TOWARD A COORDINATED SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE NATION

Mapping Science Committee

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1993



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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation TOWARD A COORDINATED SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE NATION Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1993

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this study by the Mapping Science Committee was provided by the Defense Mapping Agency, the United States Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Bureau of the Census. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 93-84335 International Standard Book No. 0-309-04899-0 Copies of this report are available from National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 B-149 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, April 1993 Second Printing, April 1995

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE JOHN D. BOSSLER, The Ohio State University, Chairman JOHN C. ANTENUCCI,a PlanGraphics, Inc. LAWRENCE F. AYERS, Intergraph Corporation BARBARA P. BUTTENFIELD,b State University of New York, Buffalo ROBERT LEE CHARTRAND, Naples, Florida DONALD F. COOKE, Geographic Data Technology, Inc. DAVID J. COWEN,a University of South Carolina JOHN E. ESTES,a University of California, Santa Barbara LEE C. GERHARD,b Kansas Geological Survey MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD,b University of California, Santa Barbara CLIFFORD GREVE,c Autometrics, Inc. GIULIO MAFFINI, Intera-Tydac JOHN D. MCLAUGHLIN, University of New Brunswick BERNARD J. NIEMANN, JR., University of Wisconsin, Madison BARBARA B. PETCHENIK, R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company (deceased, June 1992) GERARD RUSHTON, University of Iowa HOWARD J. SIMKOWITZ,a Caliper Corporation LARRY J. SUGARBAKER,b Washington State Department of Natural Resources ROBERT TUFTS, The Analytic Science Corporation NRC Staff THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Officer JUDITH ESTEP, Administrative Secretary a   Term ended May 31, 1992 b   Term began June 1, 1992 c   Resigned December 1991 when he began job with the U.S. Geological Survey

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas at Austin, Chairman SAMUEL S. ADAMS, Minerals Consultant, Lincoln, NH MARK P. CLOOS, University of Texas at Austin NEVILLE G. W. COOK, University of California, Berkeley JOEL DARMSTADTER, Resources for the Future DONALD J. DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley GORDON P. EATON, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory W. GARY ERNST, Stanford University NORMAN H. FOSTER, Independent Petroleum Geologist, Denver FREEMAN GILBERT, University of California, San Diego PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Resource Issues, Inc. HARRISON C. JAMISON, Consultant, Sunriver, Oregon THOMAS H. JORDAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ANDREW H. KNOLL, Harvard University PHILIP E. LAMOREAUX, P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Inc. SUSAN LANDON, Thomasson Partner Associates, Denver CHARLES J. MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey CAREL OTTE, JR., Unocal Corporation (retired) FRANK M. RICHTER, University of Chicago Staff JONATHAN G. PRICE, Staff Director WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer BRUCE B. HANSHAW, Staff Officer THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Program Officer LORRAINE W. WOLF, Staff Officer LALLY A. ANDERSON, Staff Assistant CHARLENE ANDERSON, Administrative Secretary JUDITH ESTEP, Administrative Secretary

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Chairman PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography HELEN M. INGRAM, University of Arizona W. BARCLAY KAMB, California Institute of Technology GENE E. LIKENS, New York Botanical Garden SYUKURO MANABE, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University DUNCAN T. PATTEN, Arizona State University RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Allied Signal Aerospace Company LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University WARREN WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center IRVIN L. WHITE, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director LORRAINE W. WOLF, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer CARLITA PERRY, Administrative Associate ROBIN LEWIS, Senior Project Assistant

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation PREFACE The Mapping Science Committee (MSC) was established in 1987 at the request of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide advice on their cartographic and geographic activities. During the course of its studies, the MSC was exposed to activities in several other federal agencies and recognized several generic problems involving the conduct of mapping and spatial analysis. Because of the continuing explosive growth of the technology and the accompanying modernization efforts (both within the federal and nonfederal government and elsewhere), generic problems, the redundancy of data production, the potential for application of the methodologies to other programs, and the large fiscal expenditures anticipated, the MSC expanded its scope to offer its capabilities and advice to other federal agencies that have become involved in these programs. In response to the initial charges developed for the earlier USGS activity, the MSC issued two reports, Spatial Data Needs: The Future of the National Mapping Program (1990) and Research and Development in the National Mapping Division, USGS: Trends and Prospects (1991). In both reports, the MSC recognized the utility of its advice to the broader governmental agencies that utilize mapping or the analyses of spatially referenced digital data. Because of this recognition, the MSC initiated this study. The question that this study addresses is: What could be done better or more efficiently if the content, accuracy, organization, and control of spatial data were different? The study examines the current national spatial data infrastructure, encompassing the roles of private institutions as well as local, state, and federal governments in using and sharing geographic

