Appendixes



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Appendixes

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A–1 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Starting and Growing Leghorn—Type Chickens Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Protein, % 20 0–14 Growth White Leghorn Grau and Kamei, 1950 21.1 0–42 Growth White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red Edwards et al., 1956 14–20 84–140 Growth White Leghorn McNaughton et al., 1977b 15–18 0–42 Growth White Leghorn McNaughton et al., 1977b 12 0–56 Growth White Leghorn Leeson and Summers, 1979 16 56–84 Growth White Leghorn Leeson and Summers, 1979 19 84–104 Growth White Leghorn Leeson and Summers, 1979 14 and 21 56–140 Growth White Leghorn Douglas and Harms, 1982 12 or 13.6 0–42 Growth Commercial brown-egg layers Maurice et al., 1982 16 or 13.6 42–140 Growth Commercial brown-egg layers Maurice et al., 1982 18 0–28 Growth of muscle fiber White Leghorn Timson et al., 1983 18 0–42 Growth White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1984 12 42–140 Growth White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1984 16.5 140–504 Laying White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1984 22 0–28 Growth White Leghorn Leeson and Summers, 1984 18 0–140 Growth White Leghorn Chi, 1985 Isoleucine, % 0.5 8–18 Growth White Leghorn Mori and Okumura, 1984 Leucine, % 1.2 8–18 Growth White Leghorn Mori and Okumura, 1984 Lysine, % 0.9–1.1 0–42 Growth White Leghorn Edwards et al., 1956 0.94 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency White Leghorn Chung et al., 1973 0.70 35–49 Growth, feed efficiency White Leghorn Chung et al., 1973 <0.5 56–98 Growth White Leghorn Berg, 1976 <0.45 98–147 Growth White Leghorn Berg, 1976 0.68 0–504 Growth, egg production White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1984 Methionine, % 0.8 0–14 Growth White Leghorn Grau and Kamei, 1950 Methionine and cystine, % 0.8 0–14 Growth White Leghorn Grau and Kamei, 1950 0.59 0–504 Growth, laying White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1984 0.45 0–42 Growth White Leghorn Chi, 1985 Threonine, % 0.72 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency White Leghorn Davis and Austic, 1982 Valine, % 0.8 8–18 Growth White Leghorn Mori and Okumura, 1984 Requirements for essential amino acids described in review papers Various Growth Primarily White Leghorn Almquist, 1952 Requirements for essential amino acids described in review papers Various Growth White Leghorn Waldroup et al., 1980 Requirements for essential amino acids described in review papers Various Growth, egg production White Leghorn Harms, 1984 Calcium 0.78 0–153 Growth White Leghorn Hamilton and Cipera, 1981 3.19 154–439 Egg production White Leghorn Hamilton and Cipera, 1981 0.89 35–126 Growth White Leghorn Classen and Scott, 1982 2.08 12–154 Growth, subsequent egg production White Leghorn Classen and Scott, 1982 3.50 177–225 Egg production White Leghorn Classen and Scott, 1982 2.0–3.5 At 133 to 4th egg Growth, bone development White Leghorn Leeson et al., 1986 0.8 98–140 Growth, subsequent egg production White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1987 3.5 98–140 Egg production White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1987 3.55 140–420 Egg production White Leghorn Keshavarz, 1987 4.0 >112 Egg production White Leghorn Leeson and Summers, 1987b Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.4–0.6 7–28 Growth White Leghorn Gillis et al., 1949 0.25–0.30 0–140 Growth Brown-egg layers Carew and Foss, 1980 0.31 112–140 Growth White Leghorn Douglas and Harms, 1986

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Potassium, % 0.20–0.24 0–28 Growth, bone calcification White Leghorn Gillis, 1948 Sodium, % 0.10–0.30 0–28 Growth White Leghorn Burns et al., 1953 0.13 0–21 Growth White Rock Hurwitz et al., 1973 0.15 0–140 Growth White Leghorn Manning and McGinnis, 1980 Chlorine, % 0.13 0–14 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler Strain Nam and McGinnis, 1981 Sodium chloride, % 0.25 0–140 Growth, sexual maturity White Leghorn Leeson and Summers, 1980 Magnesium, mg/kg 300 0–28 Deficiency, neuropathy White Leghorn Bird, 1949 250 0–28 Growth Broiler strain Gardiner et al., 1960 594 0–21 Growth White Rock Nugara and Edwards, 1963 Manganese, mg/kg 50 0–140 Growth, perosis New Hampshire Gallup and Norris, 1939a 20 0–28 Growth White Leghorn Watson et al., 1971 Zinc, mg/kg 35 0–42 Growth, feathering, bone development White Rock O'Dell et al., 1958 20 0–42 Growth White Rock Edwards et al., 1959 20 To 1st egg Growth, feed efficiency White Leghorn Rahman et al., 1961 78 0–7 Growth, feathering White Leghorn Sunde, 1972 52 7–21 Growth, feathering White Leghorn Sunde, 1972 Iron, mg/kg 40 0–56 Growth Rhode Island Red Hill and Matrone, 1961 4 0–56 Growth Rhode Island Red Hill and Matrone, 1961 56 0–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Waddell and Sell, 1964 75–80 0–28 Growth New Hampshire Davis et al., 1968 Copper, mg/kg 4 0–56 Growth Rhode Island Red Hill and Matrone, 1961 Iodine, mg/kg 0.300 0–56 Growth, thyoid histology White Leghorn and Broiler strains Creek et al., 1957 0.400 0–56 Growth, thyoid histology White Leghorn and Broiler strains Creek et al., 1957 0.075 0–35 Growth Broiler strain Rogler and Parker, 1978 Selenium, mg/kg 0.01 to 0.05, depending on dietary concentration of Vitamin E 0–24 Growth Plymouth Rock Thompson and Scott, 1969 0.01 to 0.05, depending on dietary concentration of Vitamin E 0–14 Growth Plymouth Rock Gries and Scott, 1972c Vitamin A, IU/kg 800–1600 0–56 Growth, absence of deficiency signs White Leghorn Record et al., 1937 1,200–2,000 70–84 Curative feeding White Leghorn Record et al., 1937 2,650 0–189 Growth White Leghorn Taylor and Russell, 1947 1,760–7,000 0–56 Growth White Leghorn Thornton and Whittet, 1962 4,400 0–113 Growth, E. acervulina resistance White Leghorn Coles et al., 1970 Vitamin D3 IU/kg 180 0–84 Growth, bone development Brown-egg layers Baird and Greene, 1935 132 0–21 Growth, bone development Broiler strain McNaughton et al., 1977a 198 0–21 Growth, bone development Broiler strain McNaughton et al., 1977a 500 Adults Egg production, shell quality Various strains Ameenuddin et al., 1985

