INDEX

A

Aarhus University (Denmark), 12

Accelerators;

see Particle accelerators

Acetylene, 261

Acridines, 107

Adamantane, 273

Adenosine triphosphate, 113

Adriamycin, 107

Aerodynamics, 228

Agnew, D.C., 161, 163, 168, 179

AIDS

AZT and, 93, 94, 96

cases by exposure group, 84

cases worldwide, 61, 62

drug treatments, 91-97

epidemic, 60

HIV progression to, 81-88

opportunistic infections, 61-62, 93-94, 95, 96

prevention, 97

related conditions, 62

research goals, 63

surveillance case definition, 64, 85

T-cell mystery, 85-88

see also HIV

Airy, George, 136-137

Alanine, 296

Alber, Tom, 290-293, 295, 296-297, 298, 301-305, 308, 309-310, 311 , 312-314

Alberts, Bruce, 114, 115, 116

Albrecht, Thomas, 43

Alvarez, Walter, 324

American Physical Society, 34

Amino acids, 75, 292, 293

see also Proteins;

individual amino acids

Amsacrine, 107

Anderson, Carl, 236-237, 244

Anfinsen, Christian, 292-293

Anthracyclines, 107

Anthraquinones, 107

Antibodies, 67-68, 72, 84, 87, 88, 92, 93, 113, 291

Antimatter, 244

Antineutrino, 19

Antiprotons, 244, 245

Arecibo Observatory, 127

Argon, 23

Arizona State University, 135

Arneodo, Alain, 223

Artificial metals, 280-281

Arvidson, Ray, 148

Ashkin, Arthur, 57

Astrid Ion, 50

ATCase, 292, 313

Atoms/atomic

behavior in small groups, 40

biological applications of manipulation techniques, 56-58

Bose condensation, 56

clock, 55, 58

Doppler shifts, 48-49

electrical properties, 51-52

force microscope, 43

fountain, 53-54, 55

funnel, 53-54

image, 38

laser cooling of, 48-50, 51

photon absorption, 51

standards for measurement, 55-56

surface, 35-36, 39-40

switching, 42-43

syncytia and, 86

trapping, 51-53

at ultralow temperatures, 54, 55-56, 58

wave properties, 55-56

xenon, 39-40, 42

AT&T Bell Laboratories, 51, 52, 57, 205, 217, 273, 280, 281, 321-322, 326



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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier INDEX A Aarhus University (Denmark), 12 Accelerators; see Particle accelerators Acetylene, 261 Acridines, 107 Adamantane, 273 Adenosine triphosphate, 113 Adriamycin, 107 Aerodynamics, 228 Agnew, D.C., 161, 163, 168, 179 AIDS AZT and, 93, 94, 96 cases by exposure group, 84 cases worldwide, 61, 62 drug treatments, 91-97 epidemic, 60 HIV progression to, 81-88 opportunistic infections, 61-62, 93-94, 95, 96 prevention, 97 related conditions, 62 research goals, 63 surveillance case definition, 64, 85 T-cell mystery, 85-88 see also HIV Airy, George, 136-137 Alanine, 296 Alber, Tom, 290-293, 295, 296-297, 298, 301-305, 308, 309-310, 311 , 312-314 Alberts, Bruce, 114, 115, 116 Albrecht, Thomas, 43 Alvarez, Walter, 324 American Physical Society, 34 Amino acids, 75, 292, 293 see also Proteins; individual amino acids Amsacrine, 107 Anderson, Carl, 236-237, 244 Anfinsen, Christian, 292-293 Anthracyclines, 107 Anthraquinones, 107 Antibodies, 67-68, 72, 84, 87, 88, 92, 93, 113, 291 Antimatter, 244 Antineutrino, 19 Antiprotons, 244, 245 Arecibo Observatory, 127 Argon, 23 Arizona State University, 135 Arneodo, Alain, 223 Artificial metals, 280-281 Arvidson, Ray, 148 Ashkin, Arthur, 57 Astrid Ion, 50 ATCase, 292, 313 Atoms/atomic behavior in small groups, 40 biological applications of manipulation techniques, 56-58 Bose condensation, 56 clock, 55, 58 Doppler shifts, 48-49 electrical properties, 51-52 force microscope, 43 fountain, 53-54, 55 funnel, 53-54 image, 38 laser cooling of, 48-50, 51 photon absorption, 51 standards for measurement, 55-56 surface, 35-36, 39-40 switching, 42-43 syncytia and, 86 trapping, 51-53 at ultralow temperatures, 54, 55-56, 58 wave properties, 55-56 xenon, 39-40, 42 AT&T Bell Laboratories, 51, 52, 57, 205, 217, 273, 280, 281, 321-322, 326

