References

Abdulrahim, S. M., M. B. Patel, and J. McGinnis. 1979. Effects of vitamin D3 and D3 metabolites on production parameters and hatchability of eggs. Poult. Sci. 58:858.

Aboaysha, A. M., and F. H. Kratzer. 1979. Interrelationships between dietary pyridoxine and free plasma amino acids in chicks. Poult. Sci. 58:117.

Acar, N., E. T. Moran, Jr., and S. F. Bilgili. 1991. Live performance and carcass yield of male broilers from two commercial strain crosses receiving rations containing lysine below and above the established requirement between six and eight weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 70:2315.

Adams, A. W. 1973. Consequences of depriving laying hens of water a short time. Poult. Sci. 52:1221.

Adams, A. W., A. J. Kahrs, and J. L. West. 1967. Effect of sodium nitrate in the drinking water on performance of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 46:1255.

Adams, R. L., and C. W. Carrick. 1967. A study of the niacin requirement of the laying hen. Poult. Sci. 46:712.

Adams, R. L., F. N. Andrews, J. C. Rogler, and C. W. Carrick. 1962. The sulfur amino acid requirement of the chick from 4 to 8 weeks of age as affected by temperature. Poult. Sci. 41:1801.

Adams, R. L., P. Y. Hester, and W. J. Stademan. 1983. The effect of dietary lysine levels on performance and meat yields of White Pekin ducks. Poult. Sci. 62:616.

Adkins, J. S., E. C. Miller, H. R. Bird, C. A. Elvehjem, and M. L. Sunde. 1958. An estimate of the threonine requirements of the laying hen. Poult. Sci. 37:1362.

Adkins, J. S., A. E. Harper, and M. L. Sunde. 1962. The L-arginine requirement of the laying pullet. Poult. Sci. 41:657.

Aitken, J. R., G. S. Lindblad, and W. G. Hunsaker. 1958. The calcium and phosphorus requirements of goslings. Poult. Sci. 37:1180.

Albrecht, W. J., G. C. Mustakas, and J. E. McGhee. 1966. Rate studies on atmospheric steaming and immersion cooking of soybeans. Cereal Chem. 43:400.

Alenier, J. C., and G. F. Combs, Jr. 1981. Effects of feed palatability of ingredients believed to contain unidentified growth factors for poultry. Poult. Sci. 60:215.

Alimentation Equilibree Commentri (AEC). 1981. Arginine requirement of broilers. In Alimentation Equilibree Commentri Information, Poultry 251. Rhône-Poulenc, Commentry, France: AEC.

Allaway, W. H. 1986. Soil-plant-animal and human interrelationships in trace element nutrition. P. 465 in Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 2, W. Mertz, ed. 5th ed. New York: Academic Press.

Allen, N. K., 1981. Nutrition of growing geese. In Proceedings of the 42nd Minnesota Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. St. Paul, Minn.: University of Minnesota, Department of Animal Science.

Allen, N. K., and D. H. Baker. 1972. Effect of excess lysine on the utilization of and requirement for arginine by the chick. Poult. Sci. 57:902.

Allen, N. K., and R. J. Young. 1980. Studies on the amino acid and protein requirements of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Poult. Sci. 59:2029.

Allen, N. K., A. Peguri, C. J. Mirocha, and J. A. Newman. 1983. Effects of fusarium cultures, T-2 toxin, and zealenone on reproduction of turkey females. Poult. Sci. 62:282.

Almquist, H. J. 1942. Magnesium requirement of the chick. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 49:544.

Almquist, H. J. 1947. Evaluation of amino acid requirements by observations on the chick. J. Nutr. 34:543.

Almquist, H. J. 1952. Amino acid requirements of chickens and turkeys--A review. Poult. Sci. 31:966.

Almquist, H. J. 1953. Evaluation of vitamin requirement data. Poult. Sci. 32:122.

Almquist, H. J. 1954. The phosphorus requirement of young chicks and poults—A review. Poult. Sci. 33:936.

Almquist, H. J., and E. Mecchi. 1942. Lysine requirement of the chick. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 49:174.

Al-Ubaidi, Y. Y., and H. R. Bird. 1964. Assay for the unidentified growth factor in dried whey. Poult. Sci. 43:1484.

Ameenuddin, S., M. Sunde, H. F. DeLuca, N. Ikekawa, and Y. Kobayashi. 1982. 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3: Is it required for embryonic development in chicks? Science 217:451.

Ameenuddin, S., M. L. Sunde, and M. E. Cook. 1985. Essentiality of Vitamin D3 and its metabolites in poultry nutrition. A review. World Poult. Sci. J. 41:52.

