Index

A

Absorption

in calcium metabolism, 50

high level dietary fat and, 12

of vitamin K, 52

of xanthophylls, 17

Acid-base balance, 14

Aflatoxins, 78-79

Age

broiler nutrient requirements and, 27

fat metabolism and, 12

metabolizable energy assessment and, 6

Alfalfa

amino acid composition of, 66, 71

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

nutrient composition of, 72-63

xanthophylls in, 17

Aluminum, toxicity of, 59

Amaranth, 53

Amino acids

biochemical role of, 9

in broiler breeder diet, 32-33, 34

in broiler chicken diet, 27-29

conversion to vitamins, 11

crystalline form, 28, 80

deficiencies in chickens and turkeys, 46-50

digestibility, 71, 73-74

documentation of nutrient requirements, 85

duck requirements, 43

egg weight and, 25

in feeds, 61, 66-68, 69, 71-74

geese requirements, 40-41

interactions, 10-11

metabolizable energy of, 75

in nutritional requirement models, 1

in phase-feeding program, 24

requirements, 9-10

supplements, 74

total sulfur amino acids, 28, 38, 41, 43, 45

toxicity, 11

turkey requirements, 36, 37-38

Animal products

as dietary fat source, 11, 12

nutrient composition of meat, 72-63, 67

as protein source, 70

Antibiotic additives, 18

Antimicrobial additives, 3, 18, 52

Antioxidants, 50, 51

Arginine, 11

broiler chicken requirements, 29

deficiency, 46

documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 99, 107, 110

duck requirements, 43

in feeds, 66-68, 71-73

turkey requirements, 37-38

Arsenic, toxicity of, 59

B

Bakery waste products

amino acid composition, 66, 72

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

metabolizable energy in, 6, 113

nutrient composition of, 72-63

Barium, toxicity of, 59

Barley, 8, 9

amino acid composition of, 71, 73

amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

fatty acid composition of, 75

metabolizable energy in, 113

nutrient composition of, 72-63

Bicarbonate, 14

in egg production, 25

Bioassay techniques for measurement of energy values, 4-6

Biotin, 15

biochemical role of, 53

broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33

broiler chicken requirements, 31



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Index A Absorption in calcium metabolism, 50 high level dietary fat and, 12 of vitamin K, 52 of xanthophylls, 17 Acid-base balance, 14 Aflatoxins, 78-79 Age broiler nutrient requirements and, 27 fat metabolism and, 12 metabolizable energy assessment and, 6 Alfalfa amino acid composition of, 66, 71 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 nutrient composition of, 72-63 xanthophylls in, 17 Aluminum, toxicity of, 59 Amaranth, 53 Amino acids biochemical role of, 9 in broiler breeder diet, 32-33, 34 in broiler chicken diet, 27-29 conversion to vitamins, 11 crystalline form, 28, 80 deficiencies in chickens and turkeys, 46-50 digestibility, 71, 73-74 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85 duck requirements, 43 egg weight and, 25 in feeds, 61, 66-68, 69, 71-74 geese requirements, 40-41 interactions, 10-11 metabolizable energy of, 75 in nutritional requirement models, 1 in phase-feeding program, 24 requirements, 9-10 supplements, 74 total sulfur amino acids, 28, 38, 41, 43, 45 toxicity, 11 turkey requirements, 36, 37-38 Animal products as dietary fat source, 11, 12 nutrient composition of meat, 72-63, 67 as protein source, 70 Antibiotic additives, 18 Antimicrobial additives, 3, 18, 52 Antioxidants, 50, 51 Arginine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46 documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 99, 107, 110 duck requirements, 43 in feeds, 66-68, 71-73 turkey requirements, 37-38 Arsenic, toxicity of, 59 B Bakery waste products amino acid composition, 66, 72 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 metabolizable energy in, 6, 113 nutrient composition of, 72-63 Barium, toxicity of, 59 Barley, 8, 9 amino acid composition of, 71, 73 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 metabolizable energy in, 113 nutrient composition of, 72-63 Bicarbonate, 14 in egg production, 25 Bioassay techniques for measurement of energy values, 4-6 Biotin, 15 biochemical role of, 53 broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33 broiler chicken requirements, 31