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Australia, 16 AZT, 93, 94, 96 B B-cells, 68, 69, 71-72 Babai, Laszlo, 326 Bacteria DNA synthesis, 101, 120-121 gyrase, 121 life cycle, 67, 101 toxins, 67 see also individual bacteria Bahcall, John, 22, 25 Bakun, Bill, 155, 166, 167 Balykin, V. I., 49 Barium ion, trapping, 50 Bartol Research Institute, 13 Bell, Stephen, 111, 113, 114-115 Benzene, 279, 318 Berger, Jonathan, 22 Berns, Michael, 58 Beryllium-7, 22 Bethe, Hans, 21 Bethune, Donald S., 260, 263, 264, 266-274, 277-279, 283, 284, 285 Beylkin, Gregory, 226, 228 Big Bang, 5 Big Bear Solar Observatory, 12 Binnig, Gerd, 37-38 Biological switches, 311 Biology, atomic manipulation in, 56-58 Bloom's syndrome, 122 Bohr, Niels, 19, 236 Bolide impacts, 324, 325 Bolt, Bruce, 158, 163, 182, 186 BOREXINO neutrino detector, 31 Born, Max, 236 Boron-8, 22, 23, 25 Bose condensation, 56 Botchan, Michael, 113-114 Bovine papillomavirus, 114 Brenner, Sydney, 105 Brillinger, David, 171 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 238, 241, 242, 243, 314 Brown, Russ, 311 Brown, Timothy, 12, 16 Brown University, 131, 147-148, 188 Brune, Jim, 188, 193 Brus, Louis, 321-322 Buckminsterfullerenes (buckyballs) attempted synthesis, 263 bond lengths, 274 cesium-doped, 282 chromatography column, 276 commercial importance, 258-259, 275-277 compression effects, 278-279 diameter, 274 discovery, 258 infrared analyses, 277 insulating properties, 280 ionized, 287 magnets, 285 mass spectral analyses, 277 name, 265-266 NMR testing, 269, 271-273 optical properties, 285 phase transition, 274 photographing, 269, 274-275 polymers, 285 potassium-doped, 280-282 production and trapping of, 266-269, 275-277 Raman spectrum, 269, 270-271, 279 rocket propellant from, 285-286 rubidium-doped, 282 solid-state spin, 273-274 in shungite, 287 strength, 285-286 structure, 259, 261, 263, 265, 266, 271 superconductivity, 280-282 uses, 279-286 vibrational frequencies, 270-271 x-ray crystallography, 274, 277 Buckyclutcher I, 276 Buckyonions, 278 Buckytubes, 277-278 Byerlee, James, 187 C Calcium, 283 California, 16 earthquake probabilities, 180-181 seismicity, 163-164, 177, 178, 187 see also Earthquakes; San Andreas Fault California Institute of Technology, 5, 7, 12, 171, 238, 317, 322 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 135, 316-317 Cambridge University, 4 Canada, 30 Canary Islands, 16 Cancer breast, 107 colon, 314 defined, 106 drug development approaches, 106-107 onco-proteins, 108 protein diagnostic, 314 skin, 122 Carbon chains in outer space, 286-287 crystalline forms, 258, 261-262, 277 fiber technology, 278 reactivity, 265 versatility, 261 See also Buckminsterfullerenes; Fullerenes Carbon, John, 112 Carbon dioxide, 44, 126, 171 Carbon monoxide, 41, 44 Carnegie Institution of Washington, 147, 298-299 Carnegie-Mellon University, 30 Carr, Chavela, 311 Catalysts, 44, 292 Cavendish laboratory (Great Britain), 18 cdc-2 kinase, 103 Cells catalyst, 292 cycle, 99, 100-103, 104, 111, 114, 115

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier endycytosis, 71 fusion experiments, 104-105 G1 phase, 100-101, 104-105, 114, 115 G2 phase, 101 mitosis, 101-102, 103 regulatory proteins, 103 S phase, 101, 105, 108, 115 see also individual types of cells Cellular organelles, 57 Cellulose, 291 Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, 223 Ceramic oxides, 282 Cerenkov radiation, 25, 31 Cesium atoms, 53, 55 Chamberlain, Owen, 244 Chaos, 201 Chazelle, Bernard, 326 Chen, Nancy, 278 Chile, 16 Chinese hamster cells, 122 Chlorine, 23, 28 Chlorofluorocarbons, 318-320 Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen, 12 Chromosomes composition, 102 DNA replication origins on, 104, 111, 112 manipulation of, 58 Chu, Steven, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57 Circumstellar shells, 287 Coherent structures, 230 Coifman, Ronald, 196, 228, 231, 232 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 108-109, 111, 113 Columbia University, 176, 180 Coma supercluster, 222-223 Comets, 324 Communications, digital transmission, 205-206 Composite materials, 278 Computers fast Fourier transform algorithm, 206 graphics, 326 hardware design, 327 hypercube architectures, 327 transparent proofs, 325-326 see also Modeling and computer simulations Cornell University, 137, 214, 278 Cosmology, 251 Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 219 Cowan, Clyde, 20 Crick, Francis, 98-99, 293, 301, 302-303, 305 Critchfield, Charles, 21 Crumpler, Larry, 131-132 Curl, Robert F., 264, 277 Cyclin, 103 Cyclobutane, 317 D Dahlquist, Rick, 295 Dartmouth College, 222, 225 Daubechies, Ingrid, 215, 217, 220, 221, 222, 223, 226, 227 Davis, Raymond, 23, 25 Davis, Ron, 112 de Vries, Mattanjah, 267 Dehmelt, Hans, 45, 46, 50, 55, 58 Delambre, Jean-Baptiste, 201 Deubner, Franz-Ludwig, 8, 10 Deuterium oxide neutrino detector, 30-31 Deuteron, 22 Diamond, 261-262, 263, 276, 277, 284-285 Dideoxycytosine, 93 Dideoxyinosine, 93 Digital technology, sampling theorem and, 205 Dimers, 299, 309 Dimethylamino methylstilbazolium tosylate, 317 Dimethylamino nitro stilbene, 317 Dirac, P, A. M., 236, 240, 249 Dirichlet, Peter, 200 DNA antisense, 94-95 discovery, 98, 293 laser manipulation of, 57 ligase, 119, 121 polymerase I, 119, 121 polymerase III holoenzyme, 119, 120, 121 proliferation in cancer cells, 99 recombinant, 110, 293, 296 repair, 101, 121-122 structure, 98, 104, 120, 293, 298 synthesis, 101, 104-105 topoisomerases, 106-107, 120-121 transcription, 121 DNA replication accessory proteins, 116-122 autonomously replicating sequences, 112 bacterial, 110, 113, 117, 119, 120-121 cell cycle and, 99, 100-103, 104-105, 108, 111, 114, 115 Central Dogma, 75-76 deletion analysis, 112-113 error correction, 121-122 fork, 117-119 in fruit flies, 112 implications of research findings on, 113-116 initiator proteins, 105, 108, 110, 111-114 lagging and leading strands, 117-120 origin recognition complex, 111, 113, 115 ligation, 118 multiprotein initiation factor, 111, 116 Okazaki fragment, 118, 119, 120 order of, 116-117 origin recognition complex, 113, 115-116 primosome complex, 120 replicator, 105, 108, 111 Replicon model of duplication, 105 replisome, 111, 120 supercoiling, 120 SV40, 105, 108-109