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Vitamin E, IU/kg 60 Various To prevent exudative diathesis, encephalomalacia, muscular degeneration Various strains Machlin and Gordon, 1962 30–50 0–35 Growth White Rock Combs and Scott, 1974 Vitamin K, mg/kg 0.524–0.528 0–28 Growth White Rock Nelson and Norris, 1960 0.515 0–84 Growth White Rock Nelson and Norris, 1961a 0.524–0.528 0–28 Growth White Rock Nelson and Norris, 1961b Riboflavin, mg/kg 3.5 decreasing to 1.0 0–7 Growth White Leghorn Heuser et al., 1938 3.5 decreasing to 1.0 49–56 Growth White Leghorn Heuser et al., 1938 3 0–56 Growth, prevention of curled toe paralysis White Leghorn Bethke and Record, 1942 2.3 0–42 Growth, prevention of curled toe paralysis White Leghorn Bootwalla and Harms, 1990 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 6 0–42 Growth White Leghorn Bauernfeind et al., 1942 6.6 0–150 Growth, egg quality, hatchability New Hampshire Balloun and Phillips, 1957b 4.8 0–42 Growth White Leghorn Bootwalla and Harms, 1991 Niacin, mg/kg 28 0–56 Growth Barred Plymouth Rock Childs et al., 1952 1.8 42–77 Growth White Leghorn Sunde, 1955 17.5–20 0–28 Growth White Leghorn Patterson et al., 1956 Vitamin B12, mg/kg 4.4 0–77 Growth White Leghorn Davis and Briggs, 1951 27 0–23 Growth White Leghorn Ott, 1951 2.5 0–42 Growth White Leghorn Miller et al., 1956 10 0–21 Growth White Leghorn Patel and McGinnis, 1980 Choline, mg/kg 2,000 0–147 Growth, egg production White Leghorn Nesheim et al., 1971 1,000 0–126 Growth White Leghorn Tsiagbe et al., 1982 Biotin, µg/kg 260 0–18 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Anderson and Warnick, 1970 Folic Acid, mg/kg 0.80 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency White Leghorn March and Biely, 1955 0.30 0–28 Growth Broiler strain Young et al., 1955 0.33 to 1.45, depending on protein level 0–35 Growth New Hampshire March and Biely, 1956 0.30 0–18 Growth Broiler strain Creek and Vasaitis, 1963 Thiamine, mg/kg 0.6–0.8 0–35 Growth White Leghorn Arnold and Elvehjem, 1938 0.88 0–28 Growth White Leghorn Thornton, 1960 0.88 0–28 Gain, feed efficiency White Leghorn Thornton and Shutze, 1960 Pyridoxine, mg/kg 2.8–3.0 0–28 Growth White Leghorn Briggs et al., 1942 5.7 0–56 Growth White Plymouth Rock Fuller and Kifer, 1959 5 0–21 Growth Broiler strain Kazemi and Kratzer, 1980

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A–2 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn—Type Chickens in Egg Production Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Weeks) Response Criteria Breed References Protein, g/bird daily 14.9 24–60 Egg yield White Leghorn Balloun and Speers, 1969 14 24–72 Egg yield White Leghorn Thayer et al., 1974 15 20–72 Egg yield White Leghorn Proudfoot et al., 1988 Arginine, mg/bird daily 400 Not specified Egg yield White Leghorn Adkins et al., 1962 Isoleucine, mg/bird daily 475 Not specified Egg yield White Leghorn Bray, 1969 650 Not specified Egg yield White Leghorn Gous et al., 1987 Lysine, mg/bird daily 690 22–42 Egg yield White Leghorn Nathanael and Sell, 1980 650 24–72 Egg yield White Leghorn Latshaw, 1981 620 20–72 Egg yield White Leghorn Proudfoot et al., 1988 Methionine + cystine, mg/bird daily 500 20 from onset of lay Egg yield White Leghorn Reid and Weber, 1973 530 24–72 Egg yield White Leghorn Latshaw, 1981 Threonine, mg/bird daily 400 Not specified Egg yield White Leghorn Adkins et al., 1958 Tryptophan, mg/bird daily 165 20–76 Egg yield White Leghorn Wethli and Morris, 1978 239 20–76 Egg yield Rhode Island Red Ohtani et al., 1989 Valine, % 0.64 Not specified Egg yield Crossbreds Hurwitz and Bornstein, 1978 Linoleic acid, % 2.0 22–54 Egg production White Leghorn Menge, 1970 1.0 22–54 Egg weight White Leghorn Menge, 1970 1.0 22–54 Hatch White Leghorn Menge, 1970 0.9 20–72 Egg weight White Leghorn Whitehead, 1981 Calcium, g/bird daily 3.12 48–55 Egg production, shell strength White Leghorn Atteh and Leeson, 1983 3.15 24–72 Egg production White Leghorn Scheideler and Sell, 1986 >2.8 54–58 Egg production, shell strength White Leghorn Austic and Keshavarz, 1988 Nonphytate Phosphorus, mg/bird daily 215 28–36 Egg production White Leghorn Miles et al., 1983 250 21–32 Egg production White Leghorn Said and Sullivan, 1985 250 35–51 Egg production White Leghorn Sell et al., 1987 >150 52–72 Egg production White Leghorn Sell et al., 1987 Potassium, % 0.10 12 Egg production, egg weight, shell thickness White Leghorn Leach, 1974 Sodium, mg/bird daily 140–150 20–48 Egg production, feed conversion White Leghorn Reid, 1977 130 21–45 Egg yield Medium weight brown-egg layers Sauveur and Mongin, 1978 Chlorine, mg/bird daily 132 Not specified Egg production White Leghorn Vogt, 1977 Magnesium, mg/kg 350 25–31 Egg production, egg weight White Leghorn Cox and Sell, 1967 900 Not specified Egg production White Leghorn Edwards and Nugara, 1968 355 30–38 Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Hajj and Sell, 1969 Managenese, mg/kg >13 21–33 Egg production, hatchability New Hampshire Gallup and Norris, 1939b 20 22 Egg production, egg weight, shell quality White Leghorn Cox and Balloun, 1969 >7 17–23 Shell quality White Leghorn Longstaff and Hill, 1971 Zinc, mg/kg 28 22–72 Egg yield, hatchability White Leghorn Stahl et al., 1986 54 Not specified Feather condition of progeny White Leghorn Stahl et al., 1986 Iron, mg/kg 45 Not specified Hematocrit White Leghorn Morck and Austic, 1981 55 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Morck and Austic, 1981

