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CHINA BOUND

A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC

Revised

Anne F. Thurston with

Karen Turner-Gottschang and

Linda A. Reed for the

Committee on Scholarly Communication with China

American Council of Learned Societies

National Academy of Sciences

Social Science Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC CHINA BOUND A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC Revised Anne F. Thurston with Karen Turner-Gottschang and Linda A. Reed for the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China American Council of Learned Societies National Academy of Sciences Social Science Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this publication was sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China (formerly the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China). It is a revised edition of China Bound: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC, published in 1987. The Committee on Scholarly Communication with China (CSCC) is jointly sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Social Science Research Council. Since the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and China in 1979, the CSCC has developed programs with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and the State Education Commission, in addition to those with the China Association for Science and Technology, with whom the CSCC began exchanges in 1972. Current activities include a program for American graduate students and postdoctoral scholars to carry out long-term study or research in affiliation with Chinese universities and research institutes; a fellowship program for Chinese scholars to conduct research in the United States; and field development and training programs in archaeology, economics, international relations, law, library science, and sociology. This publication was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The accuracy of the information presented and the views expressed in this publication are the responsibility of the authors and not the sponsoring organizations. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Thurston, Anne F. China bound : a guide to academic life and work in the PRC / revised by Anne F. Thurston; with Karen Turner-Gottschang and Linda A. Reed. p. cm. "For the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China." Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04932-6 1. Foreign study—China. 2. American students—China. 3. Teachers, Foreign—China. 4. China—Description and travel. I. Turner-Gottschang, Karen. II. Reed, Linda A. III. Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (U.S.) IV. Title. LB2376.3.C6T48 1994 370.19'6—dc20———94-736 CIP Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The calligraphy appearing in the text was kindly prepared by Fu Shen, Curator of Chinese Art, Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The cover photograph is by Bernard Van Leer.

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC CHINA BOUND

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC Acknowledgments The author wishes to thank the following individuals for reading and commenting on this manuscript: Mark Bender, Ohio State University Mary Bullock, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Joan Carey, Committee on Scholarly Communication with China Keith Clemenger, Committee on Scholarly Communication with China Richard Connor, Texas A&M University Deborah Davis, Yale University James Feinerman, Committee on Scholarly Communication with China Robert Geyer, Committee on Scholarly Communication with China James Hargett, State University of New York at Albany Alice Hogan, National Science Foundation Mary Beth Kennedy, ICF Incorporated Scott Kennedy, The Brookings Institution Megan Klose, Committee on Scholarly Communication with China Beryl Leach, The World Bank John Olsen, University of Arizona Leo Orleans, Library of Congress Tony Reese, Yale-China Association Scott Rozelle, Stanford University David Shambaugh, University of London Audrey Spiro, independent scholar Karen Turner-Gottschang, Holy Cross College Cameron Wake, University of New Hampshire Andrew Walder, Harvard University Haynie Wheeler, Yale-China Association Meng Yang, Embassy of the People's Republic of China, Washington, D.C.

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC The author also wishes to thank Mary Ernst of the Council on International Exchange of Scholars and William Shine at the United States Information Agency for providing information and reports from Fulbright lecturers. This publication was supported with funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC Preface China Bound is a guidebook for American students, teachers, and researchers who plan to live and work in China. Its purpose is to help make the experience there as rich and rewarding as possible. The book introduces some of the available research and teaching opportunities and study programs. It explains the structure of China's academic institutions and relates the experiences of other Americans who have worked within them. It discusses the range of opportunities and suggests relevant strategies for archival and field research and collaborative projects in scientific laboratories. It provides advice ranging from preparation for departure to daily life in China—from bringing and setting up a computer to handling a medical emergency and how to stay healthy and fit. China Bound will be most useful to those who are going for the first time, but "old China hands" should find much of practical value as well. Americans' fascination with China is as old as the United States, and the "opening up" that began in 1979 has provided hundreds of thousands of Americans with the opportunity to experience China firsthand. Thousands of U.S. scholars, students, and teachers have resided in China, and their opportunity to learn about China from the inside has been unique. As many have returned to relate those experiences or publish their research results, our understanding of China has increased. Harold Isaacs, writing between 1949 and 1979, when only a handful of Americans were able to visit, noted a curious ambivalence in the American fascination with China—admiration coupled with fear, the China of Marco Polo contradicted by the China of Genghis Khan, the world's oldest civilization ruled by emperors with a capacity for cru-