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier tangles and odd structures, 117, 119, 120 viral, 108-109, 113, 114 in yeast, 104, 111-112, 114, 115-116, 120-121 Donoho, David, 224-225, 234 Doppler shifts, 5, 9, 15-16, 17, 48-49, 51 Dougherty, Dennis, 317-318 Drugs AIDS treatments, 91-97 anticancer drugs, 106-107 antitopoisomerases, 106-107 see also individual drugs Duvall, Thomas, 13 Dziedzic, J. B., 57 E Earth asthenosphere, 136, 160, 173 coalescence and differentiation, 128 comet and meteor impacts, 324-325 crustal plates, 160, 165 heat transfer, 138, 155, 160, 162 hot spots, 141 hypsometry, 130-131 interior temperature, 137-138 lithosphere, 136, 151, 173 mega-eruption, 132 plate tectonics, 129-130, 136, 138 seismic probes of interior, 135-136, 162 size, mass, and composition, 126 Yucatan crater, 146-147 Earthquake prediction California probabilities, 180-181, 183 characteristic earthquake hypothesis and, 165-168, 178, 183, 184, 186, 189, 190 elements of, 163-165 feasibility, 161 first modern theory of, 161 foreshock dilemma, 192-193 long-term forecasting, 173, 175, 179-180 Los Angeles, 177-178 paleoseismology and, 168, 169-172, 178 Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment, 155, 156, 165-168, 183 , 187, 190-193 plate slip rates and, 172-176 and politics, 178-182 recurrence models and, 166, 168, 183, 190 rupture dynamics and, 186, 187-190 scaling problems in models, 187 seismic cycle and, 182-183 slip-predictable model, 163 stress dilemma and, 184-187, 188 time-predictable behavior and, 163, 173 Earthquakes Big Bear, 175 cause, 160, 162, 173, 186-187 confining stress, 185 cycle hypothesis, 161, 168, 175 deep-focus, 164-165 elastic rebound theory, 161, 168, 173, 178, 183 equations, 158 Galway, 175 Homestead Valley, 175 hypocenter, 164 Imperial Valley, 189 intermediate-focus, 164 isoseismal map, 177 Joshua Tree, 175 Landers, 155-156, 174, 190 Loma Prieta, 155, 156, 158, 178-179, 180, 183, 185, 193 measurement scales, 158-159, 177 modeling and computer simulations, 161, 166, 188 Modified Mercali Intensity Scale, 159, 177 Morgan Hill, 189 North Palm Springs, 175 Pallett Creek history, 170-172, 178 Parkfield, 158, 183 precursors, 191-193 San Andreas Fault history, 170, 172 San Francisco (1906), 154, 161, 174, 190 seismic paths, 163 shallow-focus, 164 slipping friction and, 188 Southern California (1812), 176-177 stress released during, 184 "The Big One," 155, 156, 168, 174, 177-178, 192-193 tree ring dating of, 176-177 Ecole Normale Supérieure, 210 Ecole Polytechnique, 209, 210, 219 Eddington, Arthur, 21 Edison, Thomas, 232 Eigler, Don, 39 Einstein's theory of general relativity, 5, 13, 55, 240, 243 Einsweiler, Kevin, 250 Eisenberg, David, 312-314 El Niño, 222 Electric fields, 56 Electrical resistivity, 191 Electromagnetic waves, 204 Electrons charge on, 55, 236 mass, 249-250 neutrino, 20, 22, 23, 30, 31 radius, 55 shared, 40 subquark structure, 58 see also Quarks Van der Waals force, 39-40 wave properties, 56 Ellsworth, W. L., 161, 163-170, 173, 174, 176, 178, 179, 180, 182, 184, 187, 193 Endonuclease, 121 Enzymes, starch-digesting, 291 Epipodophyllotoxins, 107 Epperson, Jay, 228

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Escherichia coli, 101, 110, 111, 113, 117, 119, 120 Ethane, 261 Ethylene, 261 Eukaryotes, 110, 111-115, 120-121 Euler, Leonhard, 265 European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), 239, 241, 243, 244-245, 247, 248, 253-256 European Space Agency, 17 Exonucleases, 119 Exxon, 264 F Fahey, David, 319-320 Farge, Marie, 210, 220, 226, 229, 230 Fast Fourier transform, 206 Faults creep, 174, 191 dilatancy-fluid diffusion model, 186 geometry, 164 groundwater monitoring, 192 lock-up, 173 under Los Angeles, 193 offsets, 169-170, 173 plate movement and, 170, 172-173, 174 radiometric dating of ruptures, 170, 171 rupture dynamics, 186, 187-190 slip rates, 174 slipping friction, 188-189, 190 strain detection, 191-192 stratigraphic map of ruptures, 171 tilt measurements, 192 trace, 164, 169 transform zones, 173 wave structure and behavior of, 193 see also San Andreas fault FBI, 231 Feldspar, 128 Fermi, Enrico, 19, 23 Fermilab, 241, 243, 244, 245, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256 Ferromagnets, organic, 317-318 Feynman, Richard, 34 Fiber optics, 222 Fifth International Symposium on Small Particles and Inorganic Clusters , 269 Fingerprint compression, 231 Fourier, Joseph, 198-200 Fourier analysis advantages of, 226 applications, 197, 200, 203, 204, 233-234 and digital technology, 205-206 extraction of information from, 204-205 Fourier series, 202, 203-204 Fourier transforms, 200, 202, 204, 206, 207, 208, 227 functions, 200-201 heat diffusion equations, 204 history of, 198-200 image compression with, 227 in information processing, 207 limitations of, 207-208, 210, 213, 216, 231 mathematical statement, 200 misuse of, 206-207 phase errors, 208 temperature predictions with, 203 time information in, 208 of turbulence, 229 vulnerability to errors, 208 windowed, 208, 211, 214, 217, 232 see also Wavelet analysis Fourier tachometer, 16-17 Fractals, 201, 223 Franconi's anemia, 122 Franklin, Rosalind, 293 Frazier, Michael, 196, 228 Free University of Amsterdam, 324 Freedman, Michael, 321 French Revolution, 198 Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), 112 Fuller, R. Buckminster, 259, 265 Fullerenes, 43; see also Buckminsterfullerenes applications, 259-260, 276, 278, 284-285 C70, 259, 260, 266, 267, 269, 272, 273, 275, 276, 277, 284-285, 287 diamond films from, 284-285 discovery, 263-269, 286 formation mechanisms, 272-273 metallo-, 260, 282-284, 285, 287 nonfullerene, 277-279 in outer space, 286-288 predicted discovery of, 262, 263 products, 276 properties, 260 sources and abundance, 259, 263 structure, 260, 263, 266, 275 superconductors, 283 Fullerite, 273 Fusion reaction, 21 G g-factor, 45-46 Galileo, 2-3 Gallium neurino detector, 27-28, 29 Gamma rays, 22 Gell-Mann, Murray, 238-242 Genes APC, 314 DNA recognition, 114-115 DNA repair, 122 regulation of, 298-301 Genetic code, 98; see also DNA defects, 290 Genetics experimental approaches to study of, 99 HIV, 77-79, 80 Germanium neutrino detector, 27, 28 Gilbert, G. K., 161, 169, 190 Glaser, Donald, 254 Glashow, Sheldon, 240, 241, 245