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Weeks) Response Criteria Breed References Copper, mg/kg >1 44–48 Shell quality White Leghorn Baumgartner et al., 1978 <2.5 44–48 Shell quality White Leghorn Baumgartner et al., 1978 Iodine, µg/kg 35 4–45 Hatchability White Leghorn Rogler et al., 1959a >75 4–45 Embryonic thyroid White Leghorn Rogler et al., 1959b Selenium, mg/kg 0.05 32–56 Egg production White Leghorn Latshaw et al., 1977 0.05 32–57 Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Combs and Scott, 1979 Vitamin A, IU/kg 3,520 26–70 Egg production, blood spots, hatchability White Leghorn Hill et al., 1961 2,750 20–64 Egg production, fertility, hatchability White Leghorn Reid et al., 1965 Vitamin D3, IU/kg 150 21–34 Egg production, shell quality, fertility, hatchability White Leghorn Abdurahim et al., 1979 250 30–46 Egg production, shell quality White Leghorn Shen et al., 1981 Vitamin E, IU/kg 12 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Jensen and McGinnis, 1960 41 in presence of oxidized fat Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Olson et al., 1962 Vitamin K, mg/kg >1.0 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Griminger, 1964 Riboflavin, mg/kg 2.5 30–45 Egg production White Leghorn Petersen et al., 1947a 3.6 30–45 Hatchability, chick quality White Leghorn Petersen et al., 1947b Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 6.5 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Gillis et al., 1948 7 Not specified Hatchability New Hampshire Balloun and Phillips, 1957a 1.9 28–53 Egg production White Leghorn Beer et al., 1963 4.9 28–53 Hatchability White Leghorn Beer et al., 1963 8.9 28–53 Viability of progeny White Leghorn Beer et al., 1963 Niacin, mg/kg 9 Not specified Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Ringrose et al., 1965 11 Not specified Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Ringrose et al., 1965 <21 41–57 Egg yield, hatchability White Leghorn Ouart et al., 1987 Vitamin B12, µg/kg 1.0 22–35 Hatchability White Leghorn Mariakulandai and McGinnis, 1953 1–2 Not specified Hatchability New Hampshire Johnson, 1954 0.5–1.0 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Chin et al., 1958 Choline, mg/kg 1,050 50–66 Egg yield White Leghorn Miles et al., 1986 <1,480 45–57 Egg yield White Leghorn Parsons and Leeper, 1984 1,000 32–52 Egg yield White Leghorn Keshavarz and Austic, 1985 Biotin, mg/kg 0.10 19–73 Egg production White Leghorn Whitehead, 1980 Folic acid, mg/kg 0.5 44–55 Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Sunde et al., 1950a,b 0.2 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Couch and German, 1950 Thiamin, mg/kg 0.68 Not specified Hatchability White Leghorn Polin et al., 1963 Pyridoxine, mg/kg 2.5 Not specified Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Cravens et al., 1946 2.3 Not specified Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Fuller et al., 1961 4.5 Not specified Egg production, hatchability White Leghorn Fuller et al., 1961

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A–3 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Starting and Growing Market Broilers Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Arginine, % 1.2 10–20 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 =1.11 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Snyder et al., 1956 =0.85 7–28 Growth, feed efficiency Barred Plymouth Rock Krautmann et al., 1957 1.08 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Klain et al., 1960 0.92 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency nitrogen balance (adjusted to 23% crude protein diet White Plymouth Rock × Light Sussex Lewis et al., 1963 1.10 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 0.78 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Allen and Baker, 1972 0.85 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Hewitt and Lewis, 1972 =0.76 14–28 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Woodham and Deans, 1975 1.13, males 28–49 Growth, feed efficiency, feather loss Hubbard × Hubbard Kessler and Thomas, 1976 0.98, females 28–49 Growth, feed efficiency, feather loss Hubbard × Hubbard Kessler and Thomas, 1976 1.33 7–14 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.19 14–21 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.16 21–28 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.10 28–35 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.99 35–42 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.96 42–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.05 49–56 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.4 1–28 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Burton and Waldroup, 1979 1.25 8–29 Growth, feed efficiency Vedette ISA Alimentation Equilibree Commentri, 1981 0.91 29–50 Growth, feed efficiency Vedette ISA Alimentation Equilibree Commentri, 1981 1.25 0–21 Growth, feed efficiency Peterson × Arbor Acre Cuca and Jensen, 1990 Glycine + serine, % 1.6 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 =0.3 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1968 0.5–1.0 1–10 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Coon et al., 1974 =1.8 1–23 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Ngo and Coon, 1976 0.60 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1979 Histidine, % 0.4 8–13 or 15 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Klain et al., 1960 0.3 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 =0.34 14–28 Total protein efficiency Ross Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.33 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1979 0.32 8–22 Growth New Hampshire × Columbian Han et al., 1991 Isoleucine, % 0.60 10–24 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 0.73 8–15 Growth New Hampshire × Columbian Klain et al., 1960 0.80 8–16 Growth New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 =0.52 7–21 Growth, plasma amino acid levels Not specified D'Mello, 1974 0.48 14–28 Total protein efficiency Ross Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.60 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et. al., 1979 0.81 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Ross × Arbor Acre Farran and Thomas, 1990 Leucine, % 1.4 10 or 24 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 1.68 8–13 or 15 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Klain et. al., 1960 1.2 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 1.10 7–21 Growth, plasma amino acid levels Not specified D'Mello, 1974 =1.05 14–28 Total protein efficiency Ross Woodham and Deans, 1975 1.00 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1979 1.16 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Ross × Arbor Acre Farran and Thomas, 1990 Lysine, % 0.90 2–14 Growth Not specified Almquist and Mecchi, 1942 0.96 14–28 Growth Not specified Grau et al., 1946 0.90 10–20 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 1.00 0–42 Growth Rhode Island Red × White Leghorn Milligan et al., 1951 0.72 56–63 Growth, feed efficiency Rhode Island Red Bird, 1953 1.10 1–28 Growth, feed efficiency Rhode Island Red × Barred Plymouth Rock Edwards et al., 1956 1.01 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Klain et al., 1960 0.83 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids New Hampshire × Columbian Zimmerman and Scott, 1965

