9
Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets

Feed formulation involves the judicious use of feed ingredients to supply in adequate amounts and proportions the nutrients required by poultry. Because it is impractical to analyze each batch of feedstuff for its nutrient content, reliance must be placed on feedstuff composition data that have been compiled on the basis of many laboratory analyses. Feedstuffs vary in composition. The nutrient values given in the following tables are averages reflecting the concentrations of nutrients most likely to be present in the feedstuffs commonly used in poultry feeds.

Feedstuff composition data presented in this edition (Tables 9-1 and 9-2) were obtained from several sources, including the United States-Canadian Tables of Feed Composition (National Research Council, 1982), the Association of American Feed Control Officials, commercial firms, and individual scientists. In many instances, the values have been changed to reflect results of analyses of feed ingredients obtained from contemporary crop cultivars and recently employed processing methods. Additional information provided in the composition tables include nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) data for many feed ingredients and information on the true digestibility of amino acids for numerous feedstuffs. Also, equations are provided to estimate the amino acid concentration of certain ingredients on the basis of proximate analysis or on the basis of the protein content of the ingredients.

From a nutritional point of view, there is no "best" diet formula in terms of ingredients that are used. Ingredients should, therefore, be selected on the basis of availability, price, and the quality of the nutrients they contain. Certain ingredients invariably constitute the greatest part of diets, in terms of both amount and cost. Cereal grains and fats are the primary energy-supplying ingredients, and oilseed meals and animal-protein meals are used commonly as major sources of amino acids. Some important nutritional characteristics of many energy- and protein-supplying ingredients are discussed in this chapter. Sulphur, which are common contaminants in feedstuffs, and their effects are discussed in the final section.

CEREAL GRAINS

Bushel weights (bulk densities) of cereal grains are used in commerce to establish market grades and prices. Bushel weights of grains also have been used as criteria of feeding value, and in some instances this practice seems justified for poultry. For example, at standard moisture levels there is a strong relationship between bushel weight and general feeding value of oats and barley. An increase in bushel weight of these grains is a reflection of an increase in the proportion of the meaty kernel and a decrease in the proportion of fibrous hull. Thus there is a definite increase in the metabolizable energy (ME)—and usually protein—content of barley and oats as bushel weight increases. Similarly, there seems to be a direct relationship between the ME content of grain sorghum and wheat as bushel weight increases over a wide range. A relationship between bushel weight and the ME content of corn is not so evident. In situations in which corn, sorghum, or wheat fails to achieve maturity because of early frost or early harvest, there usually are decreases in the starchy endosperm portion of the grain and bushel weight and ME content are usually low. Regression equations relating the ME of corn to various factors such as moisture content at harvest and bushel weight have been reported (Leeson and Summers, 1975, 1976b; Leeson et al., 1977b). Ranges in bushel weight that may be encountered with different grains are shown in Table 9-3.

The feeding value of grain sorghums (milo) is markedly



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 9 Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets Feed formulation involves the judicious use of feed ingredients to supply in adequate amounts and proportions the nutrients required by poultry. Because it is impractical to analyze each batch of feedstuff for its nutrient content, reliance must be placed on feedstuff composition data that have been compiled on the basis of many laboratory analyses. Feedstuffs vary in composition. The nutrient values given in the following tables are averages reflecting the concentrations of nutrients most likely to be present in the feedstuffs commonly used in poultry feeds. Feedstuff composition data presented in this edition (Tables 9-1 and 9-2) were obtained from several sources, including the United States-Canadian Tables of Feed Composition (National Research Council, 1982), the Association of American Feed Control Officials, commercial firms, and individual scientists. In many instances, the values have been changed to reflect results of analyses of feed ingredients obtained from contemporary crop cultivars and recently employed processing methods. Additional information provided in the composition tables include nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) data for many feed ingredients and information on the true digestibility of amino acids for numerous feedstuffs. Also, equations are provided to estimate the amino acid concentration of certain ingredients on the basis of proximate analysis or on the basis of the protein content of the ingredients. From a nutritional point of view, there is no "best" diet formula in terms of ingredients that are used. Ingredients should, therefore, be selected on the basis of availability, price, and the quality of the nutrients they contain. Certain ingredients invariably constitute the greatest part of diets, in terms of both amount and cost. Cereal grains and fats are the primary energy-supplying ingredients, and oilseed meals and animal-protein meals are used commonly as major sources of amino acids. Some important nutritional characteristics of many energy- and protein-supplying ingredients are discussed in this chapter. Sulphur, which are common contaminants in feedstuffs, and their effects are discussed in the final section. CEREAL GRAINS Bushel weights (bulk densities) of cereal grains are used in commerce to establish market grades and prices. Bushel weights of grains also have been used as criteria of feeding value, and in some instances this practice seems justified for poultry. For example, at standard moisture levels there is a strong relationship between bushel weight and general feeding value of oats and barley. An increase in bushel weight of these grains is a reflection of an increase in the proportion of the meaty kernel and a decrease in the proportion of fibrous hull. Thus there is a definite increase in the metabolizable energy (ME)—and usually protein—content of barley and oats as bushel weight increases. Similarly, there seems to be a direct relationship between the ME content of grain sorghum and wheat as bushel weight increases over a wide range. A relationship between bushel weight and the ME content of corn is not so evident. In situations in which corn, sorghum, or wheat fails to achieve maturity because of early frost or early harvest, there usually are decreases in the starchy endosperm portion of the grain and bushel weight and ME content are usually low. Regression equations relating the ME of corn to various factors such as moisture content at harvest and bushel weight have been reported (Leeson and Summers, 1975, 1976b; Leeson et al., 1977b). Ranges in bushel weight that may be encountered with different grains are shown in Table 9-3. The feeding value of grain sorghums (milo) is markedly

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Feed Name Description    International Feed Numbera Dry Matter (%) MEn (kcal/kg) TMEn (kcal/kg) Protein (%) Ether Extract (%) Linoleic Acid (%) Crude Fiber (%) Calcium (%) Total Phosphorus (%) Nonphytate Phosphorus (%) Potassium (%) Chlorine (%)   Alfalfa Medicago sativa 01     meal dehydrated, 17% protein   1-00-023 92 1,200 1,011 17.5 2.5 0.47 24.1 1.44 0.22 0.22 2.15 0.47 02 meal dehydrated, 20% protein 1-00-024 92 1,630 — 20.0 3.6 0.58 20.2 1.67 0.28 — 2.15 0.47 03 Bakery waste, dehydrated (dried bakery product) 4-00-466 92     3,862 3,696 10.5 11.7 — 1.2 0.13 0.24 — 0.35 1.23   Barley Hordeum vulgare 04         grain 4-00-549 89 2,640 2,900 11.0 1.8 0.83 5.5 0.03 0.36 0.17 0.48 0.15 05          grain, Pacific coast 4-07-939 89 2,620 — 9.2 2.0 0.85 6.4 0.05 0.32 — 0.53 0.15   Broadbean Vicia faba 06 seeds 5-09-262 87 2,431 2,339 24.0 1.4 — 7.0 0.11 0.54 — 1.2 —   Blood 07   meal, vat dried 5-00-380 94 2,830 — 81.1 1.6 — 0.5 0.55 0.42 — 0.18 0.27 08         meal, spray or ring dried 5-00-381 93 3,420 3,625 88.9 1.0 0.10 0.6 0.41 0.30 — 0.18 0.27   Brewer's Grains 09         dehydrated 5-02-141 92 2,080 — 25.3 6.2 2.94 15.3 0.29 0.52 — 0.08 0.12   Buckwheat, common   Fagopyrum sagittatum 10          grain 4-00-994 88 2,660 2,755 10.8 2.5 — 10.5 0.09 0.32 0.12 0.40 0.04   Cane Molasses—see Molasses   Canola Brassica napus-Brassica campestris 11         seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, low erucic acid, low glucosinolates 5-06-145 93 2,000 2,070 38.0 3.8 — 12.0 0.68 1.17 0.30 1.29 —   Casein 12          dehydrated 5-01-162 93 4,130 4,134 87.2 0.8 — 0.2 0.61 1.00 1.00 0.01 — 13          precipitated dehydrated 5-20-837 92 4,118 — 85.0 0.06 — 0.2 0.68 0.82 0.82 0.01 —   Cattle 14         skim milk, dehydrated 5-01-175 93 2,537 — 36.1 1.0 — 0.2 1.28 1.02 1.02 1.60 0.90   Coconut Cocos nucifera 15         kernels with coats, meal solvent extracted (copra meal) 5-01-573 92 1,525 — 19.2 2.1 — 14.4 0.17 0.65 — 1.41 0.03   Corn, Dent Yellow Zea mays indentata 16 distillers' grains, dehydrated 5-28-235 94 1,972 — 27.8 9.2 — 12.0 0.10 0.40 0.39 0.17 0.07 17         distillers' grains with solubles, dehydrated 5-28-236 93 2,480 3,097 27.4 9.0 4.55 9.1 0.17 0.72 0.39 0.65 0.17 18          distillers' solubles, dehydrated 5-28-237 92 2,930 — 28.5 9.0 4.55 4.0 0.35 1.27 1.17 1.75 0.26 19          gluten, meal, 60% protein 5-28-242 90 3,720 3,811 62.0 2.5 — 1.3 — 0.50 0.14 0.35 0.05 20 gluten with bran (corn gluten feed) 5-28-243 90 1,750 2,228 21.0 2.5 — 8.0 0.40 0.80 — 0.57 0.22 21          grain 4-02-935 89 3,350 3,470 8.5 3.8 2.20 2.2 0.02 0.28 0.08 0.30 0.04 22         grits by-product (hominy feed) 4-03-011 90 2,896 3,269 10.4 8.0 3,28 5.0 0.05 0.52 — 0.59 0.05   Cotton Gossypium spp. 23          seeds, meal mechanically extracted, 41% protein (expeller) 5-01-617 93 2,320 — 40.9 3.9 2.47 12.0 0.20 1.05 — 1.19 0.04 24          seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, 41% protein 5-07-872 90 2,400 — 41.4 0.5 — 13.6 0.15 0.97 0.22 1.22 0.03 25          seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, 44% protein 5-07-873 91 1,857 2,135 44.7 1.6 — 11.1 0.15 1.25 0.37 — —   Feathers—see Poultry   Fish 26   solubles, condensed 5-01-969 51 1,460 — 31.5 7.8 — 0.2 0.30 0.76 — 1.74 2.65 27          solubles, dehydrated 5-01-971 92 2,830 — 63.6 9.3 0.12 0.5 1.23 1.63 — 0.37 —   Fish, Anchovy Engraulis ringen 28          meal mechanically extracted 5-01-985 92 2,580 — 64.2 5.0 0.20 1.0 3.73 2.43 — 0.69 0.60   Fish, Herring Clupea harengus 29          meal mechanically extracted 5-02-000 93 3,190 — 72.3 10.0 0.15 0.7 2.29 1.70 — 1.09 0.90   Fish, Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus 30          meal mechanically extracted 5-02-009 92 2,820 2,977 60.05 9.4 0.12 0.7 5.11 2.88 — 0.65 0.60 31          Fish, White Gadidae (family)-Lop hiidae (family) -Rajidae (family) meal mechanically extracted 5-02-025 91 2,593 — 62.6 4.6 0.08 0.7 7.31 3.81 — 0.83 0.50   Gelatin 32          process residue (gelatin by-products) 5-14-503 91 2,360 3,029 88.0 0.0 — — 0.50 Trace — — —   Hominy Feed—see Corn 33         Livers meal 5-00-389 92 2,860 — 65.6 15.0 — 1.4 0.56 1.25 — — —   Meat 34          meal rendered 5-00-385 92 2,195 — 54.4 7.1 0.28 2.7 8.27 4.10 — 0.60 0.91 35          with bone, meal rendered 5-00-388 93 2,150 2,495 50.4 10.0 0.36 2.8 10.30 5.10 — 1.45 0.69   Millet Pearl Pennisetum glaucum 36          grain 4-03-118 91 2,675 3,367 14.0 4.3 0.84 3.0 0.05 0.32 0.12 0.43 0.14   Millet, Proso Panicum miliaceum