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Global Oscillation Network Group, 15 Gluons, 46, 252 Glycoproteins, 64-65, 78, 80, 81, 86, 90 Gough, Douglas, 4, 7, 10, 11, 13, 18, 25, 26 Granuloma, 91 Graphite, 261-263, 264-265, 267-268, 277, 278 Gravity acceleration of, 56 anomalies, 136-137 Fourier analysis applied to, 207 Higgs particle and, 250 Newton's differential equations, 199-200 Venus PVO data, 141 Great Britain, 18, 30 Grimm, Robert, 135, 140-141, 144, 147-148, 149, 150-151 Grossmann, Alex, 209, 210-211, 216, 217, 220, 224, 226, 228, 229, 233 Gyrase, 121 H Hafnium, 283 Hansch, Ted, 51 Harbury, Pehr, 308-310, 312 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 5 Harvard University, 245, 278 Harvey, John, 13 Hassen, Chuck, 276 Hawaii, 16, 141 Hawaiian swell, 137 Hawkins, Joel, 274 Hayward fault system, 181 He, Zheng-Xu, 321 Head, James, 131-132, 143 Healy, Dennis, Jr., 222, 228 Heath, James R., 264 Heaton, Tom, 163, 174, 183-190, 193 Heisenberg, Werner, 236 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 221-222, 227 Helicases, 111, 117, 120, 122 Helioseismology, 4 agenda, 14 network, 4-5, 9, 14, 15-18 see also Solar/sun Helium-3, 22 Helium-4, 22 Hemoglobins, 295 Hendrickson, Wayne, 308 Hess, Paul, 148 Higgs, Peter W., 249 Higgs particle, 249-251, 252, 253, 256-257 Himalayas, 137 HIV acute phase of infection, 83-84 assembly of components, 79-81 asymptomatic phase of infection, 84-85, 92, 94, 96 body fluids containing, 83 culture conditions and behavior of, 87 early stages of infection, 83 env gene, 78 gag gene, 78, 80 genetic complexity, 77-79 immune response to, 62-63, 84, 87 infection process, 71-72, 76-77, 81-85, 87-88 life cycle, 70-75 mutability, 90, 92 natural history, 60-61, 81, 88 pathogenicity, 79 pol gene, 78 protein synthesis and functions, 77, 78, 80, 86-87, 90 receptor contact, 70-72, 90-91, 93 replication, 66, 74-75, 79, 87, 92, 94-95 research goals and strategies, 73, 77 routes of infection, 71-72, 76 shedding, 85-88 structure, 64-66, 78, 80-81, 86-87 switching from latent to active infection, 77, 78-79, 91, 95 target for infection, 69, 70, 71 transition to AIDS, 81-88 transmission modes, 81-84 uncoating process, 72-73, 93 U.S. incidence, 61 vaccines, 88-91, 92 vulnerability in air, 80-81 worldwide infections, 63 Hooft, Gerard, 240, 250 Hopkins, Michael, 321 Hubble Space Telescope, 16 Huberman, Joel A., 114-115 Huffman, Donald, 268, 274, 275, 276, 277 Hugo, Victor, 199 Hunziker, Heinrich, 267 Hurtwitz, Jerard, 108 Hut, Piet, 324, 325 Huth, John, 253 Hwang, Wen Liang, 225 I IBM Almaden Research Center, 39, 43, 260, 266, 273, 274, 275, 278, 284, 285 Zurich Research Laboratory, 37 Image compression, 227-228 encoding contours and textures, 233 processing, 219, 220, 223, 224 Imaging atoms, 38 circular dichromism, 302 solar, 9, 15-18 see also specific technologies Immune system elements, 66-69 enhancers, 92 HIV interaction with, 62-63, 86-88 immunological memory, 89 response to infection, 67-70, 81, 291

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Imperial fault zone, 181 India, 16 Inertial sensor, 56 Information compression, 213, 217, 226-228, 231 processing, 207, 233 theory, 205 Institut du Globe, 222 Institute for Advanced Study, 22, 324 Institute for Theoretical Physics, 161 Institute of Spectroscopy (Moscow), 49 Integrase, 76, 78, 80, 81, 94 Interferometry, 55-56, 58 Interferons, 95 International Astronomical Union, 152 Interstellar dust, 287 Interstellar lines, diffuse, 287 Io, 124 Ion cooling and trapping, 50-51 Iron, 128 Isoleucine, 310, 311 Isostatic compensation of mountains, 136-137 Italy, GALLEX detector, 27-28 Izenberg, Noam, 148 J J/psi particle, 242, 244 Jacob, François, 105 Jacobi, Carl, 201-202 Jacoby, Gordon, 176 Jahns, Richards, 169, 171 James, Thomas, 306 Japan, Kamiokande neutrino detectors, 25, 27, 31 Johns Hopkins University, 108, 314 Johnson, Robert D., 260, 271, 273 Johnstone, Iain, 224, 225 Jones, D. E. H., 262 Joyce, James, 239 Jupiter, 124 K Kaposi's sarcoma, 62, 96 Kasevich, Mark, 54, 56 Kelly, Thomas, 108 Keratin, 301, 302-303 Kerkyacharian, Gerard, 224 Kim, Peter, 298, 301, 302, 308, 311 Kinases, 103, 114 Klawe, Maria, 326 Kolmogorov, Andrei, 226-227 Körner, T. W., 200, 201, 207 Kratschmer, Wolfgang, 268, 275, 276, 277 Kroto, Harold W., 264, 265, 266, 271, 275, 286-288 Kuhn, Jeffrey, 14 L Lagrange, Joseph, 201 Lamb, Lowell D., 275, 277 Lanthanum, 283 Lasers atomic manipulations with, 34-35, 56-58 biological applications, 56-58 chirp cooling, 49 cooling of atoms, 48-50, 51 cooling of ions, 50 interferometry, 55-56 molasses beams, 51-52, 53 polarizable molecules in, 316-317 and polystyrene spheres, 57 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 250 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 11 Laws of physics conservation of energy, 18 conservation of linear and angular momentum, 18-19 Lawson, Andrew, 164 Lay, Thorne, 162 Lederman, Leon, 245 Legionnaire's disease, 61 Leibacher, John, 5, 6, 8 Leighton, Robert, 5 Leighton, Tom, 327 Letokhov, Vladilen, 52 Leucine zipper asparagine rule, 311-312 coiled coil, 301-302, 308-311 and gene regulation, 298-301 imaging, 302 synthesis, 302 Leukemia, 122 Levi, Barbara Goss, 30 Li, Joachim, 108, 114, 115, 116 Libbrecht, Ken, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16 Ligase, 119, 121 Lindh, Al, 155, 165, 180, 181, 193 Lithium niobate, 317 Long-Duration Exposure Facility, 288 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 20 Lutz, Chris, 43 Lysozyme, 295, 296, 297 M Macrophages, 68, 69, 71, 72, 82, 86 Magnetic fields atom cooling, 49 atom trapping with, 52-53, 56 as earthquake precursors, 191 solar, 14, 15 Zeeman effect, 49, 50, 53 Magnetic resonance imaging, 222, 228 Magnetohydrodynamics, 16 Malin, Michael, 143-144, 147, 152 Mallat, Stéphane, 219-220, 221, 224, 225, 232 Marder, Seth, 316-317 Marr, David, 209, 219, 231 Mars geologic history, 129 surface features, 124 Tharis Mons volcano, 141 Viking landings, 143 Mass extinctions, 323-325 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 147, 165, 209, 225, 301, 318 , 321, 327