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References 0.70 14–21 Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids New Hampshire × Columbian Zimmerman and Scott, 1965 0.67 21–28 Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids New Hampshire × Columbian Zimmerman and Scott, 1965 0.59 28–35 Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids New Hampshire × Columbian Zimmerman and Scott, 1965 0.92 35–56 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Bornstein, 1970 0.85 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Hewitt and Lewis, 1972 1.05 14–28 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973a 1.06 14–21 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b 0.92 42–56 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b 0.68 49–63 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Twining et al., 1973 1.12 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.64, females 49–63 Growth, feed efficiency Vantress × Arbor Acre Thomas et al., 1977 0.69, males 49–63 Growth, feed efficiency Vantress × Arbor Acre Thomas et al., 1977 1.18 7–14 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.00 14–21 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.95 21–28 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.87 28–35 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.78 35–42 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.76 42–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.84 49–56 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 1.10 14–28 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain McNaughton et al., 1978 1.18 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Attia and Latshaw, 1979 1.10 1–28 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Burton and Waldroup, 1979 0.99 35–42 Growth, feed efficiency Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Holsheimer, 1981 Methionine, % 0.50 10–20 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 0.45 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 0.18 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Klain et al., 1960 0.39 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Hewitt and Lewis, 1972 0.39 7–14 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.34 14–21 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.34 21–28 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.31 28–35 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.27 35–42 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.27 42–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.29 49–56 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.57 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Waldroup et al., 1979 0.44 8–21 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Robbins and Baker, 1980a 0.46 1–14 Growth, feed efficiency, feathering White Mountain × Hubbard Moran, 1981 0.36, males 35–56 Growth, feed efficiency White Mountain × Hubbard Moran, 1981 0.29, females 35–49 Growth, feed efficiency White Mountain × Hubbard Moran, 1981 0.49 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Thomas et al., 1985 0.55 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Tillman and Pesti, 1985 Methionine + cystine, % 0.90 10–20 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 0.80 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1960 0.47 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Klain et al., 1960 0.70 0–42 Feed efficiency Vantress × New Hampshire Nelson et al., 1960 0.81 0–28 Feed efficiency Vantress × New Hampshire Nelson et al., 1960 0.5 28–56 Growth Hubbard Adams et al., 1962 >0.6–<0.7 28–56 Feed efficiency Hubbard Adams et al., 1963 0.81 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Bornstein and Lipstein, 1964 0.90 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Bornstein and Lipstein, 1964 0.67 35–56 Growth, feed efficiency Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Bornstein and Lipstein, 1966 0.60 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Graber et al., 1971 0.63 35–42 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Graber et al., 1971 0.65 49–56 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Graber et al., 1971 0.79 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Hewitt and Lewis, 1972 0.70 14–21 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Colubmian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b 0.51 42–56 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b 0.92 8–21 Growth, feed efficiency, nitrogen retention New Hampshire × Columbian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973c 0.58 14–28 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.93 0–28 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Murillo et al., 1976 0.61 35–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.84 7–14 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.78 14–21 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.79 21–28 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References 0.76 28–35 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.68 35–42 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.69 42–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.39 49–56 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.86 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Attia and Latshaw, 1979 0.90 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Waldroup et al., 1979 0.80 8–21 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Robbins and Baker, 1980a 0.52 8–21 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Robbins and Baker, 1980a 0.55 8–21 Growth, feed efficiency Hubbard Robbins and Baker, 1980b 0.57 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Willis and Baker, 1980 0.70 35–42 Growth, feed efficiency Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Holsheimer, 1981 0.87, males 1–14 Growth, feed efficiency, feathering White Mountain × Hubbard Moran, 1981 0.92, females 1–14 Growth, feed efficiency, feathering White Mountain × Hubbard Moran, 1981 0.81, males 35–52 Growth, feed efficiency, feathering White Mountain × Hubbard Moran, 1981 0.82 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Wheeler and Latshaw, 1981 >0.70–<0.76 21–42 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Wheeler and Latshaw, 1981 0.65 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Willis and Baker, 1981a 0.50 7–17 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1983 0.87 7–24 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1983 0.80 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency Hubbard Mitchell and Robbins, 1983 0.72 21–42 Growth, feed efficiency Hubbard Mitchell and Robbins, 1983 0.77 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Thomas et al., 1985 0.78 21–42 Growth, feed efficiency, carcass fat Peterson × Arbor Acres Jensen et al., 1989 Phenylalanine + tyrosine, % 1.6 10–20 or 40 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 =1.0 4–10 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Fisher et al., 1957 1.30 8–13 or 15 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Klain et al., 1960 1.31 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 0.87 8–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Sasse and Baker, 1972 1.09–1.12 14–28 Total protein efficiency Ross Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.95 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1979 Threonine, % 0.60 10–20 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Almquist, 1947 0.45 1–14 Growth, feed efficiency White Leghorn Grau, 1947 0.55–0.60 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Barred Plymouth Rock Krautmann et al., 1958 0.58 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Klain et al., 1960 0.65 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 0.70 1–18 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × White Leghorn Bhargava et al., 1971 0.53 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Hewitt and Lewis, 1972 0.52 14–28 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.80 7–14 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.71 14–21 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.71 21–28 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.67 28–35 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.60 35–42 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.60 42–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.64 49–56 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.73–0.75 1–21 Growth, feed efficiency ISA JV 715 Uzu, 1986 0.68 22–42 Growth, feed efficiency ISA JV 715 Uzu, 1986 0.85 3–14 Growth, feed efficiency (adjusted to 23% crude protein Peterson Robbins, 1987 0.72, males 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Thomas et al., 1987 0.67, females 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Thomas et al., 1987 0.79 1–27 Growth, feed efficiency Hybro Bertram et al., 1988 0.79 7–20 Growth, feed efficiency Vantress × Arbor Acres Smith and Waldroup, 1988a 0.70–0.77 1–14 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Austic and Rangel-Lugo, 1989 Tryptophan, % 0.25 10–20 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 0.18 10–24 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × White Leghorn Wilkening et al., 1947 0.143 10–20 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Griminger et al., 1956 0.17 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Klain et al., 1960 0.225 7–14 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 0.20 8–14 Growth, feed efficiency (adjusted to 23% CP New Hampshire × Columbian Boomgaardt and Baker, 1971 0.17 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References =0.14 14–28 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.179 28–49 Growth, feed efficiency, feather scores Arbor Acres Hunchar and Thomas, 1976 0.163 7–14 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.144 14–21 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.141 21–28 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.134 28–35 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.118 35–42 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.122 42–49 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.128 49–56 Computer model Not specified Hurwitz et al., 1978 0.17 7–56 Growth Cobb Freeman, 1979 0.24 0–7 Growth, feed efficiency Cobb Freeman, 1979 0.19 7–34 Growth, feed efficiency Lohmann Steinhart and Kirchgessner, 1984 =0.16 7–20 Growth, feed efficiency Vantress × Arbor Acres Smith and Waldroup, 1988b 0.22 8–22 Growth New Hampshire × Columbian Han et al., 1991 Valine, % 0.80 10–20 or 24 Growth Not specified Almquist, 1947 0.83 8–13 or 15 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Klain et al., 1960 0.82 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Dean and Scott, 1965 0.75 7–21 Growth, plasma amino acid levels Not specified D'Mello, 1974 0.69–0.71 14–28 Total protein efficiency Ross Woodham and Deans, 1975 0.69 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1979 >0.72 21–42 Feed efficiency, abdominal fat Broiler strain Mendonca and Jensen, 1989a 0.90 7–21 Growth, feed efficiency Ross × Arbor Acres Farran and Thomas, 1990 Proline, % =0.5 9–15 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Green et al., 1962 0.4–0.8 8–14 Growth New Hampshire × Columbian Graber et al., 1970 0.40 8–16 Growth, feed efficiency New Hampshire × Columbian Baker et al., 1979 Linoleic, %   Varied cited in a review Growth, tissue triene: tetraene ratio Various Balnave, 1970 Calcium, % 0.90 29–56 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Waldroup et al., 1963a 0.74 0–28 Growth, bone ash Vantress × Arbor Acres Twining et al., 1965 0.80 42–56 Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash Vantress × Arbor Acres Twining et al., 1965 0.80 28–56 Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash, bone breaking force Broiler strain Waldroup et al., 1974a 1.30 0–21 Maximum toe ash White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982a 1.18 21–56 Maximum toe ash White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982b Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.43 0–21 Growth, bone ash New Hampshire × White Leghorn O'Rourke et al., 1952 0.35 14–35 Growth, bone ash New Hampshire × White Leghorn O'Rourke et al., 1952 0.27 28–70 Growth, bone ash New Hampshire × White Leghorn O'Rourke et al., 1952 0.45 0–28 Growth, bone ash Various Almquist, 1954 0.55 0–21 Growth, bone ash New Hampshire × White Leghorn O'Rourke et al., 1955 0.33 28–70 Growth, bone ash New Hampshire × White Leghorn O'Rourke et al., 1955 0.45 0–28 Growth, bone ash, serum alkaline phosphates Rhode Island Red Gardiner, 1962 0.45 0–28 Growth, bone ash Vantress × White Plymouth Rock Waldroup et al., 1962 0.24 28–56 Growth, feed efficiency Broiler strain Waldroup et al., 1963a 0.39 0–28 Growth, bone ash Broiler strain Waldroup et al., 1963b 0.35 0–28 Growth, feed efficiency Vantress × Arbor Acres Twining et al., 1965 0.24 42–56 Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash Vantress × Arbor Acres Twining et al., 1965 0.43 0–21 Growth, bone ash White Plymouth Rock Fritz et al., 1969 0.24 28–56 Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash, bone breaking force Broiler strain Waldroup et al., 1974a 0.53 0–28 Maximum bone ash Broiler strain Waldroup et al., 1975 0.35 28–56 Growth, feed efficiency Hubbard Sauveur, 1978 0.50 0–28 Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash Broiler strain El Boushy, 1979 0.50 8–22 Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash New Hampshire × Columbian Willis and Baker, 1981b 0.75 0–21 Maximum toe ash White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982a 0.35 21–56 Maximum toe ash White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982b