Ameenuddin, S., M. L. Sunde, H. F. DeLuca, and M. E. Cook. 1986. Excessive cholecalciferol in a layers diet: Decline in some aspects of reproductive performance and increased bone mineralization of progeny. Br. Poult. Sci. 27:671.

Amend, J. F., D. H. Strumeyer, and H. Fisher. 1979. Effect of dietary histidine on tissue concentrations of histidine-containing dipeptides in adult cockerels. J. Nutr. 109:1779.

Amine, E. K., E. J. Desilets, and D. M. Hegsted. 1976. Effect of dietary fats on lipogenesis in iron deficiency anemic chicks and rats. J. Nutr. 106:405.

Anderson, D. L., F. W. Hill, and R. Renner. 1958. Studies of the metabolizable and productive energy of glucose for the growing chick. J. Nutr. 65:561.

Anderson, J. O., and R. E. Warnick. 1970. Studies of the need for supplemental biotin in chick rations. Poult. Sci. 49:569.

Anderson, R., and N. Jackson. 1975. The effect of folate deficiency on the in vitro incorporation of serine into the oviduct of oestrogen-treated immature female domestic fowl. Int. J. Biochem. 6:64.



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 References Abdulrahim, S. M., M. B. Patel, and J. McGinnis. 1979. Effects of vitamin D3 and D3 metabolites on production parameters and hatchability of eggs. Poult. Sci. 58:858. Aboaysha, A. M., and F. H. Kratzer. 1979. Interrelationships between dietary pyridoxine and free plasma amino acids in chicks. Poult. Sci. 58:117. Acar, N., E. T. Moran, Jr., and S. F. Bilgili. 1991. Live performance and carcass yield of male broilers from two commercial strain crosses receiving rations containing lysine below and above the established requirement between six and eight weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 70:2315. Adams, A. W. 1973. Consequences of depriving laying hens of water a short time. Poult. Sci. 52:1221. Adams, A. W., A. J. Kahrs, and J. L. West. 1967. Effect of sodium nitrate in the drinking water on performance of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 46:1255. Adams, R. L., and C. W. Carrick. 1967. A study of the niacin requirement of the laying hen. Poult. Sci. 46:712. Adams, R. L., F. N. Andrews, J. C. Rogler, and C. W. Carrick. 1962. The sulfur amino acid requirement of the chick from 4 to 8 weeks of age as affected by temperature. Poult. Sci. 41:1801. Adams, R. L., P. Y. Hester, and W. J. Stademan. 1983. The effect of dietary lysine levels on performance and meat yields of White Pekin ducks. Poult. Sci. 62:616. Adkins, J. S., E. C. Miller, H. R. Bird, C. A. Elvehjem, and M. L. Sunde. 1958. An estimate of the threonine requirements of the laying hen. Poult. Sci. 37:1362. Adkins, J. S., A. E. Harper, and M. L. Sunde. 1962. The L-arginine requirement of the laying pullet. Poult. Sci. 41:657. Aitken, J. R., G. S. Lindblad, and W. G. Hunsaker. 1958. The calcium and phosphorus requirements of goslings. Poult. Sci. 37:1180. Albrecht, W. J., G. C. Mustakas, and J. E. McGhee. 1966. Rate studies on atmospheric steaming and immersion cooking of soybeans. Cereal Chem. 43:400. Alenier, J. C., and G. F. Combs, Jr. 1981. Effects of feed palatability of ingredients believed to contain unidentified growth factors for poultry. Poult. Sci. 60:215. Alimentation Equilibree Commentri (AEC). 1981. Arginine requirement of broilers. In Alimentation Equilibree Commentri Information, Poultry 251. Rhône-Poulenc, Commentry, France: AEC. Allaway, W. H. 1986. Soil-plant-animal and human interrelationships in trace element nutrition. P. 465 in Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 2, W. Mertz, ed. 5th ed. New York: Academic Press. Allen, N. K., 1981. Nutrition of growing geese. In Proceedings of the 42nd Minnesota Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. St. Paul, Minn.: University of Minnesota, Department of Animal Science. Allen, N. K., and D. H. Baker. 1972. Effect of excess lysine on the utilization of and requirement for arginine by the chick. Poult. Sci. 57:902. Allen, N. K., and R. J. Young. 1980. Studies on the amino acid and protein requirements of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Poult. Sci. 59:2029. Allen, N. K., A. Peguri, C. J. Mirocha, and J. A. Newman. 