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp., 276 Materials science, 316-318 Mathematical analysis differential equations, 199-200, 203, 228 Fourier's definition, 199 goal of, 201, 203 linear partial differential equations, 200 nonlinear equations, 230 practical applications, 196-197 see also Fourier analysis; Wavelet analysis Matrices, compression, 228 Matsumura, Masazumi, 297 Matthews, Brian, 295, 296, 297, 298 Maturation-promoting factor, 103 Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 267, 276 Maxwell, James Clark, 199, 240 McEvilly, Tom, 166, 167 McIntosh, Lawrence, 303, 308 McKnight, Steven, 298-299, 301, 303, 308 McNutt, Marcia, 165, 166, 169, 187 Medical Research Council (Cambridge, England), 106 Meijer, Gerard, 267, 272 Mendeleev, Dmitri, 238, 239 Mercury (element), ion, 51 Mercury (planet) geologic history, 129 orbit, 13 Meredith, Gerald, 317 Metcalf, Harold, 49 Meteorites, fullerenes in, 287-288 Meyer, Yves, 196, 197, 207, 208, 209, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221 , 223, 226, 229, 231 Michaels, Al, 178 Michelson Doppler Imager, 17 Michelson interferometer, 16-17 Michigan State University, 5, 14, 196 Microscope atomic force, 43-44 DNA studies, 104 electron, 117 light, integration with lasers, 57 mathematical, see Wavelet analysis see also Scanning tunneling microscope Mikheyev, Stanislav, 30 Military target identification, 231 Milne, John, 168 Milnor, John, 321 Mitoxantrone, 107 Modeling and computer simulations buckyball simulation, 261 dilatancy-fluid diffusion, 186 distance geometric algorithm, 307 earthquakes, 161, 163, 166, 188 geophysical, 151, 160 leucine zipper, 300-301 MSW (neutrino oscillations), 30 protein structure, 304-307 schwarzite, 278 seismological, 162 solar, 3, 4, 5-6, 10, 11-12, 13-15, 25-26, 28 turbulence, 230 Molecular pliers, 274 Molina, Mario, 318-319 Mononucleosis, 83 Montanari, Alessandro, 324 Moon (Earth's) Apollo missions, 128 differentiation, 128 geologic activity, 128-129, 152 surface features, 128, 129 Morlet, Jean, 210, 211-212, 215 Morrow, Cherilynn, 12 Moshary, Fred, 278 Mount Wilson, 5 Muons, 20 Music, 205, 207, 208, 229-230, 232 Myosin, 57 N Nakata, T., 161 Namiki, Noriyuki, 147 Nanocrystals, 323 Nanotechnology, 260, 284 Napoleon, 198-199 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 152 Goddard Space Flight Center, 13 Pioneer Venus Orbiter, 130-131 Solar and Helispheric Observatory, 17 National Center for Atmospheric Research (Colorado), 12 National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, 180 National Earthquake Prediction Observatory, 190, 193 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 49, 50-51, 53 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 319 National Science Foundation, 15-16, 169 National Solar Observatory (Tucson), 5, 13, 16 Nature magazine, 19, 302 NEC Corporation, 277 Ne'eman, Yuval, 238 Neptune, 124 Nerve cells, 71, 100 Neurotransmitters, 71 Neutrinos astronomy, 23 BOREXINO detector, 31 capture, 20, 23, 31 deficits, 18, 25, 26, 28, 31 deuterium oxide detector, 30-31 electron, 20, 22, 23, 30, 31 energy spectra, 28 GALLEX detector, 27-28, 30 high-energy, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28 Homestead detector, 24, 25, 28, 30 hypothesis, 18-19 Kamiokande detectors, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31 lower-energy, 26, 27, 28 muon, 20, 28, 30, 31 observatories, 23-30