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   deficiency, 47, 48, 53-54 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 98, 105 in feeds, 63, 65 in wheat diet, 69 Blood meal amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 Bobwhite quail, 45, 112 Bone development in Leghorn-type pullet, 21 mineral requirements, 14 nutrient deficiencies and, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 vitamin D in, 50-51 Bone meal amino acid composition of, 72 element concentrations in, 78 Boron, 15 Breeding diets biotin in, 54 broiler chickens, 32-34 iodine in, 57 Japanese quail, 45 Leghorn-type laying chickens, 26 turkeys, 38, 39 zinc in, 57 Brewer's grains, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66, 113 Broadbeans, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 Broiler breeder chickens amino acid/protein requirements, 32-33, 34 documentation of nutrient requirements, 97-98 energy consumption, 33, 34 feed intake, 32 hens, 32-33 males, 33-34 mineral requirements, 33, 34 nutrient requirements, 32 vitamin requirements, 33 Broiler chickens age of, and nutrient requirements, 27 amino acid requirements, 27-29 documentation of nutrient requirements, 90-96 energy intake, 8 fat utilization, 7 fatty acid requirements, 32 feed intake, 26 feed utilization vs. weight gain, 26-27 gender differences, 27 market weights, 26 mineral requirements, 27, 29-31 nutrient interactions in, 27 nutritional modeling for, 1 protein requirements, 27 vitamin requirements, 27, 31-32 water intake, 16 Buckwheat, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 Bushel weights of grains, 61, 68 C Cadmium, toxicity of, 59 Calcium biochemical role of, 14 Bobwhite quail requirements, 45 broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33, 34 broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 deficiency, 47, 56 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 93, 98, 102-103, 105, 106, 107, 109, 111, 112 duck requirements, 43 excesses of, 14 in feeds, 72, 64, 78 geese requirements, 41 in laying hen diet, 25 in Leghorn-type pullet growth, 22 in phase-feeding program, 24 toxicity to pheasant chicks, 44 turkey requirements, 38 vitamin D and, 50, 51 Calcium carbonate, 78 Calcium phosphate, 78 Calcium sulfate, 78 Calorie, definition of, 3 Canola amino acid composition of, 71 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66, 70 Carbohydrates metabolizable energy values of, 75, 76-77 sources of, 8-9 ß-Carotene as pigmenting agent, 17 as vitamin A, 15, 50 Carotenoids for pigmentation, 17, 50 Casein amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 Cereal grains bushel weight ranges, 61, 68 as carbohydrate source, 8-9 metabolizable energy of, 61, 72, 64, 113 nutrient composition of, 61-69 Chickens standard reference diets for, 80-81 See also Broiler chickens; Broiler breeder chickens; Leghorn-type chickens; Symptoms of nutrient deficiency Chloride biochemical role of, 14 in egg production, 25 toxicity, 59 Chlorine broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33 deficiency, 47, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 98, 103 in feeds, 72, 64, 78