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References 0.88 4 – 8 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.67 8 – 12 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.53 12 – 16 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.41 16 – 20 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.30 20 – 24 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 Threonine, % 1.10 1 – 2 Growth Large White, males Dunkelgod et al., 1970 1.00 1 – 3 Growth Bronze, both sexes Warnick and Anderson, 1973 0.94 1 – 3 Growth Large White, males D'Mello, 1976 1.14 0 – 4 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.94 4 – 8 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.72 8 – 12 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.56 12 – 16 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.44 16 – 20 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.32 20 – 24 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 Tryptophan, % 0.26 0 – 4 Growth Bronze, both sexes Almquist, 1952 0.37 1 – 2 Growth Large White, males Dunkelgod et al., 1970 0.26 1 – 3 Growth Bronze, both sexes Warnick and Anderson, 1973 0.21 0 – 4 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.17 4 – 8 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.13 8 – 12 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.11 12 – 16 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.08 16 – 20 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.06 20 – 24 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 Valine, % 1.38 1 – 2 Growth Large White, males Dunkelgod et al., 1970 1.20 1 – 3 Growth Bronze, both sexes Warnick and Anderson, 1973 1.21 1 – 3 Growth Large White, males D'Mello, 1975 1.34 0 – 4 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 1.13 4 – 8 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.88 8 – 12 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.69 12 – 16 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.53 16 – 20 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 0.40 20 – 24 Carcass content plus maintenance Large White, males, mathematical model Hurwitz et al., 1983 Linoleic, % 1.00 0 – 3 Growth Large White and Bronze, both sexes Ketola et al., 1973 Calcium, % 1.7 0 – 3 Bone ash Bronze, both sexes Motzok and Slinger, 1948 1.5 0 – 4 Bone ash Small White, both sexes Wilcox et al., 1953