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier oscillations, 16, 28, 30 positron, 22 production rates, 26 Project Poltergeist, 20 solar flux, 25 sources, 22, 23, 26, 27, 31 Soviet-American Gallium Experiment, 27, 29, 30 tau, 20, 28, 30, 31 Neutrons, 22 Newton, Isaac, 199, 257 Nickel atomic surface, 39, 40 in Earth's core, 128 Nobel prize winners, 38, 209, 254, 293 Noise filtration, 223-225 Nonlinear systems, behavior of, 207 Northwestern University, 285 Noyes, Robert, 5 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 269, 271-273, 292, 293, 294, 303, 305-308 Nuclear reactions, proton-proton, 21-22, 23, 26, 27 Nuclear reactors, 20, 31 Nyquist, Harry, 205 O Oas, Terry, 303, 308 O'Brien, Sean C., 264 Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, 222 Observatory of Nice (France), 9 Oliver, Bernard, 205-206 Olivine, 128 Omega-minus particle, 238, 241 Optical molasses, 51-52 nonlinear materials, 285 signal switching, 316-317 thin films, 285 transitions, 55 tweezers, 57-58 O'Shea, Erin, 301, 302, 303, 305, 308 Osmium tetroxide, 274 Ozone holes, 318-320 P Paleoseismology and, 168, 169-172, 178 Paramagnets, 318 Parmentier, Marc, 148 Particle accelerators Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, 241 beam energy, 238 Bevatron, 244 colliding beam type, 243-245, 251 computer processing of signals, 255 Cosmotron, 243 detectors, 247, 248, 254, 255, 256 discovery of new particles, 237-238 energy of collisional debris, 256 experiments, 21 Large Electron-Positron Collider, 246, 247, 251-252, 253 Large Hadron Collider, 252, 253, 256 magnets, 252-253 m-Phenylene, 317 principles of operation, 237, 239 Stanford Linear Collider, 239, 241, 242, 244, 247, 249 Stanford Positron-Electron Accelerating Ring, 244 Super Proton Synchrotron, 244-245 Superconducting Supercollider, 252, 253, 255-256 synchrotron radiation problems, 251-252 Tevatron, 251 Particle physics beta decay, 18, 19 electroweak theory, 240, 241, 243, 245, 246, 250, 257 grand unified theories in, 30, 240, 314 Standard Model, 21, 237, 242, 249-250, 257 strong force, 21 SU3 theory, 238, 241, 242 weak nuclear force, 19, 20 see also individual particles Pathogens extracellular vs. intracellular, 67-68 immune response to, 69 protective/camouflage mechanisms, 69-70 see also Bacteria; HIV; Viruses Pauli, Wolfgang, 18, 19 Pauling, Linus, 301, 302-303 Peptides, 68, 90, 91 Perchloroethylene, 23, 24, 28 Peyers patches, 82 m-Phenylene, 318 Phillips, Roger, 134, 141, 143, 144, 147-148, 151 Phillips, William, 49 Phosphorylation, 114 Photomultiplier tubes, 20, 25, 31 Photons, cyclic absorption and reemission of, 48-49 Physics constants, checks of, 55 Nobel prize in, 38 origin of mass, 249, 256 see also Laws of physics Picard, Dominique, 224 Piezoelectricity, 36, 37 Pierce, John, 205-206 Planck's constant, 55 Planetary age estimation by crater counting, 129, 132-135 evolution, 128 formation, fullerenes, 287 heat dissipation and generation, 128-130 Planetesimals, 128 Plasma physics, 16 Plastic crystals, 273 Plate tectonics, 129-130, 131, 136, 139-140, 150, 160, 161, 172, 173-174, 193

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Platinum, 41 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 62 Pockels effect, 316, 317 Poincaré, Henri, 201 Polchinski, Joseph, 251 Polio, 61, 81 Polymer elasticity, 57 Polymerases, 111, 117, 119, 120, 121 Polymerization reactions, 119 Polypeptides, 115-116 Polystyrene spheres, lasing, 56 Pomerantz, Martin, 13 Pontecorvo, Bruno, 23, 30 Positrons, 22, 45-46, 237, 244, 250 Potassium, 280-282 Primase, 111, 120 Princeton University, 326 Priscilla Positron, 45-46, 50 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, 111 Protease, 78, 80 Proteins accessory, for DNA replication, 116-122 alpha helices, 298-303 amino acid sequence, 292-293, 296, 304 anatomy of, 292 C-EBP, 300 cancer diagnostic system, 314 cell-free extracts, 108 cell regulatory, 103 coiled coil, 301, 303, 308-311, 313 core, 297, 298 crystallization for analysis, 294, 304, 308 defects, 290 designing, 291, 297-298 dna A, 110, 111, 116 DNA-binding, 300 DNA coding and manufacture of, 75-76 DNA initiator, 105, 108, 110, 111, 113 electron density data, 304-305 folding, 292-294, 295, 297, 300, 301, 308-311, 312 fos, 300 helix destabilizing, 117 HIV synthesis and assembly of, 78-79, 80 jun, 300 leucine zipper, 298-304, 308 manipulation of, 290-291 myc, 300 Nef, 79, 87 NMR analysis, 292, 293, 294-295, 303, 307 nuclear, 106 onco-, 108 properties, 292 rep, 120 regulatory, 103, 298-301 replication, 111 Rev, 79, 94 single-stranded DNA-binding, 117, 120 stability of, 295-297 structure predictions from sequence, 312-314 superstable, 297-298 Tat, 78-79, 86-87, 94 three-dimensional structure, 291-292, 293 x-ray crystallography, 292, 293-294, 296, 302-308 Protons, 21, 22, 252 Proto-oncogenes, 300 Puerto Rico, 127 Pyroxene, 128 Q Quantum chromodynamics, 46 Quantum-confined semiconductors, 321-323 Quantum dots, 323 Quantum electrodynamics, 46, 55, 240 Quantum mechanics, 46, 55, 56, 204, 210, 220, 236, 240, 246 Quantum wells, 323 Quantum wires, 323 Quarks, 46, 252 bottom, 245, 248 charm, 241, 242, 245, 254 detector requirements, 254 down, 241 electric charge, 239 masses, 250 number of families, 247, 250 strange, 241, 245 top, 245, 248, 253, 256, 257 up, 241 Quate, Calvin, 38, 43, 45 Quills, 302-303 R Radio frequency currents, 191 Radiocarbon dating, 171, 172 Radiometric dating, 170, 171 Raman spectroscopy, 269, 270-271, 279 Raubertas, Richard, 134 Reed, Mark A., 284 Regis Chemical Company, 276 Reid, Harry Fielding, 161, 173 Reines, Frederick, 20 Replication factor c, 111 Research Corporation Technologies, 276, 285 Reverse transcriptase, 74, 76, 78, 80, 81, 90, 93, 94 Reverse transcription, 76-77, 81 Reynolds number for atmospheric interactions, 230 Rhodes, Edward, 10 Ribonuclease, 292-293 Rice, Jim, 187 Rice University, 264, 283, 286 Richter, Burton, 241, 242 Richter, Charles F., 158 RNA central dogma, 75-76 HIV, 80-81 primer, 118, 119, 120 Rocket propellant, 285-286 Rohrer, Heinrich, 37-38 Rokhlin, Vladimir, 228-229 Rosen, Hal J., 271