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   Choline, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31 chloride, 15 deficiency, 10, 47, 56 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 106, 109, 111, 112 in egg production, 25 in feeds, 63, 65 geese requirements, 41 in methionine-cystine requirements, 28 role of, 55 turkey requirements, 39 Chromium, toxicity of, 59 Cobalt, 14 toxicity, 59 Coconut amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 Copper, 14 biochemical role of, 57 broiler chicken requirements, 30 deficiency, 47, 48, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 111 in feeds, 63, 65, 78 toxicity, 58, 59 Coprophagy, 52, 54 Corn amino acid composition of, 71, 73 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 metabolizable energy in, 113 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 xanthophylls in, 17 Cost factors in egg weight gain, 25 protein sources, 10 in setting dietary energy levels, 7 Cotton/cottonseed meal amino acid composition of, 71 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 gossypol in, 69 metabolizable energy in, 113 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 as protein supplement, 69 Cystine in broiler chicken diet, 27-28 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 91-92, 101, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112 in feeds, 66-68, 71-73 methionine interaction, 10, 27-28 D Deficiency, nutrient, 2 amino acid/protein, 10-11, 46-50 assessment of, 46, 47 embryo development and, 46 fatty acid, 13 feed consumption and, 7-8 to induce molt, 26 minerals, 47, 48, 56-57 trace element, 14 vitamins, 47, 48, 50-56 water deprivation, 16 See also Symptoms of nutrient deficiency Dextrose, 80 Diagnosis of nutrient deficiency, 46 biochemical and physiological measurement in, 47 in embryo development, 46 Digestibility of amino acids, 71, 73-74 measurement techniques, 73-74 of phosphorus, 14 of sorghums, 6 Digestible energy, 4 Drunken syndrome, 16 Ducks documentation of nutrient requirements, 107-108 growing systems for, 42 nutrient requirements, 42-43 E Egg production in broiler breeder chickens, 32-33 calcium metabolism in, 56 carotenoid pigments in, 17 chloride/chlorine in, 25, 33 dietary fat in, 12-13 dietary minerals in, 14, 25 documentation of Leghorn-type chicken requirements, 88-89 linoleic acid in, 13 manganese in, 56 in pheasants, 44 phosphorus in, 33 potassium in, 56-57 pyridoxine in, 55 rapeseed meal diets and, 70 seasonal variation, 24 shell strength, 25, 33, 56, 57 sodium in, 33, 57 specific gravity of egg in, 33 in turkeys, 37, 38 vitamin D deficiency in, 51 yolk discoloration, gossypol in, 69 See also Embryo development; Laying hens; Leghorn-type chickens Egg white, as protein source, 30 Eicosanoids, 13 Electrolytes, 14 Embryo development biotin in, 54 choline in, 56 chorioallantois development in, 46 folic acid in, 55

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   iodine in, 57 manganese in, 56 pantothenic acid in, 54 riboflavin in, 53 symptoms of nutrient deficiency in, 46 thiamin deficiency in, 53 vitamin B12 in, 55 vitamin D in, 51 vitamin K in, 52 Encephalomalacia, 31 Energy. See also Metabolizable energy carbohydrate sources, 8-9 digestible, 4 disposition of, 4 fat as source of, 11 gross, 4 net, 4 in setting dietary levels, 7-8 terminology, 3-4 Energy requirements broiler breeder chickens, 33, 34 broiler chickens, 8 geese, 40 Leghorn-type laying hens, 22, 24 Leghorn-type pullets, 21 modeling of, 1 turkeys, 37 Established requirements, 1 Estimated requirements, 1 Ether extract, in feeds, 72, 64, 75 F Fats blending of, 12 depot fat, 13 dietary role of, 11 in egg weight, 25 energy values of, 6-7, 12-13, 114 in net energy of production, 12-13 saturated:unsaturated ratio, 7 sources of, 11-12 Fatty acids broiler chicken requirements, 27, 32 composition in fats, 13 deficiencies, 13 dietary irregularities, symptoms of, 54 dietary synergism, 5 essential, 13 in feeds, 75-77 polyunsaturated, 13, 51-52 Feathers in feeds, 72-63, 70, 74 growth in pheasants, 44 nutrient deficiencies in abnormalities of, 44, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57 Feces in measuring energy, 4 phosphorus levels, 25 Feed manufacture/processing amino acid availability and, 73 animal products in, 70 heat treatment of soybean meal, 70 mycotoxin formation, 78 pelleted feeds, 15-16, 35, 42, 53 Feedstuffs amino acid composition of, 66-68, 71-74 analysis of, 2 antimicrobials in, 18 assessing energy in, 3-8 energy values of, prediction equations for, 113-114 fatty acid composition of, 75, 76-77 intake as factor in nutrient concentration in, 22-24 mineral concentrations in, 75-78 mycotoxins in, 78-79 nutrient composition of, 61-65, 68-70 pigmenting agents in, 17, 50 pyridoxine in, 54 thiamin in, 52-53 vitamin D in, 51 water:feed ratio, 15-16 Fermentation by-products, 18 Field beans amino acid composition of, 71 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 Fish products, 53 amino acid composition of, 71, 73 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 metabolizable energy in, 114 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66-67 as protein source, 70 Fluorine in feeds, 78 toxicity, 59 Folacin/folic acid antagonists, 55 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 55 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95-96, 104, 105, 106, 111 in feeds, 63, 65 maximum tolerance, 15 metabolism, 55 Food and Drug Administration, 18 Formula diets, standard reference, 80-81 Fungi in feeds, 78-79 G Geese documentation of nutrient requirements, 106 force-feeding, 40 nutrient requirements, 40-41 protein requirements, 40 Gelatin amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67 Gizzerosine, 70

