Index

A

Ability grouping, see Tracking of students

Abortion, 92, 96

Abuse and neglect, 18, 19, 54-55, 185

and child welfare system, 4, 180-185 passim, 188-189

and health care system, 6, 88

Accidents, see Injuries

Adolescent Diversion Project (ADP), 215

Adoption, 186

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, 176-177

After High School, Then What?, 126

AIDS, see HIV

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 47, 91, 129, 176

Alcohol use, 84, 241

during pregnancy, 18

American Medical Association (AMA), 87

Anorexia nervosa, 90

Apprenticeship, 209

Arrest, 10, 42, 74, 152, 153, 157-158

Asian population, 65

Assault, 82, 152,

see also Sexual assault and abuse

Assistance, see Welfare system

Attitude, see Demeanor

Authoritative parenting, 53, 54

Autism, 18

Autonomy, see Independence and autonomy issues

B

Basic skills, 32-33, 205, 210-211



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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Index A Ability grouping, see Tracking of students Abortion, 92, 96 Abuse and neglect, 18, 19, 54-55, 185 and child welfare system, 4, 180-185 passim, 188-189 and health care system, 6, 88 Accidents, see Injuries Adolescent Diversion Project (ADP), 215 Adoption, 186 Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, 176-177 After High School, Then What?, 126 AIDS, see HIV Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 47, 91, 129, 176 Alcohol use, 84, 241 during pregnancy, 18 American Medical Association (AMA), 87 Anorexia nervosa, 90 Apprenticeship, 209 Arrest, 10, 42, 74, 152, 153, 157-158 Asian population, 65 Assault, 82, 152, see also Sexual assault and abuse Assistance, see Welfare system Attitude, see Demeanor Authoritative parenting, 53, 54 Autism, 18 Autonomy, see Independence and autonomy issues B Basic skills, 32-33, 205, 210-211

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Black males and crime and justice system, 9-10, 33, 153, 154, 157-158, 163 educational achievement, 72, 112 employment, 25 life expectancy, 82 Black population, 3, 5, 16, 26, 54, 65, 88 crime, 76, 152-154 education, 32-33, 43, 68-69, 104, 111, 112 employment, 26-33 passim, 35, 127, 130 female-headed families, 34-35, 51 and justice system, 10, 33, 154-161, 163-164 teen mothers, 19, 52, 73-74 see also Black males Bottom-up decision making, 245-247 Bussing programs, 68 C Career Beginnings, 143-144, 211 Caregiving, see Parents and parenting Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act, 129, 130 Case management, 214-216 Cerebral palsy, 18 Chapter 1 programs, 108, 113-115, 118, 242 Childbearing, see Teenage pregnancy and parenting Child support payments, 46 Child welfare system, 4-5, 175-189 and abuse and neglect, 4, 180-185 passim, 188-189 alternatives, 200-201 outcomes, 183-185 research needs, 253 settings, 180-182 Childhood diseases, 95 Clinics, 89, 90 College education, 8, 25, 32, 36, 125 Community-based services, 11, 177-178, 186, 245-247 health care, 89-90, 204-205 job training, 129 model programs, 194, 198-203, 212-213, 219-220 Community Based Youth Services (CBYS), 177 Community development corporations (CDCs), 198-199 Compensatory education, 8, 103, 107, 113-115, 118 alternative programs, 206-207 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 135, 136 Comprehensive service programs, 212-220, 223, 238-239 multicultural approaches, 221-222 research needs, 254-255 see also Model service programs Concentrated poverty areas, see Economic stratification Confidentiality and consent issues, 95-97 Contraceptives, 85, 88, 92 Cooperative education, 133, 209 Counseling, see Case management; Mentoring programs Crack, see Drug markets