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Iron (mg/kg) Magnesium (%) Manganese (mg/kg) Sodium (%) Sulfur (%) Copper (mg/kg) Selenium (mg/kg) Zinc (mg/kg) Biotin (mg/kg) Choline (mg/kg) Folacin (mg/kg) Niacin (mg/kg) Pantothenic Acid (mg/kg) Pyridoxine (mg/kg) Riboflavin (mg/kg) Thiamin (mg/kg) Vitamin B12 (µg/kg) Vitamin E (mg/kg) Alfalfa Medicago sativa 01 480 0.36 30 0.09 0.17 10 0.34 24 0.30 1,401 4.2 38 25.0 6.5 13.6 3.4 4 125 02 390 0.36 42 0.09 0.43 11 0.29 25 0.33 1,419 3.3 40 34.0 8.0 15.2 5.8 4 144 Bakery 03        28 0.24 65 1.14 0.02 5 — 15 0.07 923 0.2 26 8.3 4.3 1.4 2.9 — 41 Barley Hordeum vulgare 04 78 0.14 18 0.04 0.15 10 0.10 30 0.15 990 0.07 55 8.0 3.0 1.8 1.9 — 20 05 110 0.12 16 0.02 0.15 8 0.10 15 0.15 1,034 0.05 48 7.0 2.9 1.6 4.0 — 20 Broadbean Vicia faba 06 70 0.13 8 0.08 — 4 — 42 0.09 1.7 — 22 3.0 — 1.6 5.5 — 1 Blood 07 2,020 0.16 5 0.32 0.32 10 0.01 4 0.08 695 0.1 29 3.0 4.4 2.6 0.4 44 — 08 3,000 0.40 6 0.33 0.32 8 — 306 0.20 280 0.4 13 5.0 4.4 1.3 0.5 44 — Brewer's Grains 09 250 0.16 38 0.26 0.31 21 0.70 98 0.96 1,723 7.1 29 8.0 0.7 1.4 0.5 — 25 Buckwheat, common 10 44 0.09 34 0.05 0.14 10 — 9 — 440 — 19 12.0 — 5.5 4.0 — — Cane Molasses—see Molasses Canola Brassica napus-Brassica campestris 11 159 0.64 54 — — 10 1.00 71 0.90 6,700 2.3 160 9.5 — 3.7 5.2 — — Casein 12 18 0.01 4 0.01 — 4 — 33 0.05 205 0.5 1 3.0 0.4 1.5 0.5 — — 13 17 0.01 4 0.01 — 4 — 32 0.04 208 0.5 1 2.7 0.4 1.5 0.5 — — Cattle 14 8 0.12 2 0.51 0.32 12 0.12 39 0.33 1,393 0.62 11.5 36.4 4.1 19.1 3.7 51 9 Coconut Cocos nucifera 15 — 0.31 54 0.04 — — — — — 1,089 0.30 23.8 6.5 4.4 3.5 — — — Corn, Dent Yellow Zea mays indentata 16 300 0.25 22 0.09 0.43 25 0.45 55 0.49 1,180 0.9 37 11.7 4.4 5.2 1.7 — — 17 280 0.19 24 0.48 0.30 57 0.39 80 0.78 2,637 0.9 71 11.0 2.2 8.6 2.9 — 40 18 560 0.64 74 0.26 0.37 83 0.33 85 1.10 4,842 1.1 116 21.0 10.0 17.0 6.9 3 55 19 400 0.15 4 0.02 0.43 26 1.00 33 0.15 330 0.2 55 3.0 6.2 2.2 0.3 — 24 20 460 0.29 24 0.15 0.22 48 0.10 70 0.33 1,518 0.3 66 17.0 15.0 2.4 2.0 — 15 21 45 0.12 7 0.02 0.08 3 0.03 18 0.06 620 0.4 24 4.0 7.0 1.0 3.5 — 22 22 67 0.24 15 0.08 0.03 13 0.10 3 0.13 1,155 0.3 47 8.2 11.0 2.1 8.1 — — Cotton Gossypium spp. 23 160 0.52 23 0.04 0.40 19 0.25 64 0.60 2,753 1.0 38 10.0 5.3 5.1 6.4 — 39 24 110 0.40 20 0.04 0.31 18 — 70 0.55 2,933 2.7 40 7.0 3.0 4.0 3.3 — 15 25 — — — — — — — — — 2,685 0.9 46 14.5 — 4.7 — — — Feathers—see Poultry Fish 26 160 0.02 14 2.62 0.12 45 2.00 38 0.18 3,519 0.02 169 35.0 12.2 14.6 5.5 347 — 27 300 0.30 50 0.3 0.40 — — 76 0.26 5,507 0.06 271 55.0 23.8 7.7 7.4 401 — Fish, Anchovy Engraulis ringen 28 220 0.24 10 0.65 0.54 9 1.36 103 0.23 4,408 0.2 100 15.0 4.0 7.1 0.1 352 4 Fish, Herring Clupea harengus 29 140 0.15 5 0.61 0.69 6 1.93 132 0.31 5,306 0.3 93 17.0 4.0 9.9 0.1 403 22 Fish, Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus 30 440 0.16 33 0.65 0.45 11 2.10 147 0.20 3,056 0.3 55 9.0 4.0 4.9 0.5 104 7 Fish, White Gadidae (family)-Lophiidae (family)-Rajidae (family) 31 181 0.18 12 0.78 0.48 6 1.62 90 0.08 3,099 0.3 59 9.9 5.9 9.1 1.7 90 9 Gelatin 32 — 0.05 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Hominy Feed—see Corn 33 630 — 9 — — 89 — — 0.02 11,311 5.5 204 29.0 — 46.3 0.2 498 — Meat 34 440 0.58 10 1.15 0.49 10 0.42 103 0.17 2,077 0.3 57 5.0 3.0 5.5 0.2 68 1 35 490 1.12 14 0.70 0.50 2 0.25 93 0.14 1,996 0.3 46 4.1 12.8 4.4 0.8 70 1 Millet Pearl Pennisetum glaucum 36 25 0.16 31 0.04 0.13 22 — 13 — 793 — 53 7.8 — 1.6 6.7 — — Millet, Proso Panicum miliaceum

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Feed Name Description   International Feed Numbera Dry Matter (%) MEn (kcal/kg) TMEn (kcal/kg) Protein (%) Ether Extract (%) Linoleic Acid (%) Crude Fiber (%) Calcium (%) Total Phosphorus (%) Nonphytate Phosphorus (%) Potassium (%) Chlorine (%) 37          grain 4-03-120 90 2,898 – 11.6 3.5 – 6.1 0.03 0.30 0.14 0.43 –   Oats Avena sativa 38          grain 4-03-309 89 2,550 2,625 11.4 4.2 1.47 10.8 0.06 0.27 0.05 0.45 0.11 39         grain, Pacific coast 4-07-999 91 2,610 – 9.0 5.0 – 11.0 0.08 0.30 – 0.37 0.12 40         hulls 1-03-281 92 400 – 4.6 1.4 – 28.7 0.13 0.10 – 0.53 0.10   Pea Pisum spp. 41          seeds 5-03-600 90 2,570 2,654 23.8 1.3 – 5.5 0.11 0.42 – 1.02 0.06   Peanut Arachis hypogaea 42        kernels, meal mechani- cally extracted (peanut meal) (expeller)  5-03-649 90 2,500 – 42.0 7.3 1.43 12.0 0.16 0.56 – 1.15 0.03 43        kernels, meal solvent extracted (peanut meal) 5-03-650 92 2,200 2,462 50.7 1.2 0.24 10.0 0.20 0.63 0.13 1.15 0.03   Poultry 44       by-product, meal rendered (viscera with feet and heads)   5-03-798 93 2,950 3,120 60.0 13.0 2.54 1.5 3.00 1.70 – 0.55 0.54 45         feathers, meal hydrolyzed 5-03-795 93 2,360 3,276 81.0 7.0 – 1.0 0.33 0.55 – 0.30 0.28   Rice Oryza sativa 46         bran with germ (rice bran) 4-03-928 91 2,980 3,085 12.9 13.0 3.57 11.4 0.07 1.50 0.22 1.73 0.07 47         grain, polished and broken (brewer's rice) 4-03-932 89 2,990 3,536 8.7 0.7 – 9.8 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.13 0.08 48          polishings 4-03-943 90 3,090 – 12.2 11.0 3.58 4.1 0.05 1.31 0.14 1.06 0.11   Rye Secale cereale 49          grain 4-04-047 88 2,626 2,931 12.1 1.5 – 2.2 0.06 0.32 0.06 0.46 0.03   Safflower Carthamus tinctorius 50          seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-04-110 92 1,193 – 23.4 1.4 – 30.0 0.34 0.75 – 0.76 – 51         seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-07-959 92 1,921 – 43.0 1.3 – 13.5 0.35 1.29 0.39 1.10 0.16   Sesame Sesamum indicum 52          seeds, meal mechani- cally extracted (expeller) 5-04-220 93 2,210 1,978 43.8 6.5 1.90 7.0 1.99 1.37 0.34 1.20 0.06   Sorghum Sorghum bicolor 53          grain, 8-10% protein 4-20-893 87 3,288 3,376 8.8 2.9 1.13 2.3 0.04 0.30 – 0.35 0.09 54          grain, more than 10% protein 4-20-894 88 3,212 – 11.0 2.6 0.82 2.3 0.04 0.32 – 0.33 0.09   Soybean Glycine max 55          flour by-product (soybean mill feed) 4-04-594 89 720 – 13.3 1.6 – 33.0 0.37 0.19 – 1.50 0.02 56          protein concen- trate, more than 70% protein 5-08-038 93 3,500 – 84.1 0.4 – 0.2 0.02 0.80 0.32 0.18 0.02 57          seeds, heat processed 5-04-597 90 3,300 2,990 37.0 18.0 8.46 5.5 0.25 0.58 – 1.61 0.03 58          seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-04-604 89 2,230 – 44.0 0.8 0.40 7.0 0.29 0.65 0.27 2.00 0.05 59          seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-04-612 90 2,440 2,485 48.5 1.0 0.40 3.9 0.27 0.62 0.22 1.98 0.05   Sunflower, common Helianthus annuus 60          seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-09-340 90 1,543 – 32.0 1.1 0.60 24.0 0.21 0.93 0.14 0.96 – 61          seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-04-739 93 2,320 2,060 45.4 2.9 1.59 12.2 0.37 1.00 0.16 1.00 0.10   Triticale Triticale hexaploide 62 grain 4-20-362 90 3,163 3,144 14.0 1.5 – 4.0 0.05 0.30 0.10 0.36 –   Wheat Triticum aestivum 63          bran 4-05-190 89 1,300 1,725 15.7 3.0 1.70 11.0 0.14 1.15 0.20 1.19 0.06 64          flour by-product, less than 4% fiber (wheat red dog) 4-05-203 88 2,568 – 15.3 3.3 – 2.6 0.04 0.49 0.14 0.51 0.14 65          flour by-product, less than 9.5% fiber (wheat middlings) 4-05-205 88 2,000 2,708 15.0 3.0 1.87 7.5 0.12 0.85 0.30 0.99 0.03 66          flour by-product, less than 7% fiber (wheat shorts) 4-05-201 88 2,162 2,061 16.5 4.6 – 6.8 0.09 0.81 – 0.93 0.07 67          grain, hard red winter 4-05-268 87 2,900 3,167 14.1 2.5 0.59 3.0 0.05 0.37 0.13 0.45 0.05 68          grain, soft white winter 4-05-337 89 3,120 – 11.5 2.5 – 3.0 0.05 0.31 – 0.42 0.05   Whey Bos taurus 69          dehydrated 4-01-182 93 1,900 693 13.0 0.8 0.01 0.2 0.97 0.76 – 1.05 1.5 70          low lactose, dehydrated (dried whey product) 4-01-186 91 2,090 – 16.0 1.0 0.01 0.3 1.95 0.98 – 3.0 1.03   Yeast, Brewer's Saccharo-myces cerevisiae 71          dehydrated 7-05-527 93 1,990 2,634 44.4 1.0 – 2.7 0.12 1.40 – 1.70 0.12   Yeast, Torula torulopsis utilis 72 dehydrated 7-05-534 93 2,160 – 47.2 2.5 0.05 2.4 0.58 1.67 – 1.70 0.12 NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available. a First digit is class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages; 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements; 6, minerals; 7, vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Iron (mg/kg) Magnesium (%) Managnese (mg/kg) Sodium (%) Sulfur (%) Copper (mg/kg) Selenium (mg/kg) Zinc (mg/kg) Biotin (mg/kg) Choline (mg/kg) Folacin (mg/kg) Niacin (mg/kg) Pantothenic Acid (mg/kg) Pyridoxine (mg/kg) Riboflavin (mg/kg) Thiamin (mg/kg) Vitamin B12 (µg/kg) Vitamin E (mg/kg) 37 71 0.16 – – – – – – – 440 – 23 11.0 – 3.8 7.3 – – 38 85 0.16 43 0.08 0.21 8 0.30 38 0.27 946 0.3 12 7.8 1.0 1.1 6.0 – 20 39 73 0.17 38 0.06 0.20 – 0.07 – 0.22 959 0.3 14 13.0 1.3 1.1 0.6 – – 40 100 0.08 14 0.04 0.14 3 – 0.1 – 284 1.0 7 3.0 2.2 1.5 0.6 – – 41 50 0.13 – 0.04 – – – 30 0.18 642 0.4 34 10.0 1.0 2.3 4.6 – 3 42 156 0.33 25 0.06 0.29 15 0.28 30 0.33 1,655 0.4 166 47.0 10.0 5.2 7.1 – 3 43 142 0.04 29 0.07 0.30 15 – 20 0.39 2,396 0.4 170 53.0 10.0 11.0 5.7 – 3 44 440 0.22 11 0.40 0.51 14 0.75 120 0.30 5,952 1.0 40 12.3 4.4 11.0 1.0 310 2 45 76 0.20 10 0.69 1.50 7 0.84 54 0.04 891 0.2 27 10.0 3.0 2.1 0.1 78 – 46 190 0.95 250 0.07 0.18 13 0.40 30 0.42 1,135 2.2 293 23.0 14.0 2.5 22.5 – 60 47 – 0.11 18 0.07 0.06 – 0.27 17 0.08 800 0.2 30 8.0 28.0 0.7 1.4 – 14 48 160 0.65 12 0.10 0.17 3 – 26 0.61 1,237 0.2 520 47.0 – 1.8 19.8 – 90 49 60 0.12 58 0.02 0.15 7 0.38 31 0.06 419 0.6 19 8.0 2.6 1.6 3.6 – 15 50 495 0.35 18 0.05 0.13 10 – 41 1.43 820 0.5 11 33.9 – 2.3 – – 1 51 484 1.02 39 0.04 0.20 9 – 33 1.67 3,248 1.6 22 39.1 11.3 2.4 4.5 – 1 52 93 0.77 48 0.04 0.43 – – 100 0.34 1,536 – 30 6.0 12.5 3.6 2.8 – – 53 45 0.15 15 0.01 0.08 10 0.20 15 0.26 668 0.2 41 12.4 5.2 1.3 3.0 – 7 54 – 0.12 – 0.01 0.11 – – – – – – – – – 1.1 – – – 55 – 0.12 29 0.25 0.06 – – – 0.22 640 0.3 24 13.0 2.2 3.5 2.2 – – 56 130 0.01 1 0.07 0.71 7 0.10 23 0.3 2 2.5 6 4.2 5.4 1.2 0.2 – – 57 80 0.28 30 0.03 0.22 16 0.11 25 0.27 2,860 4.2 22 11.0 10.8 2.6 11.0 – 40 58 120 0.27 29 0.01 0.43 22 0.10 40 0.32 2,794 1.3 29 16.0 6.0 2.9 4.5 – 2 59 170 0.30 43 0.02 0.44 15 0.10 55 0.32 2,731 1.3 22 15.0 5.0 2.9 3.2 – 3 60 140 0.68 34 0.2 0.30 35 – 100 – 3,791 – 264 29.9 11.1 3.0 3.0 – – 61 30 0.75 23 0.2 – 4 – 98 1.45 2,894 – 220 24.0 16.0 4.7 3.1 – – 62 44 – 43 – 0.15 8 – 32 – 462 – – – – 0.4 – – – 63 170 0.52 113 0.05 0.22 14 0.85 100 0.48 1,232 1.2 186 31.0 7.0 4.6 8.0 – 14 64 46 0.16 55 0.04 0.24 6 0.30 65 0.11 1,534 0.8 42 13.3 4.6 2.2 22.8 – 33 65 50 0.16 118 0.12 0.26 18 0.80 100 0.37 1,439 0.8 98 13.0 9.0 2.2 16.5 – 40 66 73 0.25 117 0.02 0.20 12 0.43 109 – 1,813 1.7 107 22.3 7.2 4.2 19.1 – 54 67 60 0.17 32 0.04 0.12 6 0.20 34 0.11 1,090 0.4 48 9.9 3.4 1.4 4.5 – 13 68 40 0.10 24 0.06 0.12 7 0.06 28 0.11 1,002 0.4 57 11.0 4.0 1.2 4.3 – 13 69 130 0.13 6 1.3 1.04 46 0.08 3 0.34 1,369 0.08 10 44.0 4.0 27.1 4.1 23 0.2 70 238 0.25 8 1.50 1.05 7 0.10 7 0.64 4,392 1.4 19 69.0 4.0 45.8 5.7 23 – 71 120 0.23 5 0.07 0.38 33 1.00 39 1.05 3,984 9.9 448 109.0 42.8 37.0 91.8 1 2 72 90 0.13 13 0.07 0.34 14 1.00 99 1.39 2,881 22.4 500 73.0 36.3 47.7 6.2 4 –

