Ingredient

Prediction Equation

Reference

Products of animal origin

Skim milk powder

MEn = 40.94 × CP + 77.96 × EE + 19.04 × NFE

Janssen, 1989

Whey, dried, low lactose

MEn = 38.79 × CP + 77.96 × EE + 19.04 × NFE

Janssen, 1989

Meat and bone meal

MEn = 33.94 × DM = 45.77 × ash + 59.99 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Fish meal (60%, 65%, 67% crude protein)

MEn = 35.87 × DM - 34.08 × ash + 42.09 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Herring meal, Norwegian

MEn = 35.87 × DM - 34.08 × ash + 42.09 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Blood meal, spray dried

MEn = 34.49 × CP + 64.96 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Blood meal, drum dried

MEn = 31.88 × CP + 60.32 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Feather meal (pepsin dig

80%)

MEn = 33.2 × CP + 57.53 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Poultry offal meal

MEn = 31.02 × CP + 74.23 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Poultry offal meal, high-fat

MEn = 31.02 × CP + 78.87 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = -725 + 0.841 × GE (kcal/kg dry matter)

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 4,070 - 142 × calcium

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 4,330 - 61 × ash

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 5,060 - 263 × ash + 491 × calcium

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 479 + 89 × CP - 1,094 × phosphorus

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 11,340 - 103 × CP - 327 × calcium

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 934 - 69 × CP - 110 × ash

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 561 - 154 × calcium - 622 × phosphorus

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 556 - 63 × ash - 506 × phosphorus

Pesti et al., 1986

Fat products from Dutch renderers

MEn = 20,041 - 23.0 × IV - 319.1 × C16:0 - 153.4 × C18:0

Janssen et al., 1979

Fats and oils

MEn = 8,227 - 10,318(-1,1685[Unsaturated:Saturated ratio])

Ketels and DeGroote, 1989

All fats and oils

MEn = 28,119 - 235.8 (C18:1 + C18:2) - 6.4 (C16:0) - 310.9 (C18:0) + 0.726 (IV × FR1) - 0.0000379 (IV[FR1 + FFA])2

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Vegetable oils (free fatty acid <50%)

MEn = -10,147.94 + 188.28 IV + 155.09 FR1 - 1.6709 (IV × FR1)

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Vegetable oils (free fatty acid >50%)

MEn = 1,804 + 29.7084 IV + 29.302 FR1

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Animal fats (free fatty acid <40%)

MEn = 126,694 + 1645 IV + 838.4 C16:0 - 215.3 C18:0 + 746.61 FR1 + 356.12 (FR1 + FFA) - 14.83 (IV × FR1)

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Animal fats (free fatty acid >40%)

MEn = -9,865 + 194.1 IV + 300.1 C18:0

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

NOTE: Abbreviations used above are as follows: GE = gross energy; ME = metabolizable energy; MEn = nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy; TMEn = nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy; CP = % crude protein; EE = % ether extract; CF = % crude fiber; NFE = % nitrogen-free extract; ADF = % acid detergent fiber; APF = % Acid-pepsin fiber; STA = % starch; SUG = % sugar; IV = iodine value; C16:0 = % palmitic acid; C18:0 = % stearic acid; C18:1 = % oleic acid; C18:2 = % linoleic acid; FFA = % free fatty acid, calculated as oleic acid equivalents; FR1 = first fraction from a column chromatography separation that contains the practically unaltered triglycerides plus other apolar components; and DM = dry matter.

TABLE C–1 Conversion reactors—Weights and Measures

Units

Multiplied by the Factor Below Equals

Units

Multiplied by the Factor Below Equals

Units

lb

453.6

g

0.002205

lb

lb

0.4536

kg

2.205

lb

oz

28.35

g

0.035273

oz

kg

1,000

g

0.001

kg

kg

1,000,000

mg

0.000001

kg

g

1,000

mg

0.001

g

g

1,000,000

mcg (or µg)

0.001

mg

g

109

ng (nanogram)

10-9

g

g

1012

pg (picogram)

10-12

g

mg

1,000

mcg (or µg)

0.001

mg

mg/kga

0.0001

%

10,000

mg/kg

ppm

0.0001

%

10,000

ppm

gal (U.S.)

3.785

liters

0.2642

gal (U.S.gal (Brit.)

4.546

liters

0.220

gal (Brit.bu (bushel)

0.3525 hl

(hectoliter)

2.837

bu

 

 

cal (calorie)

4.184

j (joule)

0.239

cal

kcal (kilocalorie)

1,000

cal

0.001

kcal

Mcal (megacalorie)

1,000,000

cal

0.000001

Mcal

Mcal

1,000

kcal

0.001

Mcal

a 100 ppm = 100 mg/kg = 0.010 percent; thus converting 0.0002 percent = 2 ppm = 2 mg/kg.