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   Glucose deficiency, 54 energy value, 4-5 Glycine broiler chicken requirements, 29 documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 99, 110 in feeds, 66-68 serine interaction, 10 Gossypol, 69 Gross energy, 4 Growth factors, unidentified, 3, 18 Growth/weight gain amino acids and, 11 antimicrobials and, 18 in broiler breeder chickens, 32, 34 egg size and, 32-33 egg weight and, 24 in Leghorn-type chickens, 24 in Leghorn-type pullets, 19-21, 22 in market broilers, 26-27 in measuring metabolizable energy, 6 mineral deficiency and, 56-57 mineral toxicity and, 58 in turkey breeders, 39 in turkeys, 35 H High-energy diets, 8 Histidine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 47 documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 97, 99, 110 in feeds, 66-68 Hominy, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67 I Iodine, 14 biochemical role of, 57 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 111 to induce molt, 26 toxicity, 59 Iron, 14 broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 deficiency, 47, 48, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 111 in feeds, 63, 65, 78 pigmentation and, 57 toxicity, 59 Isoleucine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46, 50 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 90, 100, 110 duck requirements, 43 in feeds, 66-68 leucine antagonism, 11 turkey requirements, 38 J Japanese quail, 45, 110-111 Joule, definition of, 3-4 K Kilocalorie, definition of, 3 L Laying hens added dietary fat for, 12-13 disposition of energy in, 4 energy intake, 8 nutritional modeling for, 1 vitamin D deficiency in, 51 water intake, 16 See also Egg production; Leghorn-type chickens Lead, toxicity of, 59 Leghorn-type chickens ambient temperature in feed intake of, 8, 22 brown-egg-laying, 21, 25-26, 70 documentation of nutrient requirements of, 85-90 egg-type breeders, 26 egg weight, factors in, 24-25 energy requirements, 19-21, 22, 24 feed intake levels, 22-24 maintenance needs, 22 mineral requirements, 20, 21, 22, 25 molting hens, 26 phase feeding, 24 prelay period, 21-22 production diet, 22-26 protein requirements, 19-21, 22-24 pullet nutrient requirements, 19-22 vitamin requirements, 20, 21, 22, 25 Leucine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46, 50 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 90, 97, 100, 107, 110 duck requirements, 43 in feeds, 66-68 isoleucine antagonism, 11 Lighting, to induce molt, 26 Limestone, element concentrations in, 78 Linoleic acid, 13 broiler chicken requirements, 32 deficiency, 47 documentation of nutrient requirements, 93, 102, 105 egg weight and, 24 in feeds, 72, 64 Low-protein diets, 19-21