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-2 Amino Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Feed Name Description International Feed Numbera Dry Matter (%) Protein (%) Arginine (%) Glycine (%) Serine (%) Histidine (%) Isoleucine (%) Leucine (%) Lysine (%) Methionine (%) Cystine (%) Phenylalanine (%) Tyrosine (%) Threonine (%) Tryptophan (%) Valine (%) Alfalfa Medicago sativa 01 meal dehydrated, 17% protein 1-00-023 88.0 17.0 0.69 0.82 0.72 0.57 0.67 1.19 0.73 0.24 0.19 0.81 0.81 0.69 0.23 0.84 02 meal dehydrated, 20% protein 1-00-024 92.0 20.0 0.92 0.97 0.89 0.34 0.88 1.30 0.87 0.31 0.25 0.85 0.59 0.76 0.33 0.97   Bakery 03 waste dehydrated (dried bakery product) 4-00-466 92.0 9.8 0.47 0.82 0.65 0.13 0.45 0.73 0.31 0.17 0.17 0.40 0.41 0.49 0.10 0.42   Barley Hordeum vulgare 04 grain 4-00-549 89.0 11.0 0.52 0.44 0.46 0.27 0.37 0.76 0.40 0.18 0.24 0.56 0.35 0.37 0.14 0.52 05 grain, Pacific coast 4-07-939 89.0 9.0 0.48 0.36 0.32 0.21 0.40 0.60 0.29 0.13 0.18 0.48 0.31 0.30 0.12 0.46   Broadbean Vicia faba 06 seeds 5-09-262 87.0 23.6 2.12 1.02 1.15 0.82 0.95 1.76 1.50 0.18 .28 1.00 0.80 0.85 0.20 1.07   Blood 07 meal, vat dried 5-00-380 94.0 81.1 3.63 4.59 3.14 3.52 0.95 10.53 7.05 0.55 0.52 5.66 2.07 3.15 1.29 7.28 08 meal, spray or ring dried 5-00-381 93.0 88.9 3.62 3.95 4.25 5.33 0.98 11.32 7.88 1.09 1.03 5.85 2.63 3.92 1.35 7.53   Brewer's Grains 09 dehydrated 5-02-141 92.0 25.3 1.28 1.09 0.80 0.57 1.44 2.48 0.90 0.57 0.39 1.45 1.19 0.98 0.34 1.66   Buckwheat, Common Fagopyrum sagittatum 10 grain 4-00-994 88.0 10.8 1.02 0.71 0.41 0.26 0.37 0.56 0.61 0.20 0.20 0.44 0.21 0.46 0.19 0.54   Canola Brassica napus Brassica Campestris 11 seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, low erucic acid, low gluco- sinolates 5-06-145 88.0 34.8 2.08 1.82 1.53 0.93 1.37 2.47 1.94 0.71 0.87 1.44 1.09 1.53 0.44 1.76   Casein 12 dehydrated 5-01-162 93.0 87.2 3.61 1.79 5.81 2.78 4.82 9.00 7.99 2.65 0.21 4.96 5.37 4.29 1.05 6.46 13 precipitated dehydrated 5-20-837 92.0 85.0 3.42 1.81 5.52 2.52 4.77 8.62 7.31 2.80 0.15 4.81 5.17 4.00 0.98 5.82   Cattle 14 skim milk, dehydrated 5-01-175 93.0 36.1 1.21 0.73 2.05 1.03 1.83 3.59 2.80 0.90 0.29 1.75 1.83 1.59 0.50 2.28   Coconut Cocos nucifena 15 kernels with coats, meal solvent extracted (copra meal) 5-01-573 92.6 19.2 1.97 0.82 0.79 0.36 0.63 1.18 0.50 0.28 0.28 0.88 0.44 0.58 0.12 0.91   Corn, Dent Yellow Zea mays indentata 16 distillers' grains, dehydrated 5-28-235 94.0 27.9 0.97 0.49 0.70 0.62 0.99 3.01 0.78 0.40 0.24 0.94 0.84 0.49 0.20 1.18 17 distillers' grains with solubles, dehydrated 5-28-236 93.0 27.2 0.98 0.57 1.61 0.66 1.00 2.20 0.75 0.60 0.40 1.20 0.74 0.92 0.19 1.30 18 distillers' solubles, dehydrated 5-28-237 92.0 28.5 1.05 1.10 1.30 0.70 1.25 2.11 0.90 0.50 0.40 1.30 0.95 1.00 0.30 1.39 19 gluten, meal, 60% protein 5-28-242 88.0 60.2 1.82 1.67 2.96 1.20 2.45 10.04 1.03 1.49 1.10 3.56 3.07 2.00 0.36 2.78 20 gluten with bran (corn gluten feed) 5-28-243 90.0 22.0 1.01 0.99 0.80 0.71 0.65 1.89 0.63 0.45 0.51 0.77 0.58 0.89 0.10 0.05 21 grain 4-02-935 88.0 8.5 0.38 0.33 0.37 0.23 0.29 1.00 0.26 0.18 0.18 0.38 0.30 0.29 0.06 0.40 22 grits byproduct (hominy feed) 4-03-011 90.0 10.0 0.47 0.40 0.50 0.20 0.40 0.84 0.40 0.13 0.13 0.35 0.49 0.40 0.10 0.49   Cotton Gossypium spp. 23 seeds, meal mechan ically extracted, 41% protein (expeller) 5-01-617 91.4 41.0 4.35 1.69 1.68 1.07 1.31 2.23 1.59 0.55 0.59 2.20 1.09 1.30 0.50 1.84 24 seeds, meal direct solvent extracted, 41% protein 5-07-872 90.4 41.4 4.66 1.69 1.78 1.10 1.33 2.41 1.76 0.51 0.62 2.23 1.14 1.34 0.52 1.82 25 seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, 41% protein 5-07-873 89.9 41.4 4.59 1.70 1.74 1.10 1.33 2.43 1.71 0.52 0.62 2.22 1.13 1.32 0.47 1.88   Fish 26 solubles, condensed 5-01-969 51.0 31.5 1.61 3.41 0.83 1.56 1.06 1.86 1.73 0.50 0.30 0.93 0.40 0.86 0.31 1.16 27 solubles, dehydrated 5-01-971 92.0 63.6 2.78 5.89 2.02 2.18 1.95 3.16 3.28 1.00 0.66 1.48 0.78 1.35 0.51 2.22   Fish, Anchovy Engraulis ringen