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 114 Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 229-230 Rubbia, Carlo, 245, 253, 254 Rubidium, 282 Russia Institute of Spectroscopy (Moscow), 49 see also Soviet S Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 112, 113, 114 Sampling theorem, 205, 220 San Andreas fault, 154, 155 characteristic earthquake model applied to, 167 creeping section, 165 extent, 164 failure potential, 175, 183 history of earthquakes on, 170, 172, 176-177 Loma Prieta earthquake and motion on, 179 locked-up section, 165 offsets, 169-170, 174 probabilities of earthquakes on, 181 San Bernardino Mountains segment, 175 Santa Cruz segment, 180, 183 seismic cycle, 167-168 shear strain, 185 slip rates, 174, 179 San Jacinto fault system, 181 Sandblow formations, 170 Savannah River reactor, 20 Scandium, 283, 284 Scanning tunneling microscope atomic switching application, 42-43 buckyball photograph, 269, 274, 275 features, 36-37 first, 37-38 imaging, 38-39, 40, 41 limitations of, 43-45 manipulation of atoms, 34, 40, 41, 56 precision of, 35-36, 44-45 principle, 36 problems, 38 tunneling current, 37 Schaber, Gerald, 132, 133-134, 135, 143, 144, 149, 151 Schawlow, Arthur, 51 Scholz, Chris, 180, 186 Schroedinger, Erwin, 236 Schwarzite, 278-279 Scripps Research Institute, 297 Segall, Paul, 166 Segre, Emilio, 244 Seismic cycle, 168, 182-183 tomography, 162 waves, 162, 163, 179 Seismographs, 161, 162, 168 Seismography, 158 Seismology, 162 Seismometers, network, 191 Semiconductors, 260, 285 quantum-confined, 321-323 Shannon, Claude, 205, 220 Sheehan, Peter, 324 Shinomura, Katsumi, 320-321 Shungite, 287 Sibson, Rick, 186 Sickle cell anemia, 290 Sieh, Kerry, 169-172, 173-178, 179, 183, 193 Signal processing, 209, 210 Silvera, Isaac, 278 Simon, George, 5, 10 Sister chromatids, 102 Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 108 Smalley, Richard E., 264, 277, 286 Smallpox, 61 Smirnov, Alexi, 30 Smit, Jan, 324 Smith, Paul J., 106, 107 Smrekar, Suzanne, 135, 138, 140-141, 145-146, 147-148, 152 Sodium atoms, 48-50, 54 Solar/sun acoustic waves, 3-12, 13-18, 26 astronomy, 3, 9 boron reactions, 22, 23, 25 convection cells, 3, 4, 16 convection zone, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 26 core, 13, 18, 26, 28 coronal holes, 3 cycle, 14, 15, 26, 319 Doppler shifts, 5, 9, 15-16, 17 f-modes, 6 flares, 3, 14 flux tubes, 14 fusion reactions, 4 g-modes, 6, 18 granules, 5 helium production, 22, 25 imaging, 9, 15-18 inner rotation, 4, 11-12, 13, 16, 26 magnetic fields, 14, 15 modeling and computer simulations, 3, 4, 5-6, 10, 11-12, 13-15, 25 -26, 28 neutrinos, 18-21, 22, 23-30 opacity, 11, 14 p-modes, 6, 8, 10, 14 power source, 21-23, 240 prominences, 3 radiative transfer, 16 spectral measurements, 5 speed of sound in, 11, 26 spots, 2, 14 surface, 3, 6, 7 telescopes, 5 temperatures, 7, 14, 25, 28 turbulent convection, 7 see also Helioseismology Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, 17 Solomon, Sean, 147 Sound waves, 203-204, 205 Soviet-American Gallium Experiment, 27 Soviet Union Veneras missions, 127, 130, 131 wavelet analysis, 229 Space exploration Apollo missions, 128 Magellan, 125-126, 131-132, 134, 135, 140, 142-143, 144, 148, 150

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Mariner missions, 127 Pioneer Venus Orbiter, 130-131, 136, 137, 141 with radio telescopes, 127 Soviet, 127, 128, 130 Venera missions, 127, 128, 132 Viking landings, 143 Voyager2, 124 Speech compression, 233 Speed of light, 55 Stanford University, 38, 43, 51, 52, 54, 112, 165, 166, 169, 185, 224 Stars carbon-rich, 264, 267, 286 core temperature, 21 see also Solar/sun Static electricity, 51-52 Statistics, wavelet transforms in, 224 Steigerwald, Michael, 322 Stein, Robert, 5, 6, 8 Stillman, Bruce, 106, 108, 111, 113, 114-115 Stock, Joann, 191, 192 Streisinger, George, 295, 296 Strichartz, Robert, 214 Strom, Robert, 132 Stromberg, J. O., 218 Stuvier, Minze, 171 Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, 30-31 Sulfuric acid, 127 Sun, see Solar/sun Superantigens, 87 Superconducting wires, 282 Superconductivity, 260, 280-281 Supersonic cluster beam device, 264 Surfaces, reactions on, 44 SV40 DNA replication studies in, 105, 108-109, 111 T antigen, 108, 111 Swift, Jonathan, 34 Swinburne, Nicola, 324 Switzerland IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, 37 T T antigen, 108, 111, 113, 116 T-cells CD4 surface molecules, 71, 72, 74, 77, 80, 81, 82, 86, 90-91, 92, 93 helper, 68-69, 70, 71-72, 82, 85, 86, 87-88, 93 killer, 68, 69, 71-72, 84, 86, 87, 88 Tang, Wade, 271 Tarjan, Robert, 326 TATA box, 114 Tau, 21 Telescopes, 2 radio, 127 tungsten, 36 underground, 23-30 Teller, Edward, 38 Temperature ultralow, 54, 55-56 wavelet analysis, 214 Tetanus, 61 Tetramers, 309, 310 Thatcher, Wayne, 191 Ting, Samuel, 241, 242 Titanium, 283 Tjian, Robert, 108 Topoisomerases, 106, 120-121 Topology, 320-321 Toxic shock syndrome, 61 Trimers, 309, 310 Trimethylenemethane, 317 Triton, 124 Trypsin inhibitor, 302 Tsunami, 324, 325 Tuberculosis, 61-62, 91 Tullis, Terry, 188 Tungsten, 38 Turbulence, wavelet analysis applied to, 228-230 Turcott, Donald, 137-138, 140, 147, 151, 152 Tycko, Robert, 273 Typhoid, 61 U Ubiquitin, 103 Ulrich, Roger, 5, 6, 8, 10, 22 Ultraviolet radiation, 121, 122 University of Arizona, 132, 268, 274, 275, 276 Birmingham (Great Britain), 9 British Columbia, 326 California at Berkeley, 108, 114, 163, 166, 171, 224, 244, 254, 274 , 291, 324 California at Irvine, 58 California at Los Angeles, 5, 259, 281, 282, 284, 285-286, 312 California at San Francisco, 114, 306 California at Santa Barbara, 112, 259 California at Santa Cruz, 155, 162, 165 Chicago, 219, 326 Colorado, 12, 226 Edinburgh, 249 Illinois at Urbana, 219, 276 Nevada at Reno, 188 Nijmegen, 267 Oregon, 295 Paris-Dauphine, 196 Paris-Jussieu, 224 Pennsylvania, 23, 219 Picardy, 234 Rochester, 134 South Carolina, 225 Southern California, 10 Sussex, 264, 271, 286 Texas, 251 Utah, 290-291, 298, 314 Washington, 45, 171 U.S. Geological Survey, 132, 155, 163, 165, 168, 179, 182, 183, 191, 193 V Vaccines BCG, 91 development approaches, 90, 91 HIV, 89-91

