-106n R&D incentives, 4-5, 76-77, 97-99, 105-107n trade, 6, 99-101, 108n, 109n Technology transfer, 55, 94-95, 99, see also Cooperative research and development agreements consortia, 5, 94, 98, 99, 100, 105n diffusion, 6, 8, 17, 38-40, 49-51, 67-76, 93-97 interindustry, 6, 30-31, 36, 56n, 67, 74, 77, 89n, 105-106n public-private, 19, 77-78, 80-83, 94-95, 98, 99 Toyota, 36 Trade, see also Imports; International competition and federal policy, 6, 99-101, 108n, 109n high-tech products, 20-21, 44, 45-47, 68 intraindustry, 58n, 67 and technology development, 65, 99-101 Training, 2, 3, 71-74, 87n, 92, 95-96 Transnational technical alliances, 50-52 U United Kingdom and foreign direct investment, 47, 48 foreign-sourcing, 50 high-tech production and trade, 21, 46, 86n R&D funding, 41-42, 78, 81 scientists and engineers, 12, 43 University research basic, 63 defense-related, 13-14 federal support, 11, 20, 23-24n, 85n impacts on engineering education, 63-64, 85n industrial applications and collaboration, 4, 63-64 U.S.-Japan Manufacturing Technology Fellowship, 100 U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Trade Agreement, 108n V Venture capital, 66, 86n Very-high-speed integrated circuit, 60n W Wal-Mart, 57n X Xerox Corp.35, 36