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Entry Number Feed Name Description International Feed Numbera Dry Matter (%) Protein (%) Arginine (%) Glycine (%) Serine (%) Histidine (%) Isoleucine (%) Leucine (%) Lysine (%) Methionine (%) Cystine (%) Phenylalanine (%) Tyrosine (%) Threonine (%) Tryptophan (%) Valine (%) 28 meal mechanically extracted 5-01-985 90.0 65.0 3.81 3.68 2.51 1.59 3.06 4.98 5.07 1.95 0.65 2.75 2.22 2.82 0.78 3.46   Fish, Herring Clupea harengus 29 meal mechanically extracted 5-02-000 92.0 72.0 4.21 4.30 2.75 1.74 3.23 5.46 5.47 2.16 0.72 2.82 2.25 3.07 0.83 3.90   Fish, Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus 30 meal mechanically extracted 5-02-009 92.1 61.3 3.68 4.46 2.37 1.42 2.28 4.16 4.51 1.63 0.57 2.21 1.80 2.46 0.49 2.77   Fish, White Gadidae (family)-Lophiidae (family)-Rajidae (family) 31 meal mechanically extracted 5-02-025 91.0 62.2 4.02 4.42 3.06 1.34 2.72 4.36 4.53 1.68 0.75 2.28 1.83 2.57 0.67 3.02   Gelatin 32 process residue (gelatin byproducts) 5-14-503 91.0 88.0 7.40 20.00 2.80 0.85 1.40 3.10 3.70 0.68 0.09 1.70 0.26 1.30 0.09 1.80   Hominy Feed—see Corn Livers 33 meal 5-00-389 92.0 65.6 4.14 5.57 2.49 1.47 3.09 5.28 4.80 1.22 0.89 2.89 1.69 2.48 0.59 4.13   Meat 34 meal rendered 5-00-385 92.0 54.4 3.73 6.30 1.60 1.30 1.60 3.32 3.00 0.75 0.66 1.70 0.84 1.74 0.36 2.30 35 with bone, meal rendered 5-00-388 93.4 51.6 3.28 6.65 2.20 0.96 1.54 3.28 2.61 0.69 0.69 1.81 1.20 1.74 0.27 2.36   Millet, Pearl Peninstum glaucum 36 grain 4-03-118 90.0 15.7 0.74 0.47 0.74 0.31 0.37 1.14 0.45 0.25 0.24 0.56 0.35 0.48 0.08 0.49   Millet, Proso Panicum miliaceum 37 grain 4-03-120 87.5 9.1 0.35 0.31 0.40 0.22 0.35 1.14 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.47 0.34 0.29 0.08 0.44   Oats Avena sativa 38 grain 4-03-309 89.0 11.4 0.79 0.50 0.40 0.24 0.52 0.89 0.50 0.18 0.22 0.59 0.53 0.43 0.16 0.68 39 grain, Pacific coast 4-07-999 91.0 9.0 0.60 0.40 0.30 0.10 0.40 0.30 0.40 0.13 0.17 0.44 0.20 0.20 0.12 0.51 40 hulls 1-03-281 92.0 4.6 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.07 0.14 0.25 0.14 0.07 0.06 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.07 0.20   Pea Pisum spp. 41 seeds 5-03-600 88.8 23.8 2.23 1.00 1.08 0.59 0.97 1.65 1.68 0.24 0.33 1.10 0.73 0.84 0.18 1.10   Peanut Arachis hypogaea 42 kernels, meal mechanically extracted (peanut meal) (expeller) 5-03-649 90.0 40.0 4.35 2.18 1.83 .87 1.27 2.42 1.26 0.45 0.52 1.97 1.47 1.01 0.39 1.53 43 kernels, meal solvent extracted (peanut meal) 5-03-650 91.9 49.0 5.33 2.67 2.25 1.07 1.55 2.97 1.54 0.54 0.64 2.41 1.80 1.24 0.48 1.87   Poultry 44 by-product, meal rendered (viscera with feet and heads) 5-03-798 94.2 59.5 3.94 6.17 2.71 1.07 2.16 3.99 3.10 0.99 0.98 2.29 1.68 2.17 0.37 2.87 45 feathers, meal hydrolyzed 5-03-795 91.0 82.9 5.57 6.13 8.52 0.95 3.91 6.94 2.28 0.57 4.34 3.94 2.48 3.81 0.55 5.93   Rice Oryza sativa 46 bran with germ (rice bran) 4-03-928 89.1 13.7 0.96 0.70 0.59 0.35 0.45 0.91 0.59 0.26 0.27 0.60 0.42 0.48 0.12 0.68 47 grain, polished and broken (brewer's rice) 4-03-932 89.2 10.0 0.74 0.50 0.44 0.26 0.37 0.74 0.43 0.22 0.21 0.48 0.33 0.36 0.10 0.54 48 polishings 4-03-943 90.0 12.2 0.78 0.71 1.36 0.24 0.41 0.80 0.57 0.22 0.10 0.46 0.63 0.40 0.13 0.76   Rye Secale cereale 49 grain 4-04-047 88.0 12.1 0.53 0.49 0.52 0.26 0.47 0.70 0.42 0.17 0.19 0.56 0.26 0.36 0.11 0.56   Safflower Carthamus tinctorius 50 seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-04-110 92.0 27.0 2.21 1.53 0.99 0.61 1.02 1.74 0.90 0.42 0.45 1.10 0.71 0.85 0.37 1.42 51 seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-07-959 92.0 43.0 3.65 2.32 — 1.07 1.56 2.46 1.27 0.68 0.70 1.75 1.07 1.30 0.59 2.33   Sesame Sesamum indicum

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Entry Num- ber Feed Name Description Interna- tional Feed Numbera Dry Matter (%) Protein (%) Argi- nine (%) Glycine (%) Serine (%) Histidine (%) Isoleucine (%) Leucine (%) Lysine (%) Methio- nine (%) Cystine (%) Pheny- lalanine (%) Tyro- sine (%) Threo- nine (%) Trypto- phan (%) Valine (%) 52 seeds, meal mecha- nically extracted 5-04-220 90.0 41.0 4.68 2.04 1.72 0.99 1.51 2.68 0.91 1.22 0.72 1.93 1.48 1.40 0.62 1.91   Sorghum Sorghum bicolor 53 grain, 8-10% protein 4-20-893 87.5 9.1 0.35 0.31 0.40 0.22 0.35 1.14 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.47 0.34 0.29 0.08 0.44 54 grain, more than 10% protein 4-20-894 88.0 10.0 0.35 0.32 0.45 0.23 0.43 1.37 0.22 0.15 0.11 0.52 0.17 0.33 0.09 0.54   Soybean Glycine max 55 flour by- product (Soybean mill feed) 4-04-594 89.0 13.3 0.94 0.40 – 0.18 0.40 0.57 0.48 0.10 0.21 0.37 0.23 0.30 0.10 0.37 56 protein con- centrate, more than 70% protein 5-08-038 93.0 84.1 6.70 3.30 5.30 2.10 4.60 6.60 5.50 0.81 0.49 4.30 3.10 3.30 0.81 4.40 57 seeds, heat pro- cessed 5-04-597 88.0 35.5 2.59 1.55 1.87 0.99 1.56 2.75 2.25 0.53 0.54 1.78 1.34 1.41 0.51 1.65 58 seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-04-604 88.2 44.0 3.14 1.90 2.29 1.17 1.96 3.39 2.69 0.62 0.66 2.16 1.91 1.72 0.74 2.07 59 seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-04-612 88.4 47.5 3.48 2.05 2.48 1.28 2.12 3.74 2.96 0.67 0.72 2.34 1.95 1.87 0.74 2.22   Sunflower, common Helianthus annuus 60 seeds, meal solvent extracted 5-09-340 90.0 23.3 2.30 – 1.00 0.55 1.00 1.60 1.00 0.50 0.50 1.15 – 1.05 0.45 1.60 61 seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-04-739 89.8 36.8 2.85 2.03 1.49 0.87 1.43 2.22 1.24 0.80 0.64 1.66 0.91 1.29 0.41 1.74   Triticale Triticale hexaploide 62 grain 4-20-362 88.0 11.8 0.57 0.48 0.52 0.26 0.39 0.76 0.39 0.26 0.26 0.49 0.32 0.36 0.14 0.51   Wheat Triticum aestivum 63 bran 4-05-190 88.0 15.4 1.02 0.81 0.67 0.46 0.47 0.96 0.61 0.23 0.32 0.61 0.46 0.50 0.23 0.70 64 flour by- product, less than 4% fiber (wheat red dog) 4-05-203 88.0 15.3 0.96 0.74 0.75 0.41 0.55 1.06 0.59 0.23 0.37 0.66 0.46 0.50 0.10 0.72 65 flour by- product, less than 9.5% fiber (wheat mid- dlings) 4-05-205 88.0 16.0 1.15 0.63 0.75 0.37 0.58 1.07 0.69 0.21 0.32 0.64 0.45 0.49 0.20 0.71 66 flour by- product, less than 7% fiber (wheat shorts) 4-05-201 88.0 16.5 1.18 0.96 0.77 0.45 0.58 1.09 0.79 0.27 0.36 0.67 0.47 0.60 0.21 0.83 67 grain, hard red winter 4-05-268 88.1 13.3 0.60 0.59 0.59 0.31 0.44 0.89 0.37 0.21 0.30 0.60 0.43 0.39 0.16 0.57 68 grain, soft white winter 4-05-337 89.0 10.2 0.40 0.49 0.55 0.20 0.42 0.59 0.31 0.15 0.22 0.45 0.39 0.32 0.12 0.44   Whey Bos taurus 69 dehyd- rated 4-01-182 93.0 12.0 0.34 0.30 0.32 0.18 0.82 1.19 0.97 0.19 0.30 0.33 0.25 0.89 0.19 0.68 70 low lactose, dehy- drated (dried whey product) 4-01-186 91.0 15.5 0.67 1.04 0.76 0.25 0.90 1.35 1.47 0.57 0.57 0.50 0.35 0.85 0.23 0.83   Yeast, Brewer's Saccharomyces cerevisiae 71 dehy- drated 7-05-527 93.0 44.4 2.19 2.09 – 1.07 2.14 3.19 3.23 0.70 0.50 1.81 1.49 2.06 0.49 2.32   Yeast, Torula Torulopsis utilis 72 dehy- drated 7-05-534 93.0 47.2 2.60 2.60 2.76 1.40 2.90 3.50 3.80 0.80 0.60 3.00 2.10 2.60 0.50 2.90 NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available. a First digit is class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages; 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements; 6, minerals; 7, vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number. TABLE 9-3 Ranges in Weights per Unit of Volume for Selected Feedstuffs at Standard Moisture Feedstuffs Pounds per Bushel Kilograms per Hectoliter Moisture (%) Barley 36–48 45–62 16.0 Corn 46–56 59–72 15.5 Oats 22–40 28–52 16.0 Sorghum (milo) 51–57 66–74 15.5 Soybeans 49–56 63–72 13.0 Wheat 45–63 58–81 15.5 influenced by the tannin content of the grain. Development of high-tannin or ''bird-resistant" varieties has allowed increased production of sorghum in areas where bird predation had previously limited yields; however, the presence of tannins in these cultivars may reduce their nutritional value. Tannins cause a binding and precipitation of dietary proteins and digestive enzymes (Butler et al., 1984) and may reduce both the amino acid (Armstrong et al., 1974) and the energy digestibility

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (Gous et al., 1982) of the diet. The ME of grain sorghums can be predicted from their tannin content by the following equation (Gous et al., 1982): Although wheat was once considered too expensive for use in animal feeds, increased production in recent years has resulted in more extensive use in poultry diets. In general, wheat has about 90 percent of the ME value of corn. The protein and amino acid composition varies widely and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Most wheat varieties have been developed for various baking properties, although some breeders have developed varieties designed primarily for animal feeds (Bowyer and Waldroup, 1987). The nutrient sources in wheat are easily digested (McNab and Shannon, 1974). Feeding trials with broilers, layers, and turkeys indicate that wheat can be effectively used to provide a major portion of the energy in these diets (Waldroup et al., 1967; Lillie and Denton, 1968; Petersen, 1969). But because wheat has no carotenoid pigments, adjustment is made when skin or yolk pigment must be maintained. One vitamin that must be considered with wheat feeding is biotin. Although the total biotin content in wheat exceeds that in corn, the biological availability in wheat is low (Frigg, 1976). A condition known as fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS) has frequently been observed in all species of poultry when wheat is used extensively. Biotin supplementation should be considered when wheat provides more than 50 percent of the cereal grain. Notwithstanding differences in bushel weight, the protein content of grains (dry matter basis) often varies a great deal from batch to batch. This variation may be the result of genetic constitution, soil fertility, time of harvest, and other factors. The protein concentration of grains can be determined readily for feed formulation purposes. It should be recognized, however, that the amino acid composition of protein in a specific grain does not remain constant as protein concentration changes. In some instances, the concentrations of essential amino acids in protein increase, but, in other instances, they decrease. For example, there is a marked inverse relationship between the protein content of wheat or sorghum grain and the lysine concentration in the protein. As protein content increases, lysine in the protein decreases. This relationship is most prominent within cultivars of wheat and sorghum grains and is the result of a shift among the major proteins within these grains, whereby the proportion of prolamine (low in lysine) increases at the expense of other proteins high in lysine. Certain other amino acids (such as arginine, methionine, and cystine) may be affected similarly. An inverse relationship between protein content and concentration of certain essential amino acids in the protein also has been reported for cultivars of barley, corn, oats, and rice. The alterations in amino acid composition with increasing protein concentration generally are less with these grains than with wheat and milo. Recently, much research has been focused on the selection of cultivars of grains in which the concentrations of both protein and selected amino acids within the protein may be increased. Examples include high-lysine corn and high-protein barley. The quantities of these grains available for feeding to poultry are limited at the present time. PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS A number of the feedstuffs used to supply supplementary protein to poultry diets may contain naturally occurring toxic or potentially toxic compounds. In many instances, the nutritive value of the protein supplement can be markedly influenced by the method used in processing the protein supplement. Cottonseed Meal Cottonseed meal, for example, may contain gossypol pigments. Free gossypol forms complexes with iron in the feed, intestinal tract, blood, and egg yolk, leading to possible iron deficiency or to discoloration of the yolk. Under extreme heat during processing, the gossypol may also form complexes with lysine, severely reducing the digestibility. The amount of gossypol present in cottonseed meal is variable and depends on the cultivar and the manufacturing procedures. In general, meals produced by the prepress solvent method are lowest in free gossypol, have greater lysine digestibility, and are the preferred meal for poultry (Phelps, 1966). Gossypol adversely affects the bird, with younger birds being less tolerant than older birds. Hens consuming gossypol may lay eggs with olive-discolored yolks, with the incidence related to the amount of free gossypol consumed. The discoloration may be evident in the newly laid egg, but it more often becomes apparent after storage. Addition of soluble iron salts to bind the free gossypol may enable the use of cottonseed meals, where this is economically feasible (Waldroup, 1981). The presence of cyclopropenoid fatty acids and gossypol in cottonseed meals and oil may also cause a pinkish color in the egg whites. Rapeseed Meals Rapeseed meals manufactured from many varieties of rapeseed contain goitrogenic, or progoitrogenic, compounds