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   Lupine seeds amino acid composition of, 71, 72 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 Lutein, 17 Lysine, 11 in broiler chicken diets, 26-27, 29 deficiency, 46, 47 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 90-91, 100, 106, 107, 110 duck requirements, 43 in feeds, 71-73 geese requirements, 40-41 Leghorn-type chicken requirements, 22-24 quail requirements, 45 turkey requirements, 37, 38 M Magnesium biochemical role of, 14 broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 in calcium source, 14 deficiency, 47, 56 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 103, 107, 111 in feeds, 63, 65, 78 toxicity, 59 turkey requirements, 38 Magnesium oxide, element concentrations in, 78 Manganese, 14 broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 deficiency, 47, 48, 56 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 103, 105, 109, 111 in feeds, 63, 65, 78 toxicity, 59 turkey requirements, 38 Meat production fish meal in feeds and, 70 See also Broiler chickens; Broiler breeder chickens; Ducks; Geese; Pheasants; Quail; Turkeys Meat products as feed amino acid composition of, 71, 72 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 element concentrations in, 78 fatty acid composition of, 75 fish products, 37, 53, 72-63, 66-67, 70, 71, 74 metabolizable energy in, 114 nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67 Megacalorie, definition of, 3 Menadione, 15 source of, 52 Menaquinone, 15 source of, 52 Mercury, toxicity of, 58, 59 Metabolizable energy apparent, 4 carbohydrate values, 75, 76-77 of cereal grains, 68-69 definition of, 4 dietary requirements, 8 documentation of nutrient requirements, 98, 109, 112 in duck growth, 42 of fats, 12 of feed ingredients, 61, 72, 64 in geese, 40 measurement of, 4-6 prediction equations for estimating feed ingredient values, 113-114 proximate components in estimation of, 6-7 true, 4, 5, 6, 8 turkey feed intake and, 37 Methionine, 11 in broiler chicken diet, 27-28 cystine interaction, 10 deficiency, 50 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 91, 97, 100-101, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112 duck requirements, 43 egg weight and, 24, 25 in feeds, 66-68, 71-73 geese requirements, 41 toxicity, 11 turkey requirements, 38 Milk, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 66 Millet, nutrient composition of, 72-63, 67 Milo, amino acid composition of, 71, 72 Minerals, 13-14 biochemical role of, 14 broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33, 34 broiler chicken requirements, 27, 29-31 deficiencies, 47, 48, 56-57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85-86, 88-89, 93-94, 97, 98, 102-103, 105, 107, 109, 111, 112 duck requirements, 43 electrolyte balance, 14 in experimental diets, 15 in feeds, 78 interactions, 14-15, 56, 58 Leghorn-type chickens, requirements for, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26 macromineral supplements, 75-78 pheasant requirements, 44 supplements, 14-15 toxicity, 58-60 trace elements, 14 turkey requirements, 38 in water, 16-17 Modeling techniques for amino acid requirements, 1 for energy requirements, 1 Molasses, nutrient composition of, 72-63 Molting hens, 26 Molybdenum, toxicity of, 59 Mycotoxins, 17 in feeds, 78-79 in vitamin D metabolism, 51

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 N Net energy, definition of, 4 Niacin amino acids in synthesis of, 11 biochemical role of, 53 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 53 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112 in feeds, 63, 65 geese requirements, 41 maximum tolerance, 15 Nickel, toxicity of, 59-60 Nitrate, toxicity of, 60 Nitrogen in amino acids, 75 in measurement of metabolizable energy, 4, 5-6 Nutrient requirements amino acid, 9-10 of Bobwhite quail, 45 of broiler breeder chickens, 32-34 of broiler chickens, 26-32 carbohydrates, 8 of ducks, 42-43 energy levels, 7-8 fatty acids, 13 of geese, 40-41 of Japanese quail, 44-45 of Leghorn-type breeders, 26 of Leghorn-type chickens, documentation of, 85-89 of Leghorn-type hens in egg production, 22-26 of Leghorn-type molting hens, 26 of Leghorn-type pullets, 19-22 minerals, 13-15 of ring-necked pheasants, 44 of turkeys, 35-39 vitamins, 15 O Oats amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 metabolizable energy in, 113 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67 Ochratoxin A, 79 Osteocalcin, 50 Oyster shells, 78 P Pantothenic acid broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 54 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112 egg-type breeder requirements, 26 in energy metabolism, 54 in feeds, 63, 65 geese requirements, 41 maximum tolerance, 15 turkey requirements, 39 Paralysis, in nutrient deficiency, 31 Peanuts amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67 Peas amino acid composition of, 71, 72 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67 Pelleted feeds, 15-16 for ducks, 42 thiamin in, 53 for turkeys, 35, 37 Perosis, 41, 53, 54, 55, 56 Phase feeding of Leghorn-type chickens, 24 Pheasants, 54 nutrient requirements for, 44, 109 Phenylalanine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46, 50 documentation of nutrient requirements, 92, 97, 101-102, 110 in feeds, 66-68 tyrosine interaction, 10 Phosphoric acid, element concentrations in, 78 Phosphorus Bobwhite quail requirements, 45 broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33, 34 broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 deficiency, 47, 56 digestibility, 14 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 93-94, 97, 98, 103 , 105, 106, 107, 109, 111, 112 in egg production, 25 in feeds, 72, 64, 78 geese requirements, 41 in Leghorn-type pullet growth, 21 nutritional role of, 14 in phase-feeding program, 24 plant sources, 56 turkey requirements, 38 Phylloquinone, 15 source of, 52 Phytic acid, 38 Pigmentation gossypol pigments in cottonseed oil, 69 mineral deficiency and, 57 nutrient deficiency in depigmentation, 46 pigments in feedstuffs, 17, 50 Potassium broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 deficiency, 47, 56-57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 103 in feeds, 72, 64, 78 nutritional role of, 14 Poultry by-products amino acid composition of, 67, 72