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Crime and criminal behavior, 5, 9, 42, 71, 74-76, 152-156, 167 by abused children, 55 as alternative to legitimate work, 33-34, 36, 74, 155, 165-166 and child welfare system, 181-182 and population density, 75, 160-161 see also Drug markets; Drug use and treatment; Justice system D Deaths, 81, 82-84 from abuse, 54 see also Homicide; Suicide Delinquency, see Crime and criminal behavior; Status offenses Demeanor and employment, 166 and police treatment, 158-160 Dental care, insurance, 92, 93 Depression, 82, 92 Development and developmental risks, 17-19, 42, 49-50 comprehensive services, 217-220 and early childbearing, 18-19 independence, 50, 180, 186-188, 219 research needs, 247-249, 253-254, 255-256 Discrimination, 221, 237, 244-245 in employment, 31-32, 71 in justice system, 10, 153, 157-164, 167-168, 245 research needs, 248 Divorce, 43, 45-46, 47, 51 and neighborhood crime, 75, 76 Drug markets, 5-6, 67-68 as alternative to legitimate work, 33, 34, 68, 155 Drug use and treatment, 6, 49, 81, 84, 88, 96 AIDS risk, 85 insurance coverage, 91, 92, 93, 94 during pregnancy, 18 prevention programs, 217 E Early childbearing, see Teenage pregnancy and parenting Earned income tax credit, 47 Earnings and wages, see Employment and unemployment Economic stratification, 5, 64-68, 70-77, 154-155, 236-237 and crime, 5, 9-10, 74-76, 152-156, 167 and educational achievement, 8, 72-73, 102-103, 117 and school finance and resources, 7, 68-69, 105-109, 117 and vocational education, 131-132 Education, see Compensatory education; Educational achievement; Grade retention; School dropouts; Schools; School-to-work transition; Tracking of students; Vocational education

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Educational achievement, 7-8, 70, 103-104, 105, 126-127 and economic stratification, 8, 72-73, 102-103, 117 family structure, 43, 49, 50-51 model programs, 205-208, 217 relation to income and employment, 2, 25-32 passim, 36, 48, 104-105 and school finances, 108-109 and school organization, 109, 207-208 and vocational education, 133-135, 141-142 see also Compensatory education; Grade retention; School dropouts; Tracking of students Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Chapter 1 programs, 108, 113-115, 118, 242 alternatives, 206-207 Emotional problems, see Mental health and services Employment and unemployment, 2, 4, 5, 8-9, 32, 66, 67, 71, 74 and crime, 156, 166 discrimination, 31-32, 71 earnings declines, 2, 24-26, 28, 30 and insurance coverage, 91, 92-93 parents, 2-3, 24-27, 41-42, 43, 46-48, 55-56, 238 relocation of jobs to suburbs, 3, 30-31 sectoral shifts, 27-28, 36 see also Job skills and training; School-to-work transition; Vocational education Ethnic groups, see Hispanic population; Racial and ethnic groups Extended families, 52, 56 F Families, see Abuse and neglect; Family economic security; Fostercare; Marriage and married couples; Parents and parenting; Single-parent households; Stepfamilies Family economic security, 2-4, 16-20, 24-27, 34-36, 41-42, 44-46 Family planning, 94, 96, 203 Female-headed families, 5, 34-35, 44, 66, 69-70 and crime, 155, 156 economic security, 3, 25, 34-35, 44-46 and educational achievement, 43, 50-51, 73 and teen pregnancy, 74 Females educational achievement, 73, 112 employment and earnings, 25, 26, 27, 31, 127 health and mental health, 84, 90 job training, 131-132, 138, 140, 141, 142, 144 and justice system, 158-159, 164 in stepfamilies, 51 see also Female-headed families; Teenage pregnancy and parenting