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References 0.6 8 – 24 Growth, toe ash Bronze, both sexes Nelson et al., 1961 1.0 0 – 8 Growth, toe ash Large White, both sexes Slinger et al., 1961 0.7 8 – 20 Growth, toe ash Bronze, both sexes Sullivan, 1961 0.81 0 – 8 Growth, toe ash Bronze, both sexes Formica et al., 1962 0.83 8 – 23, 25 Growth, toe ash Bronze, both sexes Formica et al., 1962 Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.6 0 – 4 Growth Bronze and Small White, both sexes Almquist, 1954 0.5 8 – 20 Growth, bone ash Bronze, both sexes Sullivan, 1960 0.35 9 – 16 Growth, toe ash Bronze × White Holland, both sexes Day and Dilworth, 1962 0.21 17 – 24 Growth, toe ash Bronze × White Holland, both sexes Day and Dilworth, 1962 0.50 0 – 3 Bone ash Large White, males Bailey et al., 1986 0.6 – 0.8 0 – 4 Growth, bone ash Large White, males Stevens et al., 1986 Potassium, % 0.6 0 – 2 Growth Medium White, both sexes Supplee and Combs, 1959 0.35 0 – 4 Growth Bronze, both sexes Sullivan, 1963 0.6 0 – 4 Growth Large White, both sexes Chavez and Kratzer, 1973 0.8 0 – 4 Growth, tissue potassium Large White, both sexes Smith et al., 1973 Sodium, % 0.20 0 – 4 Growth Bronze, both sexes Kumpost and Sullivan, 1966 0.25 0 – 4 Body, plasma composition Large White, both sexes Pang et al., 1978 0.17 0 – 3 Growth Large White, both sexes Harms, 1982 0.17 0 – 3 Growth Large White, both sexes Harms and Miles, 1983 0.12 42 – 48 Poult yield Large White, females Harms et al., 1985 Chlorine, % 0.15 0 – 4 Growth Large White, both sexes Kubicek and Sullivan, 1973 0.12 32 – 50 Maximum shell strength, poult yield Large White, females Harms et al., 1983 Magnesium, mg/kg 475 0 – 4 Alleviate deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Sullivan, 1964 Manganese, mg/kg 30 0 – 8 Growth, alleviation of perosis Bronze, both sexes Ringrose et al., 1939 22 0 – 5 Growth, tissue levels Large White, males Woerpel and Balloun, 1964 60 0 – 4 Growth Bronze, both sexes Kealy and Sullivan, 1966 Zinc, mg/kg 66 0 – 3 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Kratzer et al., 1958 70 0 – 4 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Sullivan, 1961 63 0 – 3 Growth, deficiency symptoms Medium White, both sexes Supplee et al., 1961 41 0 – 3 Growth, blood level Large White, both sexes Dewar and Downie, 1984 Selenium, mg/kg 0.28 0 – 4 Gizzard myopathy Bronze, both sexes Scott et al., 1965 0.20 0 – 5 Gizzard myopathy Large White, both sexes Cantor and Moorehead, 1977 0.23 18 – 38 Hatchability, poult mortality Large White, both sexes Cantor et al., 1978 Vitamin A, IU/kg 5,065 0 – 4 Growth Bronze, both sexes Almquist, 1953 2,642 30 – 48 Poult yield Large White, females Stoewsand and Scott, 1961 5,280 0 – 8 Maintain liver levels of vitamin A Large White, both sexes   4,721 0 – 12 Growth, liver storage of vitamin A Large White, both sexes Couch et al., 1971 2,000 0 – 12 Growth Large White, males Prinz et al., 1983 5,000 0 – 12 Growth, liver storage of vitamin A Large White, males Prinz et al., 1986 Vitamin D, IU/kg 700 0 – 12 Growth Bronze, both sexes Baird and Greene, 1935 800 0 – 4 Growth, bone ash Small White, both sexes Hammond, 1941 2,000 0 – 4 Growth, bone ash Large White, both sexes Sanford and Jukes, 1944 300 0 – 4 Growth, bone ash Large White, both sexes Stadelman et al., 1950 1,100 0 – 4 Growth, toe ash Large White, both sexes Neagle et al., 1968 Vitamin E, IU/kg 11 0 – 4 Growth, gizzard myopathy Bronze, both sexes Scott et al., 1965 50 0 – 4 Gizzard myopathy Large White, both sexes Cantor and Moorehead, 1977 275 16 – 19 Meat oxidative stability Large White, females Sheldon, 1984 Vitamin K, mg/kg 1.76 0 – 4 Prothrombin time Bronze, both sexes Griminger, 1957

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Riboflavin, mg/kg 2.7 0–6 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Patrick et al., 1944 3.75 0–4 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Bird et al., 1946 4.0 0–6 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze and Large White, both sexes Jukes et al., 1947 4.0 0–3 Erythrocyte glutathione reductase and liver flavin Medium White, both sexes Lee, 1982 >3.50 0–3 Growth, leg paralysis Large White, both sexes Ruiz and Harms, 1989a Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 10.5 1–3 Growth, dermatitis Bronze, both sexes Kratzer and Williams, 1948b <8.6 0–3 Growth Large White, both sexes Ruiz and Harms, 1989b Niacin, mg/kg 71.5 0–2 Growth, enlarged hocks Bronze, both sexes Scott, 1953 21 4–12 Growth, leg disorders Large White, both sexes Christmas et al., 1986 44 0–3 Growth, leg disorders Large White, both sexes Ruiz and Harms, 1989b Vitamin B12, mg/kg 0.002–0.010 0–4 Growth Bronze, both sexes Sherwood and Sloan, 1954 0.003 0–6 Growth Small White, both sexes Johnson, 1955 Choline, mg/kg 2,000 0–2 Perosis Not specified Jukes, 1940 1,900 0–6 Perosis Not specified Evans, 1943 2,300 10–24 Growth Bronze, females Slinger et al., 1946 <1,490 0–3 Growth Large White, both sexes Harms and Miles, 1984 <1,250 4–8 Growth Large and Medium White, both sexes Blair et al., 1986 Biotin, mg/kg 0.284 0–3 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Jensen and Martinson, 1969 0.275–0.324 0–3 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Dobson, 1970 0.225–0.275 0–3 Growth, deficiency symptoms Bronze, both sexes Dobson, 1970 0.220 0–8 Growth Large White, males Krueger et al., 1976 Folic acid, mg/kg 0.8 0–6 Growth, anemia prevention Bronze, both sexes Jukes et al., 1947 2.0 0–3 Growth, cervical paralysis Jersey Buff, both sexes Russell et al., 1947 Thiamin, mg/kg 2.0 0–3 Growth, symptoms of deficiency Bronze, both sexes Robenalt, 1960 1.6–2.0 0–3 Growth Bronze, both sexes Sullivan et al., 1967 Pyridoxine, mg/kg 2.0–3.0 0–3 Growth Not specified Kratzer et al., 1947 3.9–4.4 0–4 Growth, survival Bronze, both sexes Sullivan et al., 1967

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A-7 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Turkey Breeders Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Protein, % 15 32–52 Poult yield Large White, females Jensen and McGinnis, 1961 15 30–48 Poult yield Large and Small White, females Atkinson et al., 1970 10 30–46 Poult yield Large White, females Minear et al., 1972 18 32–48 Poult yield egg weight Large White, females Menge et al., 1979 14 17–20 Egg production Large White, females Meyer et al., 1980a 14 20–32 Egg production Large White, females Meyer et al., 1980a 12 12–28 Semen production Large White, males Meyer et al., 1980b 14 28–56 Egg production Large White, females Meyer et al., 1980a 10 30–41 Poult yield Large White, females Meyer et al., 1980b 8 28–53 Semen production Large White, males Cecil, 1982 16 32–48 Poult yield Large White, females Bougon et al., 1985 Protein, g/bird daily 26 32–60 Poult yield Small White, females Jackson et al., 1974 Linoleic acid, % 1.21 24–55 Egg production, hatchability Large White, females Cooper and Barnett, 1968 1.1 30–55 Poult yield Large White, females Whitehead and Herron, 1988 Calcium, % 1.75 26–54 Poult yield Bronze, females Jensen et al., 1963 2.0 30–48 Poult yield Large White, females Balloun and Miller, 1964b 1.9 30–47 Egg production Bronze, females Atkinson et al., 1967a 2.66 30–47 Egg production Large White, females Atkinson et al., 1967a 3.19 30–47 Egg production Bronze, females Atkinson et al., 1967a 2.25 30–46 Poult yield Large White, females Arends et al., 1967 1.2 0–4 Growth Large White, males Neagle et al., 1968 2.5 33–53 Poult yield Small White, males Potter et al., 1974 2.55 30–50 Poult yield Large White, females Waldroup et al., 1974b Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.42 30–42 Poult yield Small White, females Ferguson et al., 1974 0.30 30–50 Poult yield Large White, females Waldroup et al., 1974 0.55 30–45 Poult yield Small White, females Atkinson et al., 1976 0.30 30–50 Fertility Medium White, females Slaugh et al., 1989 Manganese, mg/kg 60 30–46 Poult yield Bronze, females Atkinson et al., 1967b Vitamin A, IU/kg 2,200–3,520 30–48 Hatchability, poult survival Bronze, females Jensen, 1965 Vitamin D, IU/kg 1,000 32–40 Poult yield Bronze, females Wilhelm et al., 1941 <750 31–40 Poult yield Large White, females Kramer and Waibel, 1978 300–400 41–53 Poult yield Large White, females Kramer and Waibel, 1978 900 29–35 Adequate poult yield but inadequate liver storage Large White, females Stevens et al., 1984 Vitamin E, IU/kg 24 32–54 Poult yield Bronze, females Jensen and McGinnis, 1957 Riboflavin, mg/kg 3.50 Not specified Poult yield Bronze, females Boucher et al., 1942 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 16.0 Various Poult yield, survival Bronze, females Kratzer et al., 1955 Niacin, mg/kg 23.6 32–48 Egg weight, poult yield Large White, females Harms et al., 1988 Choline, mg/kg <990 32–46 Poult yield Bronze and Large White, females Balloun and Miller, 1964a <1,230 32–54 Poult yield Small White, females Ferguson et al., 1975 Biotin, mg/kg >0.105 30–46 Poult yield Large White, females Waibel et al., 1969 <0.150 Not specified Poult yield Large and Medium White, females Arends et al., 1971 0.160 27–34 Egg biotin (albumen) Medium White, females White et al., 1987 Folic acid, mg/kg 0.7 32–48 Poult yield Bronze, females Kratzer et al., 1956a 1.23 32–48 Poult yield, survival Large White, females Miller and Balloun, 1967