1983. Effects of fusarium cultures, T-2 toxin, and zealenone on reproduction of turkey females. Poult. Sci. 62:282. Almquist, H. J. 1942. Magnesium requirement of the chick. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 49:544. Almquist, H. J. 1947. Evaluation of amino acid requirements by observations on the chick. J. Nutr. 34:543. Almquist, H. J. 1952. Amino acid requirements of chickens and turkeys--A review. Poult. Sci. 31:966. Almquist, H. J. 1953. Evaluation of vitamin requirement data. Poult. Sci. 32:122. Almquist, H. J. 1954. The phosphorus requirement of young chicks and poults—A review. Poult. Sci. 33:936. Almquist, H. J., and E. Mecchi. 1942. Lysine requirement of the chick. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 49:174. Al-Ubaidi, Y. Y., and H. R. Bird. 1964. Assay for the unidentified growth factor in dried whey. Poult. Sci. 43:1484. Ameenuddin, S., M. Sunde, H. F. DeLuca, N. Ikekawa, and Y. Kobayashi. 1982. 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3: Is it required for embryonic development in chicks? Science 217:451. Ameenuddin, S., M. L. Sunde, and M. E. Cook. 1985. Essentiality of Vitamin D3 and its metabolites in poultry nutrition. A review. World Poult. Sci. J. 41:52. Ameenuddin, S., M. L. Sunde, H. F. DeLuca, and M. E. Cook. 1986. Excessive cholecalciferol in a layers diet: Decline in some aspects of reproductive performance and increased bone mineralization of progeny. Br. Poult. Sci. 27:671. Amend, J. F., D. H. Strumeyer, and H. Fisher. 1979. Effect of dietary histidine on tissue concentrations of histidine-containing dipeptides in adult cockerels. J. Nutr. 109:1779. Amine, E. K., E. J. Desilets, and D. M. Hegsted. 1976. Effect of dietary fats on lipogenesis in iron deficiency anemic chicks and rats. J. Nutr. 106:405. Anderson, D. L., F. W. Hill, and R. Renner. 1958. Studies of the metabolizable and productive energy of glucose for the growing chick. J. Nutr. 65:561. Anderson, J. O., and R. E. Warnick. 1970. Studies of the need for supplemental biotin in chick rations. Poult. Sci. 49:569. Anderson, R., and N. Jackson. 1975. The effect of folate deficiency on the in vitro incorporation of serine into the oviduct of oestrogen-treated immature female domestic fowl. Int. J. Biochem. 6:64.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Andrews, D. K., H. R. Bird, and M. L. Sunde. 1966. The effects of arsanilic acid on laying hens at three dietary protein levels. 1. Egg production. Poult. Sci. 45:838. Andrews, T. L., R. H. Harms, and H. R. Wilson. 1973. Protein requirements of the Bobwhite chick. Poult. Sci. 52:2199. Anonymous. 1977. Leucocyte transketolase activity: An indicator of thiamin nutriture. Nutr. Rev. 35:185. Anonymous. 1981. Arginine requirement of broilers. Alimentation Equilibree Commentri Informations, Poultry 251. Rhône-Poulenc, Commentry, France: AEC. Anonymous. 1990. Nomenclature policy: Generic descriptors and trivial names for vitamins and related compounds. J. Nutr. 120:12. Antoniou, T., and R. R. Marquardt. 1981. Influence of rye pentosans on the growth of chicks. Poult. Sci. 60:1898. Arends, L. G., D. L. Miller, and S. L. Balloun. 1967. Calcium requirements of the turkey breeder hen. Poult. Sci. 46:727. Arends, L. G., E. W. Kienholz, J. V. Shutze, and D. D. Taylor. 1971. Effect of supplemental biotin on reproductive performance of turkey breeder hens and its effect on the subsequent progeny's performance. Poult. Sci. 50:208. Armstrong, W. D., J. C. Rogler, and W. R. Featherston. 1974. In vitro studies of the protein digestibility of sorghum grain. Poult. Sci. 53:2224. Arnold, A., and C. A. Elvehjem. 1938. Studies on the vitamin B1 requirement of growing chicks. J. Nutr. 15:403. Arnold, R. L., O. E. Olson, and C. W. Carlson. 1974. Tissue selenium content and serum tocopherols are influenced by dietary type, selenium and vitamin E. Poult. Sci. 53:2185. Arrington, L. R., R. A. Santa Cruz, R. H. Harms, and H. R. Wilson. 1967. Effects of excess dietary iodine upon pullets and laying hens. J. Nutr. 92:325. Arscott, G. H. 1972. The effect of riboflavin on reproductive performance of adult White Leghorn male cockerels. Nutr. Rep. Int. 5:287. Arscott, G. H., P. Rachapaetayakom, P. E. Bernier, and F. W. Adams. 