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC elty. "In the long history of our associations with China, these two sets of images rise and fall, move in and out of the center of people's minds over time, never wholly displacing each other, always coexisting, each ready to emerge at the fresh call of circumstance," he wrote. The cycle of ambivalence that Isaacs describes has already been repeated in the years since the economic reforms of the 1980s encouraged more outsiders to live and work in China. The thrill of being able to live and work in China again was followed by horror over the Tiananmen Square tragedy of June 1989; the attraction we have for the Chinese people has been coupled with frustration over the Chinese bureaucracy; our excitement at the speed of China's economic development has been accompanied by distress over growing corruption; our hope for China's modernization has carried with it a deep concern that too much of the past is being destroyed. Isaacs also discovered that those who liked China most were those who knew it best. And what Americans liked best, in addition to China's rich history and culture, were the Chinese people. This is true today as well. After a brief hiatus in the wake of Tiananmen, American researchers, students, and teachers have returned to China to live, work, and learn. Americans going today, like those who have gone before, are likely to find their work—whether teaching, studying, or conducting research—to be deeply satisfying—indeed, among the richest and most rewarding of their lives. Many will have made lifelong Chinese friends—colleagues and research collaborators, fellow students, fellow teachers, or students taught, or the person met by chance encounter on a train. They will have been witnesses to a remarkable period in China's own history. China Bound was first published in 1981 shortly after academic exchanges were renewed; it was rewritten in 1987 by Linda Reed and Karen Turner-Gottschang. But China continues to change and, by 1992, many people who knew how valuable earlier editions of China Bound had been concluded that the time had come for another update. Kathlin Smith at the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China has guided the endeavor from its inception—securing funding, providing background materials, and supervising the preparation of the manuscript with unfailing good humor and efficiency. She has been assisted by three hardworking interns: Dan Ewing, from the Johns Hopkins University; S. Quinn Hanzel, from Georgetown University; and Richard Michael Victorio, also from Georgetown University. The book could not have been done without their contributions and assistance. My thanks to them all. This newly revised edition reflects not only changes in China but also the increasingly diverse experiences of American students, teachers, and researchers who have lived there. Both the preface and the

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC section on research are completely new. In making these revisions, I have spoken to dozens of Americans who have lived in China as researchers, students, and teachers, and I have read numerous reports that researchers have written for the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China (CSCC) as well as reports from many professors in the Fulbright program. The CSCC's China Exchange News has provided a wealth of information. In December 1992, I visited China and met with researchers, teachers, and students. I also have conducted research in China and lived for five years in Beijing. And I drew on many personal accounts in making these revisions. Although most people are not thanked by name, I would like to express my appreciation to everyone with whom I have spoken and whose accounts I have read, while noting, with apologies, that there is little way to do them justice here. Each individual's experience in China is unique, and the picture that emerges is one of great diversity. This guidebook attempts to reflect that diversity. At the same time, it also attempts to distill from many different experiences a core of advice for anyone planning to study, teach, or conduct research in China. The people consulted for this revision shared their experiences with the hope that others could benefit from them. ANNE F. THURSTON November 1993

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC This page in the original is blank.