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Firearms, 84, 241 Foster care, 4-5, 176-189 passim discharge planning, 215-216 Friends of the Family, 197 G Gangs, 152, 155, 165 Gault decision, 151 Gentrification, 75 Ghettos, see Inner-city areas Good practice programs, see Model service programs Government roles, 245-247 Grade retention, 8, 103, 112-113, 118 alternatives, 206, 242 Graduation, see Educational achievement; School dropouts Grand Central Partnership, 198 Guns, see Firearms H Handicapped children, services, 181 Head injuries, 19 Health care, 85-90, 97-98, 240-241 availability, 6-7, 85 confidentiality and consent, 95-97 insurance coverage, 6, 85, 91-93, 94-95, 98, 241 model programs, 203-205 preventive, 81-82, 88, 241 research needs, 251-252 see also Mental health and services Health condition and risks, 49, 81-85, 97 and family income, 2, 17-20, 42 see also Mental health and services Health of Adolescents, 87 Hearing problems, 18, 92, 93 Hispanic population, 3, 5, 26, 65 and crime, 153 educational achievement, 43, 51, 104, 105, 111, 112 employment, 127 female-headed families, 34-35, 51 school segregation, 68-69 HIV, 85 deaths, 6, 81, 84 Homeless youth, 182 Homicide, 6, 70, 81, 82, 153 and neighborhood composition, 76, 155-156 Hospitalization, 92, 95 I Illegitimacy, 34 Immigrants, competition for low-wage jobs, 3, 29 Immunization, 95 insurance coverage, 92, 93 Imprisonment, 10, 163-167 Income, see Economic stratification; Family economic security; Poverty and low income Income transfers, see Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Welfare system Independence and autonomy issues, 180, 186-188, 219 and single-parent families, 50 Injuries, 19-20, 82 from abuse, 19, 55 deaths, 82, 83

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Inner-city areas, 65, 74 employment discrimination, 31, 71 and justice system, 9, 10, 156, 165, 167 and suburbanization of employment, 3, 30-31 see also Economic stratification; Neighborhoods Insurance coverage, 6, 85, 91-93, 94-95, 98, 241 mental health, 90 see also Medicaid J Job Corps, 136, 140, 207, 211 Jobs for America's Graduates, 211 Job skills and training, 3, 8, 146 alternative programs, 208-212 basic skills, 32-33, 210-211 and child welfare system, 184 Federally funded programs, 126, 129-130, 135-145 see also Vocational education JOBSTART, 142, 143, 144-145, 211 Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 125-126, 129, 130, 135-137,141-142, 146, 208 Justice system, 9-11, 42, 151-152 adult system consignment, 10, 151 alternatives, 10-11, 167, 177-178, 200, 215 and child welfare system, 181-182 discriminatory practices, 10, 153, 157-164, 167-168, 245 imprisonment, 10, 163-167 plea bargaining, 161-162 research needs, 252-253 Juvenile Justice Alliance, 200 L Latinos, see Hispanic population Lead exposure and poisoning, 19-20 Learning disabilities, 18-19, 20 Life expectancy, 82 Literacy, 32-33, 33-34, 103-104, 114 Low achievers, see Educational achievement; Grade retention; Tracking of students Low birthweight, 18 Low income, see Economic stratification; Poverty and low income Low wage jobs, 36 competition from immigrants, 3, 29 M Males employment and earnings, 25-29 passim, 66, 127 grade retention, 112 job training, 132, 138, 140, 141, 142, 144 and justice system, 164 mental disorders, 84 sexual activity, 84-85 in single-parent households, 49 see also Black males Maltreatment, see Abuse and neglect Managed health care, 7, 98, 252

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Manufacturing employment, 27-28, 30-31, 36 Marijuana, 84 Market forces, and school-to-work transition, 9, 129, 130 Marriage and married couples, 43 economic security, 3, 35-36, 41-42, 46-48 teen mothers, 44, 52 see also Divorce; Female-headed families; Stepfamilies Mathematics, 103-104, 114 and vocational education, 134 McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, 129 Medicaid, 91, 93-94 Medical insurance, 92, 93 Medicine and medical condition, see Health care; Health condition and risks; Physicians Mental health and services, 6, 42, 82, 84, 90-91 and abused children, 55, 184-185 comprehensive services, 217-219 and family structure, 49, 51 and foster care, 4, 184-186 insurance coverage, 91, 92, 93 parental consent for services, 96 physician contacts, 87-88, 90 school-based programs, 203-204 Mental retardation, 18 Mentoring programs, 143, 213-214 Midwest, social trends, 69 Minimum wage, 30 Model service programs, 11, 193-195, 222-223 health care, 203-205 job training, 208-212 neighborhood mobilization, 198-203 parental support, 196-197 schools, 201-203, 205-208, 220 Mothers, in work force, 3, 41-42, 43 see also Female-headed families; Teenage pregnancy and parenting Multicultural approaches, 221-222 N National Assessment of Educational Progress, 104 National Community Service Act, 129 Neighborhoods, 5, 63-64 and crime, 5, 9, 71, 74-76, 154-156, 167 and drug markets, 5-6, 67-68 and educational achievement, 72-73, 102-103 racial stratification, 5, 54, 65, 71, 76-77, 154-155 research needs, 250-251 service and development programs, 198-203, 216-217, 239-240 and teen pregnancy, 73-74 underclass, 5, 66-67, 69, 71, 154-155 see also Economic stratification New Chance, 197

