TABLE 6-2 Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail (Coturnix) as Percentages or Units Per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)

Nutrient

Unit

Starting and Growing; 2,900a

Breeding; 2,900a

Protein and amino acids

Protein

%

24.0

20.0

Arginine

%

1.25

1.26

Glycine + serine

%

1.15

1.17

Histidine

%

0.36

0.42

Isoleucine

%

0.98

0.90

Leucine

%

1.69

1.42

Lysine

%

1.30

1.00

Methionine

%

0.50

0.45

Methionine + cystine

%

0.75

0.70

Phenylalanine

%

0.96

0.78

Phenylalanine + tyrosine

%

1.80

1.40

Threonine

%

1.02

0.74

Tryptophan

%

0.22

0.19

Valine

%

0.95

0.92

Fat

Linoleic acid

%

1.0

1.0

Macrominerals

Calcium

%

0.8

2.5

Chlorine

%

0.14

0.14

Magnesium

mg

300

500

Nonphytate phosphorus

%

0.30

0.35

Potassium

%

0.4

0.4

Sodium

%

0.15

0.15

Trace minerals

Copper

mg

5

5

Iodine

mg

0.3

0.3

Iron

mg

120

60

Manganese

mg

60

60

Selenium

mg

0.2

0.2

Zinc

mg

25

50

Fat soluble vitamins

A

IU

1,650

3,300

D3

ICU

750

900

E

IU

12

25

K

mg

1

1

Water soluble vitamins

B12

mg

0.003

0.003

Biotin

mg

0.3

0.15

Choline

mg

2,000

1,500

Folacin

mg

1

1

Niacin

mg

40

20

Pantothenic acid

mg

10

15

Pyridoxine

mg

3

3

Riboflavin

mg

4

4

Thiamin

mg

2

2

NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For values not listed for the starting-growing periods, see requirements for turkeys (Table 3-1) as a guide.

a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.

Shim and Vohra (1984) presented a comprehensive review. Data appearing since 1984 have supported the values listed in the 1984 edition for protein (Sinha and Verma, 1984; Steigner, 1990) and for total sulfur amino acids (TSAA; Shrivastav and Panda, 1987) for the starting and growing period. In the instance of protein, however,

TABLE 6-3 Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)

Nutrient

Unit

0 to 6 Weeks; 2,800a

After 6 Weeks; 2,800a

Breeding; 2,800a

Protein and amino acids

Protein

%

26

20.0

24.0

Methionine + cystine

%

1.0

0.75

0.90

Fat

Linoleic acid

%

1.0

1.0

1.0

Macrominerals

Calcium

%

0.65

0.65

2.4

Nonphytate phosphorus

%

0.45

0.30

0.70

Sodium

%

0.15

0.15

0.15

Trace minerals

Chlorine

%

0.11

0.11

0.11

Iodine

mg

0.30

0.30

0.30

Water soluble vitamins

Choline

mg

1,500.0

1,500.0

1,000.0

Niacin

mg

30.0

30.0

20.0

Pantothenic acid

mg

12.0

9.0

15.0

Riboflavin

mg

3.8

3.0

4.0

NOTE: Where experimental data are lacking, values typeset in bold italics represent an estimate based on values obtained for other ages or species. For values not listed for the starting-growing periods, see requirements for turkeys as a guide.

a These are typical dietary energy concentrations, expressed in kcal MEn/kg diet.

Steigner (1990) reported that a strain of Japanese quail selected for rapid growth required a greater dietary protein concentration than did random-bred quail. Similarly, information provided by Shim and Lee (1984, 1988) and by Shim and Chen (1989) showed that the dietary requirements for lysine and TSAA for breeding quail in the 1984 edition were appropriate in relation to the stated metabolizable energy contents of the diet. The lack of data to further define requirements or to corroborate single sets of observations (Appendix Table A-8) on requirements of Japanese quail, especially breeding quail, necessitates the continued listing of a large number of tentative requirement values in Table 6-2.

BOBWHITE QUAIL

The committee has made few changes in the nutrient specifications for Bobwhite quail (Table 6-3). Its reevaluation of the data (Appendix Table A-9) used to establish the previous requirements resulted in some modifications in protein, TSAA, calcium, and phosphorus recommendations for starting-growing Bobwhite quail. As with other game birds reared commercially, Bobwhite quail grown for game-release farms should be fed diets of relatively low energy content during the growing period to prevent excessive fattening.



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