1962. Influence of ascorbic acid, calcium and phosphorus on specific gravity of eggs. Poult. Sci. 41:485 Artman, N. R.. 1964. Interactions of fats and fatty acids as energy sources for the chick. Poult. Sci. 43:994. Asmar, J. A., N. J. Daghir, and H. A. Azar. 1968. Effects of pyridoxine deficiency on the lymphatic organs and certain blood components of the neonatal chicken. J. Nutr. 95:153. Asmundson, V. S., and F. H. Kratzer. 1952. Observations on vitamin A deficiency in turkey breeding stock. Poult. Sci. 31:71. Association of American Feed Control Officials. 1984. Official Publication. Charleston, W. Va.: Department of Agriculture. Astrup, H. 1979. The ubiquitousity of labelled tocopherol in the cockerel body. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 49:186. Atkinson, R. L., A. A. Kurnick, T. M. Ferguson, B. L. Reid, J. H. Quisenberry, and J. R. Couch. 1957. Protein and energy levels for turkey starting diets. Poult. Sci. 36:767. Atkinson, R. L., J. W. Bradley, J. R. Couch, and J. H. Quisenberry. 1967a. The calcium requirement of breeder turkeys. Poult. Sci. 46:207. Atkinson, R. L., J. W. Bradley, J. R. Couch, and J. H. Quisenberry. 1967b. Effect of various levels of manganese on the reproductive performance of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 46:472. Atkinson, R. L., J. W. Bradley, T. M. Ferguson, J. R. Couch, and J. H. Quisenberry. 1970. Protein level and reproductive performance of turkey hens. Nutr. Rep. Int. 1:353. Atkinson, R. L., J. W. Bradley, J. R. Couch, T. M. Ferguson, and W. F. Krueger. 1976. Relationship of supplemental biotin, phosphorus level and calcium level to reproductive performance of turkeys. Nutr. Rep. Int. 13:237. Attar, M. W., N. J. Daghir, and J. Asmar. 1967. Influence of vitamin B6 deficiency on certain serum components in mature female chickens. Poult. Sci. 46:838. Atteh, J. O., and S. Leeson. 1983. Influence of increasing dietary calcium and magnesium levels on performance, mineral metabolism and egg mineral content of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 62:1261. Attia, A. M. N., and J. D. Latshaw. 1979. Amino acid requirements of broiler starter diets with different energy levels. Nutr. Rep. Int. 19:299. Austic, R. E., and K. Keshavarz. 1988. Interaction of dietary calcium and chloride and the influence of monovalent minerals on eggshell quality. Poult. Sci. 67:750. Austic, R. E., and M. Rangel-Lugo. 1989. Studies on the threonine requirement of broiler chicks. P. 136 in Proceedings of the Cornell Nutrition Conference. Ithaca, N.Y.:Cornell University. Aydelotte, M. B. 1963. Vitamin A deficiency in chickens. Br. J. Nutr. 17:205. Bai, K. M., and M. K. Krishnakumari. 1986. Acute and chronic toxicity of warfarin to poultry, Gallus domesticus: A non-target species. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 37:554. Bailey, C. A., S. Linton, R. Brister, and C. R. Creger. 1986. Effects of graded levels of dietary phosphorus on bone mineralization in the very young poult. Poult. Sci. 65:1018. Baird, F. D., and D. J. Greene. 1935. 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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Balloun, S. L., and R. E. Phillips. 1957a. Interaction effects of vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid in breeder hen diets on hatchability, chick growth and livability. Poult. Sci. 36:929. Balloun, S. L., and R. E. Phillips. 1957b. Lysine and protein requirements of Bronze turkeys. Poult. Sci. 36:884. Balloun, S. L., and G. M. Speers. 1969. Protein requirements of laying hens as affected by strain. Poult. Sci. 48:1175. Balloun, S. L., W. J. Owings, J. L. Sell, and R. E. Phillips. 1959. Energy and protein requirements for turkey starting diets. Poult. Sci. 38:1328. Balnave, D. 1970. Essential fatty acids in poultry nutrition. World's Poult. Sci. J. 26:442. Balnave, D. 1982. Egg weight and production responses of laying hens fed rice pollard. J. Sci. Food Agric. 33:231. Bar, A., and S. Hurwitz. 1973. Bone ash and duodenal calcium-binding protein in chicks treated with EHDP. Poult. Sci. 52:2338. Bar, A., S. Hurwitz, and I. 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