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 metabolizable energy in, 6, 114 nutrient composition of, 64-65 Proline documentation of nutrient requirements, 93 Proline, broiler chicken requirements, 29 Protein deficiencies, 46 documentation of nutrient requirements, 97, 98, 99, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112 egg weight and, 24 in feeds, 72, 64, 66-68, 69 in measuring metabolizable energy, 5, 6 in phase-feeding program, 24 supplements, 69-70 See also Amino acids; Protein requirements Protein requirements of broiler breeder chickens, 32-33, 34 of ducks, 42 of geese, 40 of Leghorn-type laying hens, 22-24, 88 of Leghorn-type pullets, 19-21, 85 of pheasants, 44 of quail, 45 of turkeys, 36, 37 Proximate analysis, 6-7 Pullets broiler breeder, 32-33 Leghorn-type, 19-22 Pyridoxine broiler chicken requirements, 32 deficiency, 47, 48, 54-55 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 96, 104, 108, 111 in feeds, 63, 65 maximum tolerance, 15 in nervous system functioning, 54 Q Quail, 54 Bobwhite, 45, 56, 112 Japanese, 44-45, 110-111 R Rapeseed metabolizable energy in, 113 as protein supplement, 69-70 Riboflavin biochemical role of, 53 broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 53 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104, 105, 108, 109, 111, 112 egg-type breeder requirements, 26 in feeds, 63, 65 geese requirements, 41 maximum tolerance, 15 turkey requirements, 39 Rice, 113 amino acid composition of, 71 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67 Rye, 9 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67 S Safety margin in requirements values, 1, 2 Safflower, nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67 Salt, 14 water intake and, 16 Selenium, 14, 50 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 51, 52, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 103, 107, 111 in feeds, 63, 65 sources of, 57 toxicity, 57, 58, 60 in vitamin E metabolism, 51 Serine broiler chicken requirements, 29 documentation of nutrient requirements, 90, 110 in feeds, 66-68 glycine interaction, 10 Sesame amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 67-68 Silicon, 15 Silver, toxicity of, 60 Sodium broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33 deficiency, 47, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 21, 86, 88, 94, 98, 103, 109 in egg production, 25 in feeds, 63, 65, 78 nutritional role of, 14 toxicity, 60 Sodium carbonate, element concentrations in, 78 Sodium chloride documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 107 to induce molt, 26 toxicity, 60 Sodium chlorine documentation of nutrient requirements, 111 Sodium phosphate, element concentrations in, 78 Sodium sulfate, element concentrations in, 78 Sorghum fatty acid composition, 75 metabolizable energy of, 6, 113 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68-69 tannin content of, 6, 61, 68-69