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (glucosinolates) at sufficiently high concentrations to reduce growth rate and egg production when fed to poultry. Canadian plant geneticists have been successful in developing rapeseed cultivars, called canola, that contain negligible quantities of glucosinolates in the seed. Meals manufactured from these cultivars are called canola meal. Inclusion of rapeseed meals in the diet of brown-egg layers sometimes results in the production of eggs with a "fishy" or off-flavor taint. This taint is due to the presence of excess amounts of trimethylamine (TMA) in the yolk. Deposition of TMA in yolks by certain strains of chickens is due to the presence of an autosomal semidominant gene that has variable expression depending upon various environmental factors including the inclusion rate of rapeseed meal. Although some brown-egg strains carry this trait, white-egg strains do not. This genetic defect reduces the synthesis of TMA oxidase enzyme, leading to increased quantities of TMA in the metabolic pool. Rapeseed contains variable levels of sinapine, a potent inhibitor of TMA oxidase. Low-glucosinolate cultivars have less drastic effects on egg taint but do not completely correct the situation. Therefore care should be taken in feeding rapeseed or canola meals to hens that produce brown-shelled eggs. Soybean Meal Soybeans contain compounds that inhibit the activity of the proteolytic enzyme trypsin (Read and Haas, 1938). They also contain other antinutrients, including hemagglutinins or lectins, which contribute to growth depression (Ham et al., 1945; Chernick et al., 1948; Coates et al., 1970; Liener, 1980). Ingestion of the antitryptic substances induces enlargement of the pancreas. The trypsin inhibitor is inactivated by heat treatment of soybean meal. The heat treatment must be carefully controlled because overheating can result in deterioration of protein quality. On the basis of the assumption that the urease enzyme in raw soybeans is denatured at approximately the same rate as the trypsin inhibitor, and because it is easier to determine urease activity than trypsin inhibitor, urease assays (Caskey and Knapp, 1944) have generally been used by the feed industry in monitoring soybean meal quality. However, some studies indicate that there is not a direct relationship between the activities of the two enzymes (Albrecht et al., 1966) and that the rates of destruction of urease and the trypsin inhibitor are not equal under different processing conditions (McNaughton and Reece, 1980). The feed industry in the United States has long used a maximum urease rise of 0.2 pH units as the standard for processing soybean meal for all types of livestock feeds. However, studies show that meals with a urease value up to 0.50 pH units are acceptable in poultry feeds (Glista and Scott, 1950; Wright, 1968; De Schrijver, 1977; Waldroup et al., 1985a). Damage to the protein from overheating the soybean meal is more serious when dietary lysine concentrations are marginal, and heat damage may be monitored by measuring the solubility of the protein, either by the Kjeldahl or by the dye-binding method (Dale and Araba, 1987; Kratzer et al., 1990). High level usage of soybean meal in poultry diets has been linked to the incidence of foot pad dermatitis (Jensen et al., 1970). The exact cause of this is not known. Soybean meal contains relatively high levels of potassium, which may increase litter moisture and thus result in sticky litter. In addition, the carbohydrate fraction of soybean meal is poorly digestible (Parsons et al., 1980; Pierson et al., 1980) and may serve as a substrate for increased bacterial activity in the litter. Animal Protein Sources Animal protein sources—meat meals, fish meals, blood meal, and feather meal—are subject to variation as a result of manufacturing conditions and the nature of the raw material from which they are processed. Excessive and/or prolonged heating during drying will lower digestibility and cause some loss of essential amino acids. Proteins of hide, scales, hair, feathers, and bone are not easily digested and contain high concentrations of keratin and/or collagenous proteins. The latter will result in relatively low concentrations of tryptophan in the product. The use of certain lots of fish meal may result in the development of a condition known as gizzard erosion (Janssen, 1971), a disease manifested primarily by ulcerations of the lining of the gizzard. A substance known as gizzerosine has been isolated from samples of fish meal known to induce gizzard erosion and has been shown to possess the same gizzard-erosion-producing properties (Okazaki et al., 1983). To date, however, the exact level of gizzerosine necessary to induce gizzard erosion cannot be stated, since other factors (notably excess levels of copper sulfate) may precipitate or exacerbate the condition. Fish meal may result in the development of off-flavors in poultry meat (Fry et al., 1965) or eggs (Holdas and May, 1966; Koehler and Bearse, 1975). The quantity of fish meal required to produce off-flavors is influenced primarily by the oil content of the meal, length of time fed, degree of rancidity of the oil, and holding time and temperature of the egg or carcass. Thus it is not possible to state a universal level of fish meal that will not result in the development of off-flavors.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 ESTIMATING THE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF FEEDSTUFFS Many factors influence the amino acid composition of grains and protein supplements. For accurate and economical feed formulation, it is desirable to know the amino acid composition of the actual ingredient to be used in the diet. However, it is generally not feasible to analyze all samples of feed ingredients prior to their use in feeds. Therefore research has been conducted at several laboratories using regression analysis to estimate the amino acid composition of selected feed ingredients from their proximate composition (Ward, 1989). An equation for estimating the amino acid content of feedstuffs related to changes in protein content is presented in Table 9-4 and an equation for estimating amino acid content from other proximate components is shown in Table 9-5. These equations represent different approaches that provide similar answers. No attempts have been made to compare the results obtained from using both sets of equations on a common set of samples. Knowledge of the availability of amino acids in feedstuffs is important for consistent formulation of diets that meet the birds' amino acid requirements. The amounts of amino acids that are available to the animal are often much lower than the quantity contained in feedstuffs. Many factors affect the availability of amino acids. Undenatured proteins vary markedly in their digestibility. For example, feathers and most connective TABLE 9-4 Estimation of Amino Acids from Protein Content of Feed Ingredients Ingredients Percent- age Dry Matter Percentage Crude Protein Regression Factors Methio- nine Methio- nine + Cystine Lysine Threonine Trypto- phan Arginine Alfalfa meal, 88 16.3 a -0.079 -0.052 0.013 -0.041 0.002 -0.119 Medicago sativa     b 0.0191 0.0282 0.0410 0.0436 0.0138 0.0474 Corn, 88 8.5 a 0.015 0.073 0.057 0.014 0.041 0.091 Zea mays     b 0.0192 0.0345 0.0224 0.0336 0.0026 0.0353 Corn gluten feed 88 18.8 a 0.101 -0.281 -0.055 -0.024   -1.394       b 0.0106 0.0527 0.0302 0.0358 – 0.1142 Milo, 88 9.0 a 0.038 0.084 0.094 0.029 0.004 0.089 Sorghum vulgare     b 0.0135 0.0276 0.0121 0.0296 0.0103 0.0286 Canola meal, 88 34.8 a 0.177 0.140 1.133 0.250 0.081 .510 Brassica campestris     b 0.0157 0.0419 0.0231 0.0377 0.0105 0.0499 Rice bran 88 12.6 a 0.044 -0.001 0.011 0.051 – 0.40       b 0.0241 0.0423 0.0466 0.0366 – 0.1112 Soybean meal, 88 45.8 a 0.127 0.157 -0.252 0.203 -0.041 -0.543 Soya hispida     b 0.0111 0.0255 0.0665 0.0344 0.0144 0.0844 Sunflower meal, 88 33.0 a -0.107 -0.048 0.259 -0.051 -0.055 -0.559 Helianthus annuus     b 0.0255 0.0419 0.0265 0.0380 0.0134 0.0965 Triticale 88 11.8 a 0.024 0.069 0.140 0.047 – 0.046       b 0.0147 0.0332 0.0209 0.0264 – 0.0447 Wheat, 88 12.9 a -0.009 0.042 0.094 0.026 0.307 0.022 Triticum     b 0.0163 0.0343 0.0194 0.0264 0.0087 0.0445 Wheat bran 88 15.4 a -0.087 -0.034 0.070 -0.206 – 0.020       b 0.0208 0.0738 0.0353 0.0340 – 0.0649 Field beans, 88 25.4 a -0.074 -0.009 0.306 0.335 0.101 -1.918 Vicia faba     b 0.0106 0.0205 0.0518 0.0220 0.0045 0.1653 Cottonseed meal, 88 37.4 a 0.153 0.044 0.158 0.142 – 0.466 Gossypium herbaceum     b 0.0127 0.0323 0.0364 0.0291 – 0.1157 Fish meal 91 63.8 a 0.909 -10.059 -2.706 -10.083 -0.492 -0.456       b 0.0420 0.0540 0.1181 0.0588 0.0184 0.0652 Meat and bone meal 91 47.9 a -0.416 -0.960 -0.867 -0.822 -0.405 0.773       b 0.0215 0.0423 0.0671 0.0483 0.0139 0.0539 Field peas, 88 21.1 a 0.157 0.371 -0.213 0.431 0.065 -1.224 Pisum arvense     b 0.0021 0.0063 0.0800 0.0171 0.0058 0.1453 Poultry by-product 91 58.4 a -0.743 – -3.221 1.158 – -1.263 meal     b 0.0291 – 0.1057 0.0184 – 0.0879 Poultry by-product 91 56.7 a 0.374 -0.187 0.222 0.323 – -0.175 meal, feather rich     b 0.0039 0.0549 0.0311 0.0391 – 0.0668 Barley, 88 10.7 a 0.024 0.051 0.109 0.072 0.015 0.033 Hordeum vulgare     b 0.0141 0.0328 0.0256 0.0266 0.0104 0.0438 Lupine seeds, 88 31.8 a -0.064 0.176 0.411 -0.188 0.096 0.223 Lupinus spp.     b 0.0090 0.0163 0.0334 0.0398 0.0049 0.0947 NOTE: To estimate amino acid content, fit the equation y = a + bx, where x is the level of crude protein in the sample, a is the intercept, and b is the regression coefficient. Dash indicates that no coefficients were available. Source: The Amino Acid Composition of Feedstuffs, 1990. Allendale, N.J.: DeGussa Corporation.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-5 Estimation of Amino Acid Composition of Feed Ingredients from Proximate Components Ingredients Regression Factor Methionine Methionine + Cystine Lysine Threonine Tryptophan Arginine Lupin beans Intercept 0.21996 0.95037 1.4019 0.25777 0.04185 0.7692   Protein –a – 0.018 0.02099 0.010 0.11352   Moisture -0.00306 -0.01326 -0.03354 -0.01034 – -0.05846   Fat 0.0076 – – 0.04113 – –   Fiber -0.00219 -0.01262 -0.0142 – – –   Ash – – – – – -0.17185 Milo Intercept 0.0557 0.0859 0.2753 0.0593 0.142 0.2664   Protein 0.0126 0.0282 0.0097 0.0238 0.014 0.0163   Moisture – – – – 0.0116 0.0092   Fat – – -0.0392 – -0.07 –   Fiber – 0.0142 -0.0227 -0.014 – -0.0238   Ash – -0.0237 0.0353 0.0318 -0.0637 0.0741 Meat and bone meal Intercept 0.7048 -1.1187 4.7627 -0.0022 -1.7233 5.4562   Protein 0.0098 0.0458 – 0.0384 0.0229 –   Moisture -0.0299 0.0372 -0.09 – 0.0562 -0.0916   Fat 0.012 – – – 0.0266 -0.0565   Fiber 0.0555 – – – 0.1311 –   Ash -0.0224 – -0.0629 -0.0099 – -0.0246 Poultry by-product Intercept -9.1947 8.587 -12.066 7.8878 0.8287 0.1536   Protein 0.1019 -0.0311 0.149 – – 0.0627   Moisture 0.1013 -0.0403 – – -0.0159 0.0423   Fat 0.1438 -0.149 0.2488 -0.2065 – –   Fiber – – – 0.244 -0.055 –   Ash 0.0801 -0.1338 0.1535 0.1618 -0.0079 – Poultry by-product (crude protein = 54–62%) Intercept 0.9628 7.3812 11.8668 1.6665 0.0981 2.4219   Protein -0.0162 -0.0361 -0.0936 0.0137 – 0.0306   Moisture -0.0675 -0.1187 – -0.042 – –   Fat 0.0681 -0.1102 – – 0.0257     Fiber 0.0623 – – – – -0.0601   Ash – -0.0761 -0.1299 -0.0212 0.0172   Field peas Intercept 0.12772 0.18461 0.1614 0.39919 0.09402 -0.91679   Protein 0.01941 0.04412 0.03032 -0.01403 0.12596     Moisture -0.00895 – – – -0.02906 0.06947   Fat – -0.05672 -0.11144 0.06006 – –   Fiber -0.01017 -0.01301 0.02799 0.01807 – –   Ash 0.09637 – 0.12756 -0.10471 0.24338 -0.21985 Rice bran (full-fat) Intercept 0.0315 0.1517 -0.1305 0.0202 0.0594 -0.0312   Protein 0.0135 0.0274 0.0313 0.0246 0.0042 0.0433   Moisture – – – 0.0024 – –   Fat – -0.0033 – – – –   Fiber – -0.0046 – 0.0045 – –   Ash -0.0018 -0.0039 0.0061 0.001 0.0051 – Soybean meal (crude protein =44–48%) Intercept 0.1754 0.1902 -0.113 1.5584 -0.201 1.0221   Protein 0.0079 0.0179 0.0579 0.0159 0.0222 0.0678   Moisture – – – -0.0289 – –   Fat – – – -0.0366 – –   Fiber – – – -0.0277 – –   Ash 0.0221 0.0624 0.0665 – -0.0241 -0.1132 Sunflower meal Intercept -0.0452 0.04425 1.1555 0.31712 -0.35379 -0.52833   Protein 0.01905 0.03874 0.0157 0.02928 0.02035 0.09468   Moisture 0.01612 0.00023 0.00358         Fat – – – -0.04026 0.00528 –   Fiber – – -0.01197 – 0.0001 –   Ash – – -0.03554 – – – Wheat Intercept 0.196 0.0074 0.3902 0.0717 0.0582 0.381   Protein 0.0098 0.0582 0.0137 0.0336 0.0047 0.0221   Moisture -0.0086 -0.0054 -0.0195 -0.0068 – -0.0176   Fat – 0.0435 0.0812 0.0545 -0.0142 0.0154   Fiber -0.0412 -0.0195 0.0163 0.0628 – –   Ash -0.0032 -0.0285 -0.0144 -0.0173 – -0.0016 Bakery by-product Intercept 0.0315 0.1517 -0.1305 0.0202 0.0594 -0.0312   Protein 0.0315 0.0274 0.0313 0.0246 0.0042 0.0433   Moisture – – – 0.0024 – –   Fat – -0.0033 – – – –   Fiber – -0.0046 0.0045 – – –   Ash -0.0018 -0.0039 0.0061 0.001 0.0051 –

