20 percent protein and 2,950 kcal MEn/kg. More recently, Mateova et al. (1980) found that 1.10 percent lysine was satisfactory for starting geese. Mateova et al. (1980) also reported that from 4 to 8 weeks of age geese needed 0.85 percent lysine in a diet containing 2,945 kcal MEn/kg. Nitsan et al. (1983) used body composition, maintenance needs, and absorption rate of amino acids to estimate the lysine requirements of geese. Subsequent testing of the results in feeding trials indicated that goslings required 1.07 and 0.60 percent lysine during the period from 0 to 2 and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively. Requirements of geese for other essential amino acids were estimated by Nitsan et al. (1983), and the results indicated that 0.58 percent total sulfur amino acids (TSAA) and 0.29 percent methionine were needed from 0 to 2 weeks of age and 0.47 percent TSAA and 0.15 percent methionine were required from 2 to 7 weeks.

Calcium and total phosphorus requirements of geese were estimated at 0.4 percent and 0.46 percent of the diet, respectively, for geese from 0 to 4 weeks of age (Aitken et al., 1958). These estimates have not been corroborated by recent research. Briggs et al. (1953) documented the need for dietary folic acid, choline, and niacin by goslings but did not estimate requirements. Battig et al. (1953) reported that 66 mg of dietary niacin per kilogram of diet (40 mg supplemented plus 26 mg in the ingredients) were required to prevent perosis and maximize growth of geese to 3 weeks of age.

Serafin (1981) fed purified diets to Embden goslings from hatch to 2 or 3 weeks and found that, for growth and liveability, requirements for riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and choline were no more than 3.8, 31.2, 12.6, and 1,530 mg/kg, respectively. Laboratory analysis

TABLE 4-2 Approximate Body Weights and Feed Consumption of Commercially Reared Male and Female Geese to 10 Weeks of Age

Age (weeks)

Average Body Weight (kg)

Feed Consumption by 2-Week Period (kg)

Cumulative Feed Consumption (kg)

0

0.11

0.00

0.00

2

0.82

0.96

0.96

4

2.05

2.93

3.89

6

3.05

3.20

7.09

8

4.05

4.34

11.43

10

4.85

4.68

16.11

of the basal purified diet showed that concentrations of the vitamins studied were very low; hence the requirement data reported herein represent levels of supplemental vitamins that were supplied in highly available forms. Thus, supplemental vitamins, which probably were readily utilized by the geese, were used to establish the requirements for riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and choline. Requirements established in this way may not be totally applicable to feeding commercial geese because vitamins supplied by commonly used ingredients of geese diets are less available than those of supplemental origin.

The paucity of research on the nutrient requirements of geese illustrates the need for additional efforts focused on this area of nutrition.

Body weight and feed consumption data presented in Table 4-2 are approximations obtained from a combination of research results and input from persons involved in the production of geese.



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