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   Soybeans/soybean meal amino acid composition of, 71, 72 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 fatty acid composition of, 75 metabolizable energy in, 113 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68 as protein supplement, 70 toxic elements in, 70 urease assays, 70 Standard reference diets, 80-81 Strontium, toxicity of, 60 Sulfaquinoxaline, 52 Sulfate in broiler chicken diet, 28 toxicity of, 60 Sulfur amino acids, 63, 65, 78 in Bobwhite quail, 45 in broiler chickens, 28 in ducks, 43 in geese, 41 in quail, 45 in turkeys, 38 Sunflower amino acid composition of, 71, 72 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74 metabolizable energy in, 113 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68 Supplementation amino acids, 74 antibiotics, 18 antimicrobial additives, 18 of cereal grain diets, 9 choline, 55-56 fats, 6-7, 25 minerals, 14-15 protein, 69 selenium, 57 vitamin K, 52 vitamins, 15 of wheat diets, 69 Symptoms of nutrient deficiency adrenal weight increase, 57 blood disorders, 49, 52, 53, 55, 57 bone abnormalities, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 cervical paralysis, 55 dermatitis, 53, 54 diarrhea, 49 encephalomalacia, 51, 52 feather abnormalities, 44, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57 foot pad dermatitis, 50 gizzard ulcerations, 70 hyperthyroidism, 50 hypocalcemia, 51 immune system function, 50, 55 leg disorders in pheasants, 44 liver function, 46 muscle abnormalities, 46, 51, 57 nervous system dysfunction, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 pancreatic disorders, 57 pendulous crops, 54 pigmentation disorders, 46, 57 reproductive disorders, 50, 52, 54 rickets, 56 secretory membrane dysfunction, 50 skin lesions, 49, 50, 54 thyroid disorders, 57 tongue deformity, 50 T Temperature, environmental feed intake and, 8, 9, 22 phosphorus in tolerance to, 25 in requirements data, 2 turkey maintenance energy and, 37 water intake and, 16 Thiamin broiler chicken requirements, 31-32 deficiency, 47, 48, 52-53 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 96, 104, 111 in feeds, 63, 65 maximum tolerance, 15 Threonine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 92, 97, 102, 110 in feeds, 66-68, 71-73 D/DL-a-Tocopheryl/Tocopheryl acetate, 15 Toxicity amino acid, 11 calcium, 44 definition, 58 gossypol pigments in cottonseed oil, 69 of inorganic elements, 57, 58-60 methionine, 11 mycotoxin, 78-79 vitamin A, 50 vitamin D, 51 vitamin E, 52 Tricothecenes, 79 Triticale, 113 amino acid composition of, 71 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68 Tryptophan broiler breeder requirements broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46 documentation of nutrient requirements, 92-93, 102, 107, 110 duck requirements, 43 egg weight and, 25 in feeds, 66-68, 71-73 as niacin source, 11, 53 Tungsten, toxicity of, 60 Turkeys amino acid requirements, 36, 37-38 breeding diets, 38, 39