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Ingredients Regression Factor Methionine Methionine + Cystine Lysine Threonine Tryptophan Arginine Barley Intercept 0.03751 -0.0319 0.05149 0.05491 0.00596 -0.019   Protein 0.01311 0.02881 0.01975 0.02713 0.01053 0.0339   Moisture – – 0.01235 – – 0.01762   Fat – 0.02886 – – – –   Fiber – 0.01549 – – – –   Ash – – – – – – Corn Intercept 0.11324 0.05313 -0.10041 -0.05593 0.26305 -0.03611   Protein 0.01123 0.02982 0.04573 0.02275 – 0.05484   Moisture – – – 0.00678 -0.01334 –   Fat – – – 0.01593 – –   Fiber – – – 0.00963 – –   Ash – – – – – – Corn gluten meal Intercept 0.47972 -0.05128 -1.68796 -1.42473 -3.55835 -1.03918   Protein 0.02256 0.05079 0.04201 0.05376 0.06078 0.04928   Moisture -0.01619 -0.02883 0.01719 – – 0.00518   Fat -0.00898 -0.00663 -0.00561 0.00337 -0.00604 -0.00384 Fiber -0.05844 – 0.12073 0.12052 0.22955 0.04866   Ash 0.00788 0.00546 – -0.00359 0.01117 -0.0058 Fish meal Intercept 8.8912 5.0029 2.2017 4.4545 -0.3998 3.6336   Protein 0.02597 – 0.055 – 0.0124 0.02564   Moisture – -0.0651 0.06728 -0.0358 – -0.0331   Fat – -0.0702 – -0.03662 0.0241 –   Fiber -0.3727 – -0.7517 -0.182 -0.1369 -0.2596   Ash -0.0272 -0.0754 -0.0566 -0.0612 0.009 -0.0482 NOTE: To estimate amino acid, insert values shown for specific amino acid into the following equation: y = intercept + b1(% protein) + b2(% moisture) + b3(% fat) + b4(% fiber) + b5(% ash), where the b, etc., represent the regression coefficients listed in each column. Dash indicates that no coefficients were available. Sources: This information is drawn from three reports published in 1986 by Monsanto: Amino Acids in Feed Ingredients and Their Predictability. Monsanto Nutrition Update, vols. 4:2, 4:3, and 4:4. St. Louis, Mo.: Monsanto Company. tissues contain high concentrations of cystine and disulfide bonding, which increase the stability of the protein and resistance to digestive enzymes. Antinutritional factors such as tannins in sorghum and trypsin inhibitors in soybeans reduce the availability of amino acids. Much of the latter adverse effect is due to increases in endogenous amino acid losses. The negative effects of undenatured protein structure and antinutritional factors can usually be reduced or totally eliminated by heat processing. Although some processing is needed to increase the availability of amino acids in many feedstuffs, adverse processing conditions such as excessive pressure and heat can reduce availability. These factors are particularly critical for animal protein meals since substantial processing or cooking is required during manufacturing. Lysine and cystine are two of the amino acids most affected by processing conditions. True digestibility coefficients for amino acids in 30 feedstuffs are shown in Table 9-6. The values were determined by the precision-fed cockerel assay described by Sibbald (1986) or a modification thereof. The three primary sources of the digestibility values used to compile the data of Table 9-6 were Sibbald (1986), Green (1987), and Parsons (1990a), with data from other published reports also included. The assay was originally developed for determination of true ME (Sibbald, 1976) and later extended to determination of amino acid digestibility (Likuski and Dorrell, 1978; Sibbald, 1979). The basic procedure consists of subjecting adult male birds to fasting for 24 to 48 hours, followed by crop-intubation of 30 to 50 g of the test feedstuff and quantitative collection of excreta for 48 hours. Additional cockerels are either subjected to fasting or given a nitrogen-free diet during the assay period to estimate endogenous amino acid excretion. A large number of data have been generated by using this assay during the last 10 years, and the results seem to be reasonably consistent among different laboratories. A large portion of the data used to derive the coefficients in Table 9-6 were determined with cecectomized birds; however, data from studies with conventional birds were also included. Cecectomy removes the majority of the hindgut area in poultry and eliminates most of the potentially confounding effects of the hindgut microflora on amino acid excretion. The surgical procedure is simple, and several laboratories are currently using the technique. Digestibility coefficients determined with cecectomized birds are often lower than those determined with conventional birds. Determination of amino acid digestibility by analysis of the ideal contents has also been used to a limited extent. The two primary approaches used in these studies