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Ingredient Prediction Equation Reference Products of animal origin Skim milk powder MEn = 40.94 × CP + 77.96 × EE + 19.04 × NFE Janssen, 1989 Whey, dried, low lactose MEn = 38.79 × CP + 77.96 × EE + 19.04 × NFE Janssen, 1989 Meat and bone meal MEn = 33.94 × DM = 45.77 × ash + 59.99 × EE Janssen, 1989 Fish meal (60%, 65%, 67% crude protein) MEn = 35.87 × DM - 34.08 × ash + 42.09 × EE Janssen, 1989 Herring meal, Norwegian MEn = 35.87 × DM - 34.08 × ash + 42.09 × EE Janssen, 1989 Blood meal, spray dried MEn = 34.49 × CP + 64.96 × EE Janssen, 1989 Blood meal, drum dried MEn = 31.88 × CP + 60.32 × EE Janssen, 1989 Feather meal (pepsin dig 80%) MEn = 33.2 × CP + 57.53 × EE Janssen, 1989 Poultry offal meal MEn = 31.02 × CP + 74.23 × EE Janssen, 1989 Poultry offal meal, high-fat MEn = 31.02 × CP + 78.87 × EE Janssen, 1989 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = -725 + 0.841 × GE (kcal/kg dry matter) Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 4,070 - 142 × calcium Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 4,330 - 61 × ash Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 5,060 - 263 × ash + 491 × calcium Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 479 + 89 × CP - 1,094 × phosphorus Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 11,340 - 103 × CP - 327 × calcium Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 934 - 69 × CP - 110 × ash Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 561 - 154 × calcium - 622 × phosphorus Pesti et al., 1986 Poultry by-product meal TMEn = 556 - 63 × ash - 506 × phosphorus Pesti et al., 1986 Fat products from Dutch renderers MEn = 20,041 - 23.0 × IV - 319.1 × C16:0 - 153.4 × C18:0 Janssen et al., 1979 Fats and oils MEn = 8,227 - 10,318(-1,1685[Unsaturated:Saturated ratio]) Ketels and DeGroote, 1989 All fats and oils MEn = 28,119 - 235.8 (C18:1 + C18:2) - 6.4 (C16:0) - 310.9 (C18:0) + 0.726 (IV × FR1) - 0.0000379 (IV[FR1 + FFA])2 Huyghebaert et al., 1988 Vegetable oils (free fatty acid <50%) MEn = -10,147.94 + 188.28 IV + 155.09 FR1 - 1.6709 (IV × FR1) Huyghebaert et al., 1988 Vegetable oils (free fatty acid >50%) MEn = 1,804 + 29.7084 IV + 29.302 FR1 Huyghebaert et al., 1988 Animal fats (free fatty acid <40%) MEn = 126,694 + 1645 IV + 838.4 C16:0 - 215.3 C18:0 + 746.61 FR1 + 356.12 (FR1 + FFA) - 14.83 (IV × FR1) Huyghebaert et al., 1988 Animal fats (free fatty acid >40%) MEn = -9,865 + 194.1 IV + 300.1 C18:0 Huyghebaert et al., 1988 NOTE: Abbreviations used above are as follows: GE = gross energy; ME = metabolizable energy; MEn = nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy; TMEn = nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy; CP = % crude protein; EE = % ether extract; CF = % crude fiber; NFE = % nitrogen-free extract; ADF = % acid detergent fiber; APF = % Acid-pepsin fiber; STA = % starch; SUG = % sugar; IV = iodine value; C16:0 = % palmitic acid; C18:0 = % stearic acid; C18:1 = % oleic acid; C18:2 = % linoleic acid; FFA = % free fatty acid, calculated as oleic acid equivalents; FR1 = first fraction from a column chromatography separation that contains the practically unaltered triglycerides plus other apolar components; and DM = dry matter. TABLE C–1 Conversion reactors—Weights and Measures Units Multiplied by the Factor Below Equals Units Multiplied by the Factor Below Equals Units lb 453.6 g 0.002205 lb lb 0.4536 kg 2.205 lb oz 28.35 g 0.035273 oz kg 1,000 g 0.001 kg kg 1,000,000 mg 0.000001 kg g 1,000 mg 0.001 g g 1,000,000 mcg (or µg) 0.001 mg g 109 ng (nanogram) 10-9 g g 1012 pg (picogram) 10-12 g mg 1,000 mcg (or µg) 0.001 mg mg/kga 0.0001 % 10,000 mg/kg ppm 0.0001 % 10,000 ppm gal (U.S.) 3.785 liters 0.2642 gal (U.S.gal (Brit.) 4.546 liters 0.220 gal (Brit.bu (bushel) 0.3525 hl (hectoliter) 2.837 bu     cal (calorie) 4.184 j (joule) 0.239 cal kcal (kilocalorie) 1,000 cal 0.001 kcal Mcal (megacalorie) 1,000,000 cal 0.000001 Mcal Mcal 1,000 kcal 0.001 Mcal a 100 ppm = 100 mg/kg = 0.010 percent; thus converting 0.0002 percent = 2 ppm = 2 mg/kg.