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Nonprofit organizations, 11 job training programs, 11, 129, 137 Northeast states school segregation, 68 social trends, 69 Nutrition during pregnancy, 18 O Obstetrics and gynecology, 88 Offensible space, 160-161 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, 91 P Parents and parenting, 3, 52-54, 55-56, 213 consent for health services, 95-97 and divorce, 51 employment, 2-3, 24-27, 46-48, 55-56, 238 poverty impacts, 17, 19-20, 42, 108 school involvement, 108, 201-203 support services, 180-181, 195-197, 198, 238 see also Abuse and neglect; Foster care; Single-parent households; Teenage pregnancy and parenting Pediatrics, 88 Peer counseling and instruction, 217-218, 221 Peer group influence, 53, 54, 74, 152 Physicians, 6, 85-86, 87-89 Plea bargaining, 161-162 Police, 156-157 discriminatory practices, 10, 157-161 Poverty and low income, 2-3, 16-17, 20, 26, 69-70, 236 developmental and health impacts, 17-20, 42, 49-50, 81-82 and early childbearing, 19 and educational achievement, 43, 104-105, 110-111, 115 and employment, 129 and insurance coverage, 91, 92 and mental health care, 90 see also Economic stratification; Welfare system Pregnancy, see Teenage pregnancy and parenting Premature delivery, 18 Prenatal care, 18 Preventive health services, 81-82, 88, 241 insurance coverage, 91-92, 94-95 mental health, 90-91 Medicaid coverage, 93-94 model programs, 203-204 Primary care services, see Physicians Prisons and imprisonment, 10, 163-167 Project Redirection, 197 Property taxes, 106 Prosecution, 161-162 Psychosocial problems, see Mental health and services Punishment, see Justice system R Racial and ethnic groups and crime and justice system, 9-10, 152, 157-158, 162-164

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings educational achievement, 32, 104, 110-111, 112, 117 mental health care, 90 multicultural services, 221-222 parenting, 54, 108 school segregation, 68-69 see also Black males; Black population; Discrimination; Hispanic population; White population Rape, see Sexual assault and abuse Reading, see Literacy Recession and recovery periods, 69-70 and employment, 24-25, 29 and school finance, 107 Recidivism, 165 Regional differences social trends, 69-70 Remedial education, see Compensatory education Research needs child welfare system, 253 development and development risks, 247-249, 253-254, 255-256 family structure and support, 249-250 health care, 251-252 justice system, 252-253 neighborhoods, 250-251 school programs, 250 school-to-work transition, 252 services and outcomes, 254-255 Restitution programs, 200 Retention, see Educational achievement; Grade retention; School dropouts Robbery, 152 Runaways, 85, 182 Rural areas and poor families, 47-48 school finance, 106 S School dropouts, 42, 43, 66, 103, 105, 115-116, 126-127 criminal activity, 33-34, 153 employment, 25-30 passim, 36, 127 and foster care, 4 and grade retention, 112-113 job training programs, 135, 136, 139, 145 and neighborhood composition, 72-73 prevention programs, 113, 115-117, 118, 206-207 and single-parent families, 49, 50-51 and vocational education, 134 Schools, 186 alternative programs, 206-212, 217-218, 241-242, 250 clinics, 89, 203-204 finances and resources, 7, 8, 68-69, 103, 105-109, 113-114 instructional practices, 108, 110, 118, 205-208, 242 mental health services, 90 model programs, 201-203, 205-208, 220 parental involvement, 108, 201-203 segregation, 68-69 School-to-work transition, 8-9, 42-43, 125-130, 145-146, 242-244 research needs, 252