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier and immunological memory, 89 polio, 89 viral mutability and, 90-91, 92 Vahala, Kerry, 323 Valine, 310 Van der Waals force, 39 Van Wyck, Chris, 326 Veltman, Martinus, 250 Venice (floods), 207 Venus Aphrodite Terra, 130, 132, 136, 142, 148, 149 apparent depth of compensation, 136-137, 140, 148, 149 atmosphere, 126, 127, 130, 132 Beta Regio, 144, 148 Cleopatra crater, 146-147 clouds, 126-127 coronae, 125-126, 139-140, 142, 144 crater controversy, 131-135, 144-147, 148-149 distributed deformation hypothesis, 149-151 Eistla Regio, 141-142, 149, 151 fractures, 139, 144 geologic activity, 130, 131, 132-133, 139-140, 142-143 global resurfacing model, 132-135, 138, 151 gravity anomalies, 142, 148 gravity map, 136, 137, 141 heat transfers, 137, 138-139 ''hibernating Venus," hypothesis, 151 hot spots, 147-148 hypsometric profile, 131 Ishtar Terra, 130, 136, 142 isostatic compensations, 141 landslides, 147 Lavinia Planitia, 136, 150 lithosphere, 131, 137, 138-138, 140, 142, 145, 147, 148, 149-150, 151, 152 lithospheric recycling, 139-140 Magellan exploration of, 125, 130-131, 134, 135, 142-143, 144, 148, 150 mantle convection, 141 Maxwell Montes, 145-146, 147, 152 naming of features, 152 orbit, 152 pressures, 127 quakes, 147 residuum layer, 147-148 River Styx, 126 RMS slope map, 144-145 runaway greenhouse heating, 142 seismic lander, 152 size, mass, and composition, 126, 127 Soviet exploration of, 127, 130, 131, 132 surface features, 125, 127, 130, 131, 141-142 tectonic activity, 143-147, 148, 150, 152 temperatures, 127, 138 terrain classes, 149 tesserae, 125, 145 volcanism, 140-143, 148 winds, 127 Vibrio harveyi, 110 Viruses assembly of components, 79-80 DNA replication, 108, 111, 114 interaction with host cell receptors, 71 interior probes, 135-138 genetic complexity, 99 replication, 67, 72, 73, 75, 105 retroviruses, 76, 78, 79-80; see also HIV structure, 63-64, 73 T4 lysozyme, 295 violation of central dogma, 76-77 Vogelstein, Bert, 314 Volcanoes/volcanism coronae, 142 hot spot, 141 lunar, 129 mega-eruption, 132 Venusian, 125, 131, 141-143, 148 von Weizsacker, Carl, 21 VP-16 W W particles, 243, 244, 245, 250, 253, 254 Wallace, Robert, 164, 173-174, 178 Wallace Creek offsets, 174 Washington University, 134, 223 Watson, James, 98, 293, 305 Waveform dictionaries, 232 Wavelet analysis algorithmic compression, 228 algorithms for calculation of coefficients, 220 applications, 197, 213, 220, 222-223 in astronomy, 222-223 basis, 224 coefficient calculations, 211-212, 230 compact support, 220, 221 comparison of coefficients at different resolutions, 223 continuous representations, 215, 217, 225, 229 cross-disciplinary nature of, 210 Daubechies wavelet, 215, 221 fingerprint compression, 231 goals of analysis, 211 Harr function and, 218 and Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 221-222 history of, 198, 209-211 in image processing, 219, 220, 222, 224 imprecision about frequency, 222 information compression with, 213, 217, 226-228, 229, 231-232 interpretation problems, 225-226 limitations of, 231 Matching Pursuits systems, 232-233 maxima, 225

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A Positron Named Priscilla: Scientific Discovery at the Frontier Morlet wavelet, 215 multiresolution component, 212-213, 216-217, 219-220, 221 in music, 229, 232 noise filtration, 223-225 in ocean current studies, 222 order of wavelets, 215 othogonal transforms, 217-218, 220, 221, 225, 229-230 packets, 229, 231, 232 reconstruction of signal, 216, 224 redundancy in, 216-218 sampling theorem and, 220 scaling function, 214-216 in statistics, 224 target identification by helicopters, 231 theorems proved with, 222 turbulence and, 228-230 unification of, 219-220 wavelet transform, 212-213, 214-216, 217, 224 windowed Fourier analysis in, 211 Weakly interacting massive particles, 26 Weather prediction, 229 Weaver, John, 222, 228 Weinberg, Steven, 240, 251 Weinland, David, 50-51 Wendt, H. Russell, 267 Whetten, Robert L., 260, 263, 281, 282, 284, 285-286 White, Ray, 314 Whitehead, J. H. C., 320 Whitehead Institute, 298 Wickerhauser, Victor, 196, 223, 231, 232 Wilkerson, John, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31 Wilson, Kenneth, 209 Wilson, Robert, 274 Wolfenstein, Lincoln, 30 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 180, 183 X X-ray crystallography, 274, 292, 293-294, 296, 303-305, 306, 307, 308, 310 Xenon, 39, 40, 41 Xeroderma pigmentosum, 122 Y Yale University, 196, 228, 232, 284 Yannoni, Costantino, 273, 274 Yeasts, 99, 103, 111-114, 115-116, 120-121, 122 Yttrium, 283 Z Z particle, 240, 241, 243-248, 251, 253, 254 Zeeman effect, 49, 50, 53 Zeolites, 43 Zhang, Xue-Jun, 296 Zhang, Zhifeng, 224, 232 Zirconium, 283 Zoback, Mark, 185 Zweig, George, 239