future IVHS applications and other logistical operations such as dispatch routing, which has substantial commercial value and utility to governmental units of all levels.

There is a natural but undefined opportunity for sharing spatial data through the entire domain of federal, state, and local governments and the private sector regardless of the specific geography involved. The commercial utility of an SCSD is great enough to encourage several private companies to fund independent multimillion dollar projects to improve public SCSD resources, turning them into proprietary data holdings. Moreover, each of these developers, collectors, and users of spatial information is making considerable investments that mask significant opportunity costs because of redundancy of effort, undeveloped opportunities for efficiencies, and insufficient financial resources available to any one sector.

REFERENCES

Committee on Geodesy (1980). Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 112 pp.

Committee on Geodesy (1983). Procedures and Standards for a Multipurpose Cadastre, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 173 pp.


DOI (1990). A Study of Land Information, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 61 pp. plus appendixes.


Marx, R. W., ed. (1990). The Census Bureau's TIGER System, Special Issue, Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 17(1), 133 pp.

McLaughlin, J., and S. Nichols (1987). Parcel-based land information systems, Surveying and Mapping 47(1), 11–29.

MSC (1990). Spatial Data Needs: The Future of the National Mapping Program, Mapping Science Committee, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 78 pp.



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