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A-8 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Geese Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Protein, % 24 0–6 Growth White Chinese Roberson and Francis, 1963a 12 6–16 Growth White Chinese Roberson and Francis, 1963a 24 0–4 Growth White Chinese Roberson and Francis, 1963b 16 4–12 Growth White Chinese Roberson and Francis, 1963b 20 0–4 Growth, feathering Embden Allen, 1981 16 4–6 Growth, feathering Embden Allen, 1981 14 4–9 Growth, feathering Embden Allen, 1981 18.2 0–2 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 12.0 2–7 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 18 0–3 Growth, carcass yield, carcass composition Embden Summers et al., 1987 16 0–9 Growth, carcass yield, carcass composition Embden Summers et al., 1987 Lysine, % 0.90 1–2 and 3–7 Growth White Chinese Roberson and Francis, 1966 1.10 0–4 Growth Not specified Mateova et al., 1980 0.85 4–8 Growth Not specified Mateova et al., 1980 1.07 0–2 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 0.60 2–7 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nistan et al., 1983 Methionine, % 0.40 0–3 Growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition White Italian Znaniecke et al., 1975 0.29 0–2 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 0.15 2–7 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 Methionine + cystine, % 0.73 0–3 Growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition White Italian Znaniecka et al., 1975 0.58 0–2 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 0.47 2–7 Growth, feed efficiency Not specified Nitsan et al., 1983 Calcium, % 0.4 0–4 and 0–6 Growth, bone ash Pilgrim Aitken et al., 1958 Total phosphorus, % 0.46 0–4 and 0–6 Growth, bone ash Pilgrim Aitken et al., 1958 Riboflavin, mg/kg 3.8 0–2 Growth Embden Serafin, 1981 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 12.6 0–3 Growth, mortality Embden Serafin, 1981 Niacin, mg/kg         66 0–3 Growth, perosis Not specified Battig et al., 1953 31.2 0–3 Growth Embden Serafin, 1981 Choline, mg/kg 1530 0–3 Growth, perosis Embden Serafin, 1981 Choline, niacin, folic acid Not determined but estimates obtained 0–2 Growth, liveability Toulouse Briggs et al., 1953

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A-9 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Ducks Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Protein, % 22 0–2 Growth White Pekin Dean, 1972a 16 2–7 Growth White Pekin Dean, 1972a 18 0–2 Growth White Pekin Wilson, 1975 16 2 to market Growth White Pekin Wilson, 1975 19 0–2 Growth White Pekin Siregar et al., 1982 16 3–8 Growth White Pekin Siregar et al., 1982 Arginine, % 1.08 1–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Chen and Shen, 1979 Isoleucine, % 0.63 1–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Yu and Shen, 1984 Leucine, % 1.26 1–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Yu and Shen, 1984 Lysine, % 0.60 Fattening Growth Not specified Jeroch and Hennig, 1965 0.90 0–8 Growth, Plasma lysine Pekin Gazo et al., 1970 0.64 3–6 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and Carville,1977 0.55 6–10 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and Carville, 1977 1.06 1–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Chen and Shen, 1979 <0.70 1–7 Growth, feed efficiency Pekin Adams et al., 1983 Methionine, % 0.45 0–1.5 Growth Pekin Dean, 1967 0.30 3–6 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a 0.25 6–10 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a 0.40 0–2 Growth Pekin Elkin et al., 1986 Methionine + cystine, % 0.60 0–1.5 Growth Pekin Dean, 1967 0.60 3–6 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a 0.55 6–10 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a 0.70 0–2 Growth Pekin Elkin et al., 1986 Tryptophan, % 0.23 1–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Wu et al., 1984 Valine, % 0.78 1–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Yu and Shen, 1984 Calcium, % 0.56 0–8 Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash Pekin Dean et al., 1967 0.58 Ducklings Growth, bone ash Pekin Dean, 1972b 1.00 Ducklings Growth Taiwan Su, 1977 3.75 Sexually mature Egg production Taiwan Su, 1977 Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.60 0–4 Growth, bone ash Pekin Dean, 1972a 1.05 Sexually mature Egg production Taiwan Su, 1977 0.40 0–3 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1979 0.22 3–6 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1979 0.18 6–10 Growth Muscovy Leclerq and de Carville, 1979 0.34 0–3 Growth, bone ash Mule Lin and Shen, 1979 Sodium chlorine, % 0.14 0–7 Growth, liveability Pekin Dean, 1972a 0.12 0–7 Growth, liveability Pekin Dean, 1972a Magnesium, mg/kg 500 0–2 Growth, brain alkaline phosphatase Pekin Van Reen and Pearson, 1953 Manganese, mg/kg 50 0–3 Growth Mule Wu and Shen, 1978 Zinc, mg/kg 68 0–3 Growth Mule Wu and Shen, 1978 Selenium, mg/kg 0.14 0–7 Growth, liveability, glutathione peroxidase Pekin Dean and Combs, 1981 0.20 0–7 Growth liveability glutathione peroxidase Pekin Dean and Combs, 1981 Vitamin D3, IU/kg         300 0–3 Bone ash Pekin Fritz et al., 1941 400 0–3 Bone ash Pekin and Indian Runner Motzok and branion, 1946