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-6 True Digestibility Coefficients (percent) for Selected Amino Acids in Poultry Feedstuffs     Lysine Methionine Cystine Arginine Threonine Valine Isoleucine Leucine Histidine Phenylalanine Feedstuff (protein) n X SD X SD X SD X SD X SD X SD X SD X SD X SD X SD Alfalfa, dehydrated (17%)a 8 59 9 73 7 40 11 82 7 71 8 75 6 77 6 80 6 74 7 78 5 Bakery waste (10%) 11 64 19 85 8 80 14 84 13 72 18 81 13 84 10 86 9 82 10 86 8 Barley, grain (10%) 24 78 5 79 11 81 9 85 4 77 5 81 4 82 5 86 3 87 4 88 3 Beans, field (23%) 2 88 2 78 9 70 11 92 3 85 9 82 1 88 4 90 5 82 4 89 3 Blood meal (81-89%) 30 86 11 91 9 76 11 87 9 87 10 87 12 78 10 89 11 84 11 88 11 Canola meal (38%) 45 80 6 90 4 75 9 90 3 78 5 82 4 83 4 87 3 85 5 87 3 Casein (85%) 1 97 — 99 — 84 — 97 — 98 — 98 — 98 — 99 — 96 — 99 — Coconut meal (25%) 2 58 31 83 8 48 6 85 3 58 11 78 8 78 7 80 1 69 8 84 4 Corn, distiller's grains (27%) with solubles 3 65 6 84 5 77 11 63 15 72 11 81 9 84 8 89 4 75 5 88 6 Corn gluten meal (60%) 14 88 4 97 1 86 3 96 2 92 2 95 1 95 1 98 1 94 1 97 1 Corn gluten feed with bran (22%) 15 72 6 84 4 65 7 87 4 75 6 83 5 81 6 89 3 82 5 87 4 Corn, grain (8.8%) 24 81 6 91 5 85 9 89 7 84 9 88 6 88 7 93 5 94 7 91 7 Cottonseed meal (41%) 5 67 5 73 2 73 4 87 3 71 7 78 5 75 6 77 4 69 10 86 3 Feather meal (86%) 31 66 8 76 8 59 10 83 5 73 6 82 5 85 5 82 5 72 12 85 4 Fish meal (60-63%) 38 88 5 92 3 73 11 92 3 89 6 91 5 92 5 92 4 89 4 91 5 Gelatin (88%) 1 94 — 93 — 68 — 96 — 95 — 97 — 95 — 97 — 95 — 97 — Lupinseed meal (33%) 2 92 1 86 10 88 8 96 3 91 6 91 6 95 3 95 3 91 2 95 2 Meat meal (50-54%) 59 79 8 85 6 58 14 85 6 79 7 82 8 83 6 84 7 80 9 84 7 Oats, grain (11%) 11 87 4 86 5 84 10 94 4 85 5 88 4 89 4 92 3 93 5 94 3 Oat groats (16%) 4 80 4 90 2 84 11 92 2 83 6 88 3 88 3 88 3 91 3 92 2 Peanut meal (46%) 1 83 — 88 — 78 — 84 — 82 — 88 — 91 — 92 — 83 — 94 — Poultry by-product meal (58%) 53 80 6 86 6 61 10 88 3 80 5 83 4 85 4 85 4 78 8 84 7 Rice, bran (13%) 7 75 7 78 4 68 12 87 3 70 7 77 6 77 5 75 7 82 6 77 6 Soybean meal, dehulled (48%) 71 91 3 92 3 82 6 92 5 88 3 91 3 93 2 92 2 88 7 92 4 Sesame meal (44%) 2 88 5 94 3 82 5 92 3 87 3 91 3 92 3 91 2 89 3 93 3 Sorghum, grain (8.8%) 19 78 8 89 5 83 10 74 11 82 7 87 6 88 5 94 3 87 6 91 4 Sunflower meal, dehulled (45%) 10 84 8 93 2 78 10 93 5 85 5 86 5 90 2 91 2 87 7 93 2 Wheat, bran (16%) 1 72 — 82 — 72 — 79 — 72 — 76 — 79 — 79 — 80 — 84 — Wheat, grain (11-17%) 24 81 7 87 4 87 7 88 4 83 5 86 4 88 4 91 3 91 4 92 3 Wheat, shorts (17%) 15 81 6 80 3 69 8 86 4 79 4 82 4 82 4 84 3 84 4 85 3 NOTE: Values represent the percentage of the total amino acid contained in the feedstuff that does not appear in the feces and urine. Values are corrected for amino acids of endogenous origin. The data are derived primarily from Sibbald (1986), Green (1987), and Parsons (1990a). Dash indicates that no standard deviation could be calculated because only one determination of a digestibility was made. a Approximate average protein content of the feed ingredient samples tested. have been (1) removal of the ideal contents immediately following slaughter (Summers and Robblee, 1985) and (2) collection of intestinal digesta via a cannula placed in the terminal ileum (Thomas and Crissey, 1983; Raharjo and Farrell, 1984). It is generally accepted that digestible amino acid values are more indicative of relative nutritional value among feedstuffs than are total amino acid concentration values. However, the application of digestibility values in practical feed formulation is sometimes confusing because the amino acid requirements listed in the tables herein are expressed as total amino acid concentration in the diet. There is little or no published research on the digestible amino acid requirements of poultry species. Therefore a review of 28 published studies on the lysine and methionine plus cystine requirements of broilers, turkeys, and laying hens was recently conducted to calculate digestible amino acid requirements indirectly (Parsons, 1990b). First, the amino acid digestibility coefficients in Table 9-6 were used to calculate the digestible amino acid content of the basal diet feed ingredients used in the requirement studies. The digestible amino acid content of the basal diet was then added to the amount of supplemental crystalline amino acid (100 percent available) needed to meet the requirement; this sum was considered to be the digestible amino acid requirement. The results of these calculations for the 28 studies were consistent and indicated that the calculated digestible amino acid requirements were 8 to 10 percent lower than the determined total amino acid requirements. Amino Acid Supplements Individual amino acids are frequently included as ingredients in diets of poultry. DL-methionine and L-lysine are most commonly used in commercial diets and other amino acids may be used in semipurified and purified diets. The protein equivalents and estimated MEns of 20 amino acids are presented in Table 9-7. This information should be useful in formulating poultry diets.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-7 Nitrogen Concentration, Crude Protein Equivalents, and Nitrogen-Corrected Metabolizable Energy Values for Amino Acids Amino Acid Nitrogen (%) Crude Protein Equivalent (g/100 g) of Amino Acid Metabolizable Energy (kcal/kg)a Alanine 15.72 98.25 3,060 Arginine 32.16 201.00 2,940 Asparagine 21.20 132.50 1,760 Aspartic acid 10.52 65.75 2,020 Cystine 11.66 72.88 2,060 Glutamic acid 9.52 59.50 2,880 Glutamine 19.17 119.81 2,630 Glycine 18.66 116.62 1,570 Histidine 27.08 169.25 2,410 Isoleucine 10.68 66.75 5,650 Leucine 10.67 66.69 5,640 Lysine 19.16 119.75 4,600 Methionine 9.39 58.69 3,680 Phenylalanine 8.48 53.00 6,030 Proline 12.17 76.06 3,980 Serine 13.33 83.31 2,210 Threonine 11.76 73.50 3,150 Tryptophan 13.72 85.75 5,460 Tyrosine 7.73 48.31 5,240 Valine 11.96 74.75 4,990 a Assuming 100 percent digestibility and conversion of nitrogen to uric acid (including urea in the case of arginine). TABLE 9-8 Average Fatty Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Feed Name Description International Feed Number Dry Matter (%) Ether Extract (%) Selected Fatty Acids, Percentage of Feed           C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C16:1 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 01 Alfalfa, meal dehydrated, 17% protein 1-00-023 92 2.0 0.01 0.01 0.57 0.05 0.08 0.13 0.37 0.78 02 Barley, grain 5-00-549 89 1.08 0.01 — 0.49 0.02 0.03 0.37 0.78 0.08 03 Corn, dent yellow, distillers' solubles, dehydrated 5-28-237 92 9.0 — — 1.80 0.07 0.09 2.25 4.77 0.02 04 Corn, dent yellow, grain 4-02-935 89 3.8 — — 0.62 — 0.10 1.17 1.82 0.09 05 Corn, dent yellow, grits by-product (hominy feed) 4-03-011 90 6.9 — — 0.97 — 0.14 1.94 3.75 0.10 06 Corn, dent yellow, gluten, meal 5-28-241 90 2.5 — — 0.50 — 0.06 0.61 1.16 — 07 Cotton, seeds, meal solvent extracted, 41% protein 5-01-621 93 3.9 — 0.02 1.22 — 0.02 0.53 2.46 0.03 08 Fish, menhaden, meal mechanically extracted 5-02-009 92 9.4 0.01 1.15 3.61 1.58 0.57 1.96 0.14 0.08 09 Meat with bone, meal rendered 5-00-388 93 8.6 — 0.22 2.36 0.44 1.42 3.74 0.31 — 10 Oats, grain 4-03-309 89 4.2 — 0.05 0.93 0,04 0.05 1.60 1.47 0.09 11 Peanut, kernels, meal mechanically extracted (expeller) 5-03-649 90 7.3 — — 1.52 0.08 0.23 3.32 1.43 — 12 Poultry, feathers, meal hydrolyzed 5-03-795 93 3.3 0.01 0.06 0.99 0.19 0.48 0.98 0.43 — 13 Sorghum, milo, grain 4-04-444 89 2.8 — — 0.56 0.15 0.03 0.89 1.13 0.06 14 Soybean, seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted 5-04-612 90 1.0 — — 0.24 0.01 0.05 0.16 0.47 0.07 15 Wheat, grain 5-05-211 87 1.9 — — 0.46 0.08 0.03 0.44 0.81 0.11 16 Wheat, middlings 4-05-205 88 3.0 — — 0.61 — — 0.58 1.70 0.12 NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available for these values. SOURCE: Fatty acid composition data obtained from Edwards (1964). CHARACTERISTICS OF DIETARY FATS As discussed in Chapter 1, dietary fats vary appreciably in composition and in their contributions to nutrition of poultry. The fatty acid composition of some ingredients commonly used in poultry diets is presented in Table 9-8. Selected characteristics of supplemental fats (including combined moisture, insolubles, and unsaponifiables content), fatty acid composition, and experimentally determined MEn values are shown in Table 9-9. This information provides an overview of the different fats that have been evaluated experimentally and some of the conditions under which they were evaluated. For comparative purposes, MEn values of specific carbohydrates are also listed in Table 9-9. MACROMINERAL SUPPLEMENTS Concentrated sources of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and magnesium are often used to achieve desired dietary concentrations of specific macrominerals. These mineral sources contain other elements of potential nutritional importance, including chlorine, fluorine, sulfur,

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-9 Characteristics and Metabolizable Energy of Various Sources of Fats and Selected Carbohydrates Occurring in Feed     Selected Fatty Acids, Percentage of Total Fatty Acids   Energy Content "As-Fed"   MIUa (%) Fatty Acids (% free) 16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:3 Nature of Sample kcal ME/kg Methodologyb Data Reference                 Animal Tallows       2.2 4.8 26.9 3.3 17.4 41.5 7.5 0.1 Commercial 6,020-7,690 MEn chicks 10-20% Sibbald et al., 1961 — — 35.4 2.7 36.5 24.5 0.9 — Beef 7,268-7,780 MEn poults 10% Whitehead and Fisher, 1975 — — 22.9 2.8 24.2 40.9 0.6 1.1 Commercial 7,601 MEn chicks 3-10% Guirguis, 1976 — — 25.7 4.2 22.7 37.0 2.5 0.3 Beef 7,920 TME 15% Sibbald, 1978b —   26.2 2.4 25.1 39.6 3.2 0.5 Commercial 8,460-10,640 MEn-TME regression Muztar et al., 1981 1.7 9.6 25.2 4.4 19.7 39.3 8.9 — Commercial 8,083-8,387 MEn-TME chick, 7% Lessire et al., 1982 0.3 4.3 26.1 5.1 25.2 37.4 1.9 — Beef 6,683-6,916     0.5 2.4 25.8 3.7 18.1 42.1 4.6 — Commercial 6,808-8,551 MEn poults 2-8 weeks Sell et al., 1986b 2.9 19.1 25.5 4.0 19.3 40.0 4.9 <0.1 Commercial 6,633-9,353 MEn chicks 2-6% Wiseman et al., 1986 4.0 15.5 22.0 3.6 13.1 49.6 8.4 1.7 Commercial A 6,258 MEn chicks 9% Huyghebaert et al., 1988 3.6 16.5 22.5 3.0 16.0 47.9 7.0 1.6 B 6,709     4.1 6.0 19.9 1.5 14.0 47.2 12.7 1.7 C 6,060     3.5 1.6 22.0 2.7 15.8 47.6 8.7 1.9 D 7,628     3.0 10.2 21.2 5.9 15.5 45.4 9.6 1.2 E 7,148     5.9 65.1 36.2 0.9 9.6 44.1 8.2 — Soap stocks 4,900                   Animal-Vegetable Blends       0.9 2.6 19.0 1.7 10.7 34.3 27.8 3.8 Tallow-crude soy 8,110-8,820 MEn chicks 10% Sibbald et al., 1961 0.8 13.6 19.8 1.6 10.3 34.4 29.9 6.3 Tallow-crude soy 7,660 MEn chicks 10% Sibbald et al., 1962 0.7 13.8 19.4 1.5 10.3 34.8 29.5 6.4 Tallow-refined soy 7,830     1.5 49.2 24.7 2.3 9.6 34.6 21.9 0.5 Tallow-soap stocks 8,490     — — 25.9 4.1 13.4 42.7 8.4 0.5 Commercial-feed grade 9,340 TME 15% Sibbald and Kramer, 1977 — — 21.1 2.1 16.2 41.3 10.3 0.6 Commercial-edible 9,360     — — 16.8 2.2 10.3 47.6 12.1 4.6 Tallow-crude canola 8,710     — — 20.8 2.1 11.1 31.7 27.8 3.3 Tallow-crude soy 9,700     — — 20.9 2.1 10.4 32.2 30.5 0.4 Tallow-refined corn 9,570     — — 29.5 2.1 13.7 37.3 10.6 1.1 Tallow-soap stocks 8,850     — — 17.2 1.3 9.5 51.1 13.7 3.2 Lard-crude canola 10,000     — — 15.9 1.6 13.5 50.2 9.9 3.2 Tallow-crude canola 9,140     3.6 61.0 21.0 1.4 6.0 25.4 38.6 4.2 Commercial 7,114-8,924 MEn poults 2-8 weeks Sell et al., 1986b 0.9 36.3 17.7 1.0 12.5 34.5 31.2 3.9 Beef A-crude soy 7,571 MEn chicks 9% Huyghebaert et al., 1988 0.8 36.2 16.0 3.1 12.2 32.4 31.0 3.9 Beef B-crude soy 7,788     1.7 68.7 23.9 0.5 6.9 34.1 32.6   Animal soap stock-soy; soap stock 5,834                     Canola Oil       — — 4.9 0.4 1.9 61.0 18.8 7.7 Crude oil 9,210 TME 15% Sibbald and Kramer, 1977 — — 9.9 0.4 4.8 52.4 22.4 7.5 Soap stock 7,780-8,930 MEn-TME regression Muztar et al., 1981                 Coconut Oil       — — 8.2 0.4 3.0 5.7 1.8 — 24 oils, MCFA = 57% — — Weihrauch et al., 1977 — — 12.8 — 2.9 13.7 23.1 — Undefined, MCFAc = 34% 8,812 MEn chicks 9% Veen et al., 1974                 Corn Oil       — — 12.2 0.5 0.7 24.7 60.5 1.4 Refined 9,639-10,811 MEn poults 10% Whitehead and Fisher, 1975 — — 8-19 <0.5 0.5-4.0 19-50 34-62 <2.0 Commercial range — — Spencer et al., 1976 — — 12.4 0.1 1.9 26.9 57.0 0.7 Refined 9,870 TME 15% Sibbald and Kramer, 1977 — — — — — — — — Refined 9,660-9,210 TME 15% Dale and Fuller, 1981                 Cottonseed Oil       8.2 78 30.1 0.2 4.1 29.8 29.5 3.0 Soap stock A — — Waldroup and Tollett, 1972 6.5 67 25.8 0.4 2.2 19.8 47.1 3.0 B — —   9.0 70 25.4 0.4 2.9 19.3 47.8 3.3 C — —   14.1 83 23.4 0.3 1.8 21.3 47.3 5.1 D — —   32.1 21 23.7 0.3 2.6 20.3 49.1 3.0 E — —   — — 17-29 0.5-1.5 1.0-4.0 13-44 33-58 0.1-2.1 Commercial range — — Spencer et al., 1976                 Fish Oil       — — — — — — — — Menhaden 8,450 MEn chicks 4-12% Cuppett and Soares, 1972 — — 18.6 5.8 4.8 18.5 24.1 1.3 Hydrogenated 6,800 MEn chicks 9% Veen et al., 1974 — — 19-24 11-18 2-3 10-23 0.9-1.7 0.4-1.7 Menhaden range — — Stansby, 1981 — — 10-19 6-12 0.7-2.1 9-26 0.1-2.9 0-1.1 Herring range — —