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   documentation of nutrient requirements, 99-105 egg production, 37, 38 energy consumption, 37 magnesium requirements, 38 manganese requirements, 38 mineral requirements, 38 nutrient requirements, 35-36 nutrient-to-energy ratios in feeds, 8 nutritional modeling for, 1 pelleted feeds for, 35, 37 phosphorus requirements, 38 protein requirements, 36, 37 vitamin requirements, 38-39 water intake, 16 zinc requirements, 38 See also Symptoms of nutrient deficiency Tyrosine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46 documentation of nutrient requirements, 92, 101, 110 in feeds, 66-68 phenylalanine interaction, 10 U Urinary energy, 5 V Valine, 11 broiler chicken requirements, 29 deficiency, 46 documentation of nutrient requirements, 85, 88, 93, 97, 102, 107, 110 duck requirements, 43 in feeds, 66-68 Vanadium, toxicity of, 58, 60 Vegetable oils, 12, 13 Vitamin A, 15 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 50 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94, 103, 105, 111, 112 maximum tolerance, 15 toxicity, 50 turkey requirements, 38 Vitamin B12, 15 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 55 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 104 egg-type breeder requirements, 26 in feeds, 63, 65 role of, 55 Vitamin C bird stress and, 15 maximum tolerance, 15 Vitamin D, 15 broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31 in calcium metabolism, 50, 51 deficiency, 47, 48, 50-51, 51 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 89, 94-95, 103, 105, 107, 109, 111 maximum tolerance, 15 metabolism, 50 nutritional role of, 50 sources of, 50 toxicity, 51 turkey requirements, 38-39 Vitamin E, 15 broiler chicken requirements, 30, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 51-52 documentation of nutrient requirements, 95, 103, 105, 108 documentation of nutrient requirements, 89, 87 in feeds, 63, 65 maximum tolerance, 15 metabolism, 51 toxicity, 52 turkey requirements, 39 in vitamin A excess, 50 Vitamin K, 15 broiler chicken requirements, 31 deficiency, 47, 48, 52 documentation of nutrient requirements, 87, 89, 95, 103, 108 maximum tolerance, 15 nutritional role of, 52 sources of, 52 turkey requirements, 39 Vitamins, 15 amino acids in synthesis of, 11 antagonistic interactions, 50 broiler breeder chicken requirements, 33 broiler chicken requirements, 27, 30, 31-32 deficiencies, 47, 48, 50-56 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86-87, 89, 94-96, 103-104, 105, 107-108, 111 duck requirements, 43 geese requirements, 41 Leghorn-type chicken requirements, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26 maximum tolerances, 15 pheasant requirements, 44 as supplements, 15 turkey requirements, 38-39 W Water delivery systems, 16 deprivation of, 16 intake determinants, 15-16 intoxication, 16 medication in, 16 requirements, 15, 16 total dissolved solids in, 17 trace minerals in, 16-17 Wheat amino acid composition of, 71 amino acid digestibility coefficients, 74

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994   fatty acid composition of, 75 metabolizable energy of, 69, 113 nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68 Whey, nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68 X Xanthophylls, 17 role of, 3 Y Yeasts, nutrient composition of, 64-65, 68 Z Zearalenone, 79 Zeaxanthin, 17 Zinc, 14 broiler chicken requirements, 29, 30 deficiency, 47, 48, 57 documentation of nutrient requirements, 86, 88, 94, 103, 107, 109, 111 in feeds, 63, 65, 78 to induce molt, 26 pheasant requirements, 44 toxicity, 60 turkey requirements, 38 Other Titles in the Series Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed., 1994 0-309-04892-3 Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993 0-309-04891-5 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 5th Rev. Ed., 1989 0-309-03989-4 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., Update 1989 0-309-03826-X Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 9th Rev. Ed., 1988 0-309-03779-4 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986 0-309-03682-8 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03596-1 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03496-5 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., 1984 0-309-03447-7 Nutrient Requirements of Warm Water Fishes and Shellfishes, Rev. Ed., 1983 0-309-03428-0 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982 0-309-03325-X Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, 1981 0-309-03187-7 Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981 0-309-03185-0 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 0-309-02786-1 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd Rev. Ed., 1977 0-309-02607-5 Related Publications Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals, 1987 0-309-03695-X Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 0-309-03728-X

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Page 157 Other Titles in the Series Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed., 1994 0-309-04892-3 Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993 0-309-04891-5 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 5th Rev. Ed., 1989 0-309-03989-4 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., Update 1989 0-309-03826-X Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 9th Rev. Ed., 1988 0-309-03779-4 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986 0-309-03682-8 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03596-1 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03496-5 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., 1984 0-309-03447-7 Nutrient Requirements of Warm Water Fishes and Shellfishes, Rev. Ed., 1983 0-309-03428-0 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982 0-309-03325-X Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, 1981 0-309-03187-7 Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981 0-309-03185-0 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 0-309-02786-1 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd Rev. Ed., 1977 0-309-02607-5 Related Publications Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals, 1987 0-309-03695-X Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 0-309-03728-X