TABLE 3.1 Conditions Included in the 1993 AIDS Surveillance Case Definition

Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs

Candidiasis, esophageal

Cervical cancer, invasive*

Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary

Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (> 1 month's duration)

Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen, or nodes)

Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with loss of vision)

HIV encephalopathy

Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (> 1 month's duration); or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis

Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (> 1 month's duration)

Kaposi's sarcoma

Lymphoma, Burkitt's (or equivalent term)

Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)

Lymphoma, primary in brain

Mycobacterium avium complex or M. kansasii, disseminated or extrapulmonary

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, any site (pulmonary* or extrapulmonary)

Mycobacterium, other species or unidentified species, disseminated or extrapulmonary

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

Pneumonia, recurrent*

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Salmonella septicemia, recurrent

Toxoplasmosis of brain

Wasting syndrome due to HIV

* Added in the 1993 expansion of the AIDS surveillance case definition.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, January, 1993

nothing more than a shell of protein that contains a packet of genes on the inside.

Viewed externally, each HIV particle is shaped like a 20-sided soccer-ball (see Figure 3.3). The virus takes its form from the protein making up its outer shell, which is sometimes called the capsid. Overlying the outer capsid is a lipid membrane, pilfered from the human host cells that the virus infects. Poking through the capsid and the membrane are proteins studded with sugars, called glycoproteins. The glycoproteins on HIV are often depicted as lollipop shaped. The stick of the lollipop is made of a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 41 kilodaltons, and, according to the convention of referring to proteins and glycoproteins by their molecular weights, it is named gp41. The "candy" of the lollipop is a

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