TABLE 8-1 Toxic Dietary Concentrations of Inorganic Elements and Compounds for Poultry

Element or Compound

Species

Age

Chemical Form

Toxic Concentration (ppm)a

Toxic Effects

References

Aluminum

Chicken

Immature

AlCl2

500

Reduced growth

Storer and Nelson, 1968

Aluminum

Chicken

Immature

Al2(SO4)3

1,000

Reduced growth

Storer and Nelson, 1968

Aluminum

Chicken

Immature

Al2(SO4)3

2,200

Rickets

Deobold and Elvehjem, 1935

Aluminum

Chicken

Mature

Al2(SO4)3

3,000

Reduced egg production

Hussein et al., 1989

Arsenic

Chicken

Laying hen

As2O5

100

Reduced body weight; reduced egg production

Hermayer et al., 1977

Barium

Chicken

Immature

BaCO3, BaCl2

200

Reduced growth

Taucins et al., 1969

Barium

Chicken

Immature

BaCl2

2,000

Death

Taucins et al., 1969

Bromine

Chicken

Immature

NaBr

5,000

Reduced growth

Doberenz et al., 1965

Cadmium

Chicken

Immature

CdSO4·H2O

25

Reduced growth

Hill et al., 1963

Cadmium

Chicken

Immature

CdSO4

40

Reduced growth

Hill, 1974

Cadmium

Turkey

Immature

CdCl2

20

Reduced growth

Supplee, 1961

Cadmium

Chicken

Adult

CdSO4

12

Decreased egg production

Leach et al., 1979

Chlorine

Chicken

Immature

Arginine·HCL, NaCl and KCl

15,000

Reduced growth

Nesheim et al., 1964

Chromium

Chicken

Immature

K2CrO4

300

Reduced growth

Kunishisa et al., 1966

Chromium

Chicken

Immature

Cr2(SO4)3

300

Reduced growth

Kunishisa et al., 1966

Chromium

Chicken

Adult

CrCl3·6H2O

10

Egg quality

Jensen and Maurice, 1980

Cobalt

Chicken

Immature

CoCl2·6H2O

200

Reduced growth

Hill, 1974

Cobalt

Chicken

Immature

CoCl2

100

Reduced growth

Hill, 1979

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuO

806

Reduced growth; mortality

Mehring et al., 1960

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

800

Exudative diathesis; muscular dystrophy

Jensen, 1975b

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

500

Reduced growth; gizzard erosion

Poupoulis and Jensen, 1976

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

250

Reduced growth; gizzard erosion

Robbins and Baker, 1980a,b

Copper

Turkey

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

676 (practical diet)

Reduced growth

Vohra and Kratzer, 1968

Copper

Turkey

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

800 (purified diet)

Reduced growth

Supplee, 1964

Copper

Turkey

Immature

CuCO3

50 (purified diet)

800 (practical diet not toxic)

Reduced growth

Waibel et al., 1964

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

1,000

Reduced growth

Doberenz et al., 1965

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

500 (similar level of F as CaF not toxic)

Reduced growth

Gardiner et al., 1959

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

500

Reduced growth

Weber et al., 1969

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

750

Reduced growth

Berg and Martinson, 1972

Fluorine

Chicken

Adult

NaF

1,300

Reproductive characteristics

Guenter and Hahn, 1986

Iodine

Chicken

Laying hen

KI

625

Reduced egg production, egg size, and hatchability

Arrington et al., 1967

Iron

Chicken

Immature

Fe2(SO4)3

4,500

Rickets

Deobold and Elvehjem, 1935

Lead

Chicken

Immature

Pb acetate

1,000

Reduced growth

Damron et al., 1969

Lead

Chicken

Immature

Pb acetate

320

Lethargy, 50% mortality

Vengris and Mare, 1974

Lead

Chicken

Mature

Pb acetate

200

Reduced egg production

Edens and Garlich, 1983

Lead

Japanese quail

Mature

Pb acetate

10

Reduced egg production

Edens and Garlich, 1983

Magnesium

Chicken

Immature

MgO

5,700

Growth, skeletal development

Atteh and Leeson, 1983

Magnesium

Chicken

Immature

MgCO3

6,000

Reduced growth

Chicco et al., 1967

Magnesium

Chicken

Immature

MgCO3

6,400

Reduced growth; mortality

Nugara and Edwards, 1963

Magnesium

Chicken

Adult

MgSO4

19,600

Reduced egg production

McWard, 1967

Magnesium

Chicken

Adult

MgCO3

11,200

Reduced egg production

Stillmak and Sunde, 1971

Manganese

Chicken

Immature

MnCl2·4H2O

4,000

Reduced growth

Southern and Baker, 1983a

Manganese

Turkey

Immature

MnSO4·H2O

4,800

Reduced growth

Vohra and Kratzer, 1968

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

HgSO4, HgCl2

400

Reduced growth

Hill et al., 1964

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

HgCl2

250b

Reduced growth; mortality

Parkhurst and Thaxton, 1973

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

CH3Hg dicyanamide

33

Reduced growth; mortality

Gardiner, 1972

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

CH3HgCl

5

50% mortality

Soares et al., 1973

Molybdenum

Chicken

Immature

Na2MoO4

500

Reduced growth; mortality

Davies et al., 1960

Molybdenum

Chicken

Immature

Na2MoO4·2H2O

350

Reduced growth

Berg and Martinson, 1972

Molybdenum

Chicken

Laying hen

Na2MoO4·2H2O

500

Reduced egg production and hatchability

Lepore and Miller, 1965

Molybdenum

Turkey

Immature

NaMoO4

300

Reduced growth

Kratzer, 1952

Nickel

Chicken

Immature

NiSO4 or Ni acetate

500

Reduced growth

Weber and Reid, 1968



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