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation information. In addition it identifies barriers that prevent these groups from acquiring knowledge, making decisions, or performing the duties that rely on the timely availability and easy access to an organized body of geographically referenced information. The scope of spatial data can be enormous, and spatial data can be important components of a wide variety of scientific, technical, and social disciplines and applications. The MSC focused its efforts on the generic issues of spatial data management, collection, and use, particularly regarding the data bases that drive geographic information systems and other similar methods of analyses. In the past 2 years, the MSC met (at least once) with 18 different federal agencies to be briefed and to discuss various programs within each agency dealing with spatial data collection and use. These agencies include the following: Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census National Institute of Standards and Technology National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Department of Defense Army Corps of Engineers Defense Mapping Agency Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Geological Survey Department of Agriculture Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Economic Research Service Forest Service National Agriculture Statistical Service Soil Conservation Service Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Environmental Protection Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation At several MSC meetings, discussions of policies regarding spatial data were held with representatives of the Office of Management and Budget and its interagency committee, the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). In addition, representatives of the MSC attended several FGDC meetings. Representatives from Bell South also participated in a meeting and discussed issues relevant to the utilities sector, and a representative from the Council of State Governments discussed the Council's State Geographic Information Activities Compendium. The MSC appreciates the participation of officials from these organizations in developing the committee's background to address the issues in this report. The MSC, through its members, brought valuable experience relevant to state and local governmental activities, the needs of utilities, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Navigation Systems, and the role of the private sector. Members of the MSC participated in key roles at the 1991 FGDC-sponsored Geographic Information and Spatial Data Exposition held in Washington, D.C., and at other meetings of associations and societies relevant to spatial data.

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation CONTENTS 1   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     THE CHALLENGE   1     ISSUES   3     RECOMMENDATIONS   5     CONCLUSION   6 2   INTRODUCTION   7     REFERENCE   11 3   NATIONAL SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE   12     EVOLUTION   12     Stage I (1960—1980)   14     Stage II (1975—2000)   14     Stage III (1990 and Beyond)   15     CONCEPT   15     REFERENCES   18 4   CURRENT SITUATION   19     MAJOR ISSUES   20     FEDERAL AGENCY ACTIVITIES   27     Office of Management and Budget   29     Federal Geographic Data Committee   30     Other Federal Agencies   31     STATE AGENCIES   43     Current situation   43     Federal Relationships   45     Standards   50     Problems   50     LOCAL GOVERNMENTS   50     Current Situation   51     Federal Relationships   52     Standards   52     Problems   52     PRIVATE SECTOR   53     ACADEMIA   56     REFERENCES   57

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation 5   SPATIAL DATA AND THE URBAN FABRIC   59     INTRODUCTION   59     BACKGROUND   60     LAND BASE SYSTEMS COMPONENT   61     Description   61     Primary Responsibility   62     Needs   63     Models   63     Rationale for Federal Involvement   63     THE NATION'S CADASTRE   64     Introduction   64     Description   65     Primary Responsibility   66     Rationale for Federal Involvement   66     The Problems   66     Responding to the Problems   67     STREET CENTERLINE SPATIAL DATA BASE   68     Description   68     Significance and Applications   68     Current Status of Street Centerline Spatial Data Bases   69     Problems Caused by Deficiencies of Available SCSDs   70     Need for Greater Coordination or Consolidation   71     Conclusions: The Need to Ensure Access, Use, and Maintenance   72     References   73 6   SPATIAL DATA AND WETLANDS   74     INTRODUCTION   74     EVALUATION PROCESS   78     Public Interest in Wetland Protection   78     Lack of a Collective Perspective   79     Impediments   80     Wetland Information Diffusion Model   85     CONCLUSION   86     REFERENCES   88 7   SHARING OF SPATIAL DATA   89     RATIONALE FOR A DATA SHARING PROGRAM   89     Objectives   89     Examples of Data Sharing Programs   90     A PROPOSED SPATIAL DATA SHARING PROGRAM   94     Key Concepts   94     NSDI Spatial Data Sharing Program   98     Guidelines for System Implementation   99     MECHANISMS FOR IMPLEMENTING A SPATIAL DATA SHARING PROGRAM   104

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation     SPATIAL DATA CATALOGS   106     Distributed Data Catalogs   106     Applications   109     REFERENCES   110 8   CONCLUSION   111     IMPROVING THE NSDI   112     The Principles   112     The Components   113     A NEW STRATEGY   116     Obtain and Maintain National Commitment   116     Evaluate Requirements, Constraints, and Opportunities   117     Determine Priorities   117     Develop Coordination Mechanisms and Organizational Structures   117     Assign Roles and Responsibilities   118     Develop Standards and Policies   118     Develop and Monitor Projects   118     Identify and Resolve Issues   118     REFERENCES   119 9   RECOMMENDATIONS   120 APPENDIX A:   SPATIAL DATA AND WETLANDS   127     INTRODUCTION   127     THE NATURE OF WETLANDS   129     STATE AND CONDITION OF WETLANDS   132     PROTECTION OF WETLANDS   134     INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS   137     IMPEDIMENTS TO A NATIONAL WETLAND INFORMATION SYSTEM   141     INFORMATION DIFFUSION AND EVOLUTION   155     CONCLUSION   163     REFERENCES   165     ACRONYMS   169

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation This volume is dedicated to the memory of Barbara Bartz Petchenik (1939–1992) a friend and colleague whose inspiration contagious enthusiasm and keen  insight provided profound intellectual stimuli to the Mapping Science Committee. Barbara had been associated with the committee since its inception in 1987 and made significant contributions to all three of the committee's reports. Her bright smile and refreshing perspective will be missed by all.

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Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation TOWARD A COORDINATED SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE NATION

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