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994     Selected Fatty Acids, Percentage of Total Fatty Acids   Energy Content "As-Fed"   MIUa (%) Fatty Acids (% free) 16:0 16:1 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:3 Nature of Sample kcal ME/kg Methodologyb Data Reference — — 17 13 3 10 1 — Raw anchovy — — De Koning et al. 1986                 Lard       — — 28.7 2.1 19.6 40.9 8.7 — Edible 9,114-9,854 MEn poults 10% Whitehead and Fisher, 1975 — — 24.4 3.4 14.2 40.2 0.4 — Edible 9,060 TME 15% Sibbald, 1978 — — 20-32 1.7-5.0 5-24 35-62 3-16 <1.5 Commercial range — — Spencer et al., 1976 — — 28.9 2.2 16.9 38.0 9.7 0.2 Edible 9,390 TME 15% Sibbald and Kramer, 1977 0.2 0.1 26.6 3.1 15.8 42.4 9.1 <0.1 Edible 9,926-10,236 MEn chicks 2-6% Wiseman et al., 1986 1.1 0.2 22.4 2.1 17.7 46.1 8.0 2.1 Edible A 7,337 MEn chicks 9% Huyghebaert et al., 1988 0.7 0.1 21.2 5.3 17.0 44.8 9.3 1.1 B 7,356                     Palm Oil       — — 27.3 0.5 6.1 58.5 11.4 1.3 E. guineenis — — Clegg, 1973 — 100 46.4 0.2 5.0 38.7 6.9 0.1 Fatty acid composite 7,710 TME 15% Sibbald and Kramer, 1977 1.8 0.2 40.7 0.3 5.2 41.6 11.4 — Refined oil 5,800 MEn chicks 9% Huyghebaert et al., 1988 1.8 1.0 38.0 1.5 5.5 44.3 9.0 — Used in cooking 5,302 —                   Peanut Oil       — — 6-16 <1.0 1.3-6.5 36-72 13-45 <1.0 Commercial range — — Spencer et al. 1976                 Poultry Fat       5.2 18.0 — — — — — — Commercial 10,186 MEn chicks 14% Cullen et al., 1962 0.7 0.7 21.6 4.8 7.2 42.3 23.0 — Commercial A 8,625-8,916 MEn-TME chick 7% Lessire et al., 1982 3.9 0.5 18.1 5.9 4.6 46.2 23.3 1.1 B 9,360 TME 7%                   Sunfflower Oil       — — 2-10 <0.5 1-10 7-42 55-81 <1.0 Commercial range — — Spencer et al., 1976                 Soybean Oil       1.4 0.6 11.3 0.3 3.9 27.2 49.8 7.5 Crude 8,650-8,020 MEn chicks 10-20% Sibbald et al., 1961 0.3 0.7 11.3 0.1 4.9 28.2 50.2 5.6 Crude 8,370 MEn chicks 20% Sibbald et al., 1962 1.3 12.2 21.0 0.3 4.5 17.1 45.9 1.8 Dried gums 6,440     0.8 13.5 20.1 0.8 4.4 17.0 40.6 0.9 Lecithins — —   — — 7-12 <0.5 2.0-5.5 19-30 48-58 4-10 Commercial range — — Spencer et al., 1976 — — 12.2 0.1 3.2 26.0 51.6 6.3 Crude 9,510 TME 15% Sibbald and Kramer, 1977 2.0 1.3 10.6 <0.1 3.9 25.1 52.1 7.0 Refined 9,687-10,212 MEn chicks 2-6% Wiseman et al., 1986 1.8 0.1 11.6 — 3.9 19.8 57.9 6.8 Refined 8,375 MEn chick 9% Huyghebaert et al., 1988 3.6 1.5 9.8 — 3.7 24.3 55.0 7.2 Crude 8,795 —   4.2 72.3 7.9 — 4.1 24.0 56.9 7.1 Soap stocks 6,111 —   4.0 1.1 28.5 — 5.0 35.8 28.0 2.7 Used in cooking 6,309 —                   Sunflower Oil       — — 3-10 <1.0 1-10 14-65 20-75 <0.7 Commercial range — — Spencer et al., 1976 — — 6.7 0.1 4.3 27.4 57.1 3.7 Refined 9,659 MEn, chick 2-8% Guirguis, 1976 — — 2-4 — 3-5 80-87 4-9 — High 18:1 cultivars — — Purdy, 1986                 Carbohydrates       — — — — — — — — Starch 4,070 MEn Naber and Touchburn, 1969 — — — — — — — — Sucrose 3,900 ? Janssen et al., 1972 — — — — — — — — Glucose 3,730 TME Sibbald, 1977 — — — — — — — — Glucose 2,831-3,327 MEn hen 0-9% fat Mateos and Sell, 1980 — — — — — — — — Fructose 2,809-3,305     — — — — — — — — Glucose:fructose (50:50) 2,798-3,209 —   — — — — — — — — Maltose 2,868-3,326 —   — — — — — — — — Starch 2,918-3,396 —   — — — — — — — — Sucrose 2,512-3,063 —   NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available. a Moisture, ether insolubles, and unsaponifiable matter contents as a percentage of the fat. b MEn is apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention; TME is true metabolizable energy using the rooster unless otherwise stated, and level(s) of fat used in the test diet. Some ME values are not corrected for nitrogen retention, particularly those prior to 1970. c Medium-chain fatty acid contributions (8:0 + 10:0 + 12:0).

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 9-10 Element Concentrations in Common Mineral Sources (data on as-fed basis) Entry Number Feed Name Description International Feed No. Calcium (%) Phosphorus (%) Sodium (%) Potassium (%) Magnesium (%) Chlorine (%) Fluorine (%) Sulfur (%) Iron (mg/kg) Copper (mg/kg) Manganese (mg/kg) Zinc (mg/kg) 01 Bone meal, steamed 6-00-400 29.8 12.5 0.04 0.2 0.3 — — 2.4 — 16 30 100 02 Calcium carbonate, CaCO3 6-01-069 38.0 0.0 0.02 0.06 0.05 — 0.00 — 300 24 300 2 03 Calcium phosphate, dibasic from defluorinated phosphoric acid 6-01-080 22.0 18.7 0.06 0.1 0.6 0.013 0.18 1.11 10,000 10 300 100 04 Calcium phosphate, mono-dibasic 6-26-137 16.0 21.0 0.06 0.07 0.6 — 0.15 1.2 9,000 15 300 200 05 Calcium sulfate, dihydrate, CaSO4·2H2O 6-01-090 22.6 — — — — — — 18.1 — — — — 06 Limestone, ground 6-02-632 38.0 — 0.05 0.1 2.1 0.03 <0.0025 — 2,000 — — — 07 Magnesium oxide, MgO 6-02-756 3.0 0.03 0.015 0.02 55.0 0.02 0.02 0.04 6,000 10 — 10 08 Meat with bone, meal rendered 5-00-388 10.3 5.1 0.7 1.3 1.1 0.7 — 0.5 490 2 14 93 09 Oyster, shells, ground 6-03-481 38.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.01 — — 500 — 400 — 11 Phosphate, defluorinated 6-01-780 32.0 18.0 4.9 0.1 0.4 — 0.18 — 8,000 20 250 60 10 Phosphate, rock curacao, ground 6-05-586 34.0 14.0 0.2 — 0.8 — 0.53 — 3,500 — — — 12 Phosphate, rock, soft 6-03-947 17.0 9.0 0.10 0.30 0.35 0.007 1.25 0.31 15,000 64 39 90 13 Potassium chloride, KCl 6-03-755 0.05 — 1.0 50.5 0.34 47.3 — 0.45 600 7 7 9 14 Potassium and magnesium sulfate 6-06-177 0.06 — 0.76 18.5 11.6 1.25 0.001 22.3 100 2 20 9 15 Potassium sulfate, K2SO4 6-08-098 0.15 — 0.09 41.0 0.6 1.5 — 17.9 700 — 10 — 16 Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 6-12-316 — — 43.39 — — — — — — — — — 17 Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3 6-04-272 — — 27.0 — — — — — — — — — 18 Sodium chloride, NaCl (common salt) 6-04-152 0.3 — 39.0 — 0.005 60.0 — 0.2 50 — — — 19 Sodium phosphate, dibasic, from furnaced phosphoric acid, Na2HPO4 6-04-286 — 20.8 31.0 — — — — — — — — — 20 Sodium phosphate, monobasic, NaH2PO4·H2O 6-04-288 — 21.8 16.2 — — — — — — — — — 21 Sodium sulfate, decahydrate, Na2SOB·10H2O 6-04-291 — — 13.8 — — — — 9.7 — — — — 22 Phosphoric acid, H3PO4 6-03-707 0.08 23.7 0.05 0.02 0.45 — 0.19 1.1 12,000 10 400 100 NOTE: The mineral supplements used as feed supplements are not chemically pure compounds, and the composition may vary substantially among sources. The supplier's analysis should be used if it is available. Dashes indicate that no data were available. iron, copper, manganese, and zinc. The concentration of these elements contained in selected macromineral supplements is shown in Table 9-10. MYCOTOXINS Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi. Most mycotoxins cause health problems for animals by entry through the feed, although they may also be water- or air-borne. Given the appropriate conditions, fungi will grow on grain and oilseeds prior to harvest. Wet conditions and warm temperatures favor the growth of fungi (Diener et el., 1987). Stresses such as drought, insect infestation, and plant disease often make the crop susceptible to fungal growth. Some fungi will then produce mycotoxins, which remain with the grain and oilseeds after harvest. Mycotoxins in feed ingredients are difficult to economically remove or destroy. One method for detoxification of one class of mycotoxins—aflatoxins—is ammoniation of ingredients. Ammoniation was effective in destroying aflatoxin in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (Gardner et al., 1971) and in corn (Hughes et al., 1979). A second procedure for reducing the effect of aflatoxins is the use of dietary adsorbents. Including sodium calcium aluminosilicate in the diet at a level of 0.5 percent is effective in reducing the effect of aflatoxins on the growth of chickens (Kubena et al., 1990). Conditions that are favorable for fungal growth and mycotoxin production may also occur while ingredients are in storage. The best way to prevent this problem is to keep the moisture level of ingredients low enough to inhibit fungal growth. In some instances, antifungal additives may be used to prevent fungal growth in feed or ingredients. Several classes of mycotoxins are known to cause economic losses in poultry. The first to be identified was aflatoxins. These are produced by some strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. paraciticus , and A. nomius. Aflatoxins have been labeled B1, B2, G1, and G2. Conditions appropriate for the production of aflatoxin are more commonly encountered in the southeastern or central part of the United States or where the leaf canopy maintains high moisture content at the plant level. Aflatoxins can produce a variety of effects. Broilers show decreased growth and increased kilogram feed:gain ratios when fed 2.5 mg of aflatoxin per kilogram but not when fed 1.25 mg/kg (Smith and

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Hamilton, 1970). When hens were fed diets with approximately 90 mg of aflatoxin per kilogram, egg production decreased quickly and a high rate of mortality ensued (Hamilton, 1971). At a level of 1.5 mg/kg feed, aflatoxins caused fatty livers, necrosis, and bile duct hyperplasia (Carnaghan et al., 1966). Hematological responses such as lowered serum protein, reduced hemoglobin, and lower levels of serum triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol result from moderate aflatoxin doses (Tung et al., 1972). Fusarium moniliforme is a fungus that may grow on grains. It is found to produce a thiaminase causing thiamin deficiency in chicks (Fritz et al., 1973). Mortality is increased if additional thiamin is not supplied in contaminated diets. Corn shown to contain F. moniliforme causes substantial mortality when fed to ducklings (Jeschke et al., 1987). Tricothecenes constitute another group of fungal compounds that may decrease the performance of poultry. These compounds may be produced by several genera of fungi but are most commonly metabolites of Fusarium . Laboratory studies have shown that T-2 toxin at levels up to 20 mg/kg of diet may decrease weight gain and egg production (Wyatt et al., 1973b, 1975). Oral lesions and digestive disturbances are caused by toxic concentrations of T-2. Other tricothecenes produced by Fusarium are deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, and diacetylnivalenol. These toxins appear to be more toxic to swine, in which they may cause vomiting and feed refusal (Morehouse, 1985), than to poultry. Adverse effects of Fusarium toxins on turkey reproduction have been reported (Allen et al., 1983). Mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A and zearalenone have also been identified and may cause deleterious effects on poultry. A review of their effects was done by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1989).