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings see also Job skills and training; Vocational education Segregation, see Economic stratification Sentencing, 163-164 Services, see Child welfare system; Community-based services; Comprehensive service programs; Model service programs; Welfare system Service-sector employment, 28, 30-31, 36 Sexual activity, 42, 84-85, 88 prevention programs, 203, 218 and single-parent families, 49 see also Sexually transmitted diseases; Teenage pregnancy and parenting Sexual assault and abuse, 55, 82, 152, 165 Sexually transmitted diseases, 6, 81, 85, 88, 94-95 Medicaid coverage, 94 parental consent for services, 96 Single-parent households, 5, 34-35, 43-44, 49-51 and crime, 156 economic security, 3, 25, 34-35, 44-46 and educational achievement, 43, 49, 50-51 and neighborhood crime rates, 75, 76 Skills, see Job skills and training Smoking, 49, 84, 241 during pregnancy, 18 Social work, 176 Southern states school segregation, 68 social trends, 70 Special education, 90, 102n, 185 State and local programs, 11, 245-246 foster care, 179 job training, 130 Status offenses, 152, 167, 176 Stepfamilies, 3, 51 Street kids, 182 Students, see Educational achievement; Learning disabilities; School dropouts Subculture of delinquency, 166 Substance abuse, see Alcohol use; Drug use and treatment; Smoking Suburbs educational achievement, 102-103 racial stratification, 65 relocation of jobs, 3, 30-31 school finance and resources, 7, 106, 107 Suicide, 6, 49, 81, 82, 84, 86 Summer training and education programs (STEP), 136, 143, 144, 211 Supported Work Project (SWP), 139 T Teachers, 107-108, 109, 202, 207-208, 246 Technological change, 28 Tech prep, 134-135 Teenage pregnancy and parenting, 18-19, 42, 44, 52, 81, 86 and abuse, 55 and foster care background, 4, 184

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings insurance coverage, 92 Medicaid coverage, 93, 94 and neighborhood composition, 73-74 parental consent for services, 96 prevention programs, 203 support services, 181, 196-197, 214-215 Teen Outreach, 217 Temporary employment, 139 Tests, educational achievement, 104 and early childbearing, 18-19 and employment, 32-33 There Are No Children Here, 155 Tracking of students, 7-8, 103, 108, 110-112, 118 alternatives, 206, 242 Chapter 1 programs, 114 Training, see Job skills and training Truancy, 86, 105 Tutoring, 206 Two-parent families, see Marriage and married couples U Underclass neighborhoods, 5, 66-67, 69, 71, 154-155 Unemployment insurance, 47 Unionization, declines in, 3, 30 Unmarried women, see Female-headed families Urban areas, education, 104, 105 school finance and resources, 7, 106, 107, 108 see also Inner-city areas; Neighborhoods V Violence, 75-76, 82, 155-156 deaths, 84 drug-related, 5-6, 68 prevention programs, 217-218 see also Abuse and neglect; Crime and criminal behavior; Homicide; Robbery; Sexual assault and abuse; Suicide Vocational academies, 210 Vocational education, 9, 125, 129, 130-133, 146 alternative programs, 208-212 and educational achievement, 133-135, 141-142 Volunteer programs, 200-201 W Welfare system, 47-48, 66, 67, 69-70, 238 see also Child welfare system; Foster care White population and crime and justice system, 162 educational achievement, 43, 51, 104 employment and earnings, 25, 127 female-headed families, 34, 51 physician contacts, 88 teenage mothers, 52 Women, see Female-headed families; Females; Teenage pregnancy and parenting Work, see Employment and unemployment; Job skills and training

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Losing Generations: Adolescents in High-Risk Settings Y Youth Action Program YouthBuild, 201 Youth Employment Demonstration Program Act (YEDPA), 135, 137, 138 141 Youth Incentive Entitlement Project (YIEP), 139