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC Contents  1.   Research, Study, and Teaching in China   1      Research Fellowships and Grants   1      Social Sciences and Humanities   2      Sciences   2      Dissertation Research   3      Study   3      U.S. University-Sponsored Programs   4      Applying to Chinese Universities   4      Hopkins-Nanjing Center   4      Teaching   5      U.S.-Sponsored Programs   5      Chinese-Sponsored Opportunities   6      Spouses   7  2.   Preparing for the Trip   8      Leaving the United States   9      Passports and Visas   9      Inviting Relatives to China   12      Health Preparations   12      Medical Insurance   16      Medications and Toiletries   17      Money, Banking, and Credit Cards   18      Customs Regulations   20      Baggage and Shipping   23      Income Taxes   24

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC      Suggested Reading   24      Preparing for Daily Life   24      Clothing   26      Food and Cooking Supplies   29      Electrical Appliances   30      Office Equipment   31      Radios and Tape Recorders   35      Cameras and Film   35      Bicycles   37      I.D. Photos   37      Reading Material   37      Games   38      Gifts   38      Preparing for Professional Life   39      Researchers   40      Teachers   42  3.   Settling In   46      Arriving in China   46      The Tenor of Life in China   48      The Work Unit   48      The Foreign Affairs Office   51      The Quality of Life   53      Personal Relationships   57      Friendship   57      Guanxi   58      Reciprocity   60      Ritual   60      Legality and Ethics   65      The Foreign Community   68      Housing   69      Student Dormitories   72      Campus Apartments   74      Hotels   75      Arrangements for Accompanying Spouses and Children   77      The Academic Calendar   81  4.   Research   83      The Research Climate   83      Laying the Groundwork for Research   85      Implementing Your Plan   85      The Importance of Your Host Unit   85      The Research Proposal   89

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC      Fees   91      Finalizing a Plan   91      Archival Research   92      Research Affiliation   93      Use of Collections   94      Fees   95      Library Rules   96      Library Hours   97      Fieldwork   97      Costs   100      Placement in the Field   102      The Research Team   102      The Research Site   105      Equipment and Supplies   107      Survey Research   109      Laboratory Research   110      Short-term Academic Visits   112      Preparations   113      Academic Conferences   114  5.   Teaching   115      The Bureaucratic Structure   117      Workloads   119      Students   120      English Language Ability   121      Class Participation   122      Students' Prior Background   123      Homework and Workloads   123      The Class Monitor and Group Pressure   123      Student-Teacher Relationships   124      Plagiarism and ''Cheating"   124      Working Conditions   124      Professional Relationships   125      Social Relationships   126      Chinese Language Lessons   128      General Adjustment Advice   128  6.   Study   130      American-Sponsored Programs   130      Chinese-Language Institutes   132      Attending a Chinese University   133      Student Life   134      Classes   136

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC  7.   Services Available   138      The U.S. Embassy and Consulates   138      Postal Services   140      Currency and Banking   142      Electronic Mail, Fax, and Telex Facilities   143      The Telephone   144      Medical Care   145      Urban Transportation   147      Recreation and Entertainment   148      Internal Travel   149  8.   Leaving China   153     Glossary of Chinese Terms   155     Appendixes       A. Funding for Graduate and Postdoctoral Research in China   159     B. Language Study Programs in the People's Republic of China   173     C. Colleges and Universities Accepting Direct Application from Foreign Students   177     D. General Guidelines for Direct Application to a Chinese College or University as a Self-Sponsored Student and Excerpts from "Regulations Concerning the Admission of Foreign Students in Chinese Schools (1986)"   184     E. Visa Application for Foreigners Wishing to Study in China   194     F. The People's Republic of China Visa Application Form   195     G. Physical Examination Record for Foreigners   196     H. Organizations Sponsoring English Teachers in China   198     I. Application for Teaching Positions in China   201     J. Sample Contract for Teachers   205     K. American Express Emergency Check Cashing Locations   211     L. Approximate Costs of Hotel Rooms, Food, Internal Travel, Services, Clothing, and Medical Care, Fall 1993   214     M. Selected Reading List and References   220     N. Trial Procedures for Foreign Organizations and Individuals to Use Chinese Archives   225     O. Packing it in: Preparing for Fieldwork in the PRC   227     P. Student Advisory Resource Centers and General Reference Holdings   233     Q. Protocol Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China for Cooperation in Educational Exchanges   239     Index   243

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC CHINA BOUND

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CHINA BOUND: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC This page in the original is blank.