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Vitamin E, IU/kg 9 0–4 Myopathy of heart muscle and smooth muscle of intestines Pekin Jager, 1972 Vitamin K, mg/kg 0.5 0–2 Prothrombin time Pekin Dean, 1972 Riboflavin, mg/kg 3 0–7 Growth Pekin Fritz et al., 1939 4 0.5–2 Growth Pekin Hegsted and Perry, 1948 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 11 0.5–2 Growth Pekin Hegsted and Perry, 1948 Niacin, mg/kg 52 0–2 Growth, leg development Pekin Heuser and Scott, 1953 45 0–3 Growth, feed efficiency Mule Wu et al., 1984 Pyridoxine, mg/kg 2.5 0.5–3 or longer Growth, hemoglobin, hematocrit Pekin Hegsted and Rao, 1945

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A-10 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Pheasants Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria Breed References Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg 2,700 Sexually mature Egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality Ring–neck Monetti et al., 1982 Protein, % 26 0 – 3 Growth Ring–neck Scott et al., 1954 24 3 – 5 Growth Ring–neck Scott et al., 1954 26 0 – 4 Growth, feed efficiency Ring–neck Scott et al., 1963 24 0 – 8 Growth, feathering, liveability Chinese Woodard et al., 1977 20 8 – 16 Growth, feathering, liveability Chinese Woodard et al., 1977 12 After 16 Growth, feathering, liveability Chinese Woodard et al., 1977 28 0 – 4 Growth Ring–neck Fuentes, 1981 28 0 – 4 Growth, feed efficiency Ring–neck Warner et al., 1982 19 8 – 17 Growth, feathering, feed efficiency, liveability Ring–neck Cain et al., 1984 15 Sexually mature Egg production, fertility, hatchability Ring–neck Monetti et al., 1985 Methionine, % 0.48 0 – 4 Growth Ring–neck Fuentes, 1981 Methionine + cystine, % 0.94 0 – 4 Growth Ring–neck Fuentes, 1981 Calcium, % 0.93 0 – 5 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Scott et al., 1958a 0.53 5 – 14 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Scott et al., 1958a 0.90 0 – 5 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Hinkson et al., 1971 1.2 0 – 8 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Reynnells, 1979 2.1 Sexually mature Egg production, shell quality, bone ash Ring–neck Reynnells, 1979 2.0 Sexually mature Egg production, fertility, hatchability, body weight Ring–neck Wise and Ewins, 1980 Total phosphorus, % 0.98 0 – 4 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Sunde and Bird, 1956 0.7 0 – 5 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Scott et al., 1958a 0.48 5 – 14 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Scott et al., 1958a Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.6 0 – 8 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Reynnells, 1979 0.6 Sexually mature Egg production bone ash Ring–neck Reynnells, 1979 Sodium, % 0.22 0 – 4 Growth, liveability Ring–neck Scott et al., 1960 Manganese, mg/kg 70 0 – 5 Growth, bone development Ring–neck Scott et al., 1959 Zinc, mg/kg 62 0 – 5 Growth, feather and bone development Ring–neck Scott et al., 1959 120 0 – 3 Growth, feather development Ring–neck Cook et al., 1984 Vitamin D3, IU/kg 1,500 0 – 5 Growth, bone ash Ring–neck Scott et al., 1958a Riboflavin, mg/kg 3.4 0 – 5 Growth, feather and bone development Ring–neck Scott et al., 1959 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 10 0 – 4 Growth, feather and bone development Ring–neck Scott et al., 1964 Niacin, mg/kg 50 0 – 4 Growth, bone development Ring–neck Sunde and Bird, 1957 70 0 – 5 Growth, feathering and bone development Ring–neck Scott et al., 1959 Choline, mg/kg 1,430 0 – 5 Growth, feather and bone development Ring–neck Scott et al., 1959

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A-11 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria References Protein, % 24 0–35 Growth, protein retention Weber and Reid, 1967 24 0–42 Growth Lepore and Marks, 1971 26 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency Vogt, 1969 25 0–28 Growth Vohra and Roudybush, 1971 20 Sexually mature Egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency Begin and Insko, 1972 20 Sexually mature Egg production Lee et al., 1977 28.4 Sexually mature Egg production Sakurai, 1979 16 Sexually mature, peak egg production Egg production, egg yield, body weight Allen and Young, 1980 24 Sexually mature Not specified Sakurai, 1981 20 Sexually mature Egg production Shim and Lee, 1982 24 0–28 Growth, carcass characteristics Steigner, 1990 Arginine, % 1.25 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 1.13 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg weight Allen and Young, 1980 Glycine, % 1.74 0–21 Growth Svacha et al., 1970 1.17 21–35 Growth Svacha et al., 1970 Glycine + serine, % 1.14 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 Histidine, % 0.36 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.38 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg weight Allen and Young, 1980 Isoleucine, % 0.98 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.81 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980 Leucine, % 1.69 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 1.28 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg weight Allen and Young, 1980 Lysine, % 1.37 0–21 Growth Svacha et al., 1970 1.2 21–35 Growth Svacha et al., 1970 1.15 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.86 Sexually mature Egg production Allen and Young, 1980 0.97 Sexually mature Egg production Shim and Lee, 1984 Methionine, % 0.43 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.37 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980 0.48 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency, feather development, carcass yield Shrivastav and Panda, 1987 0.27 Sexually mature Egg production Shim and Lee, 1988 0.39 Sexually mature Egg production, feather loss Shim and Lee, 1989 Methionine + cystine, % 0.74 0–21 Growth Svacha et al., 1970 0.72 21–35 Growth Svacha et al., 1970 0.72 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.68 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980 0.75 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency, feather development, carcass yield Shrivastav and Panda, 1987 0.72 Sexually mature Egg production Shim and Lee, 1988 0.71 Sexually mature Egg production, feather loss Shim and Chen, 1989 Phenylalanine + tyrosine, % 1.79 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 1.25 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980 Threonine, % 1.02 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.67 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980 Tryptophan, % 0.22 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.17 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980 Valine, % 0.95 0–10 Growth Young et al., 1978 0.83 Sexually mature Egg production, body weight, egg yield Allen and Young, 1980

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria References Calcium, % 2.5 Sexually mature Egg production, hatchability Nelson et al., 1964 0.80 0–14 Growth, bone ash, calcium and phosphorus retention Consuegra and Anderson, 1967 0.48 14–28 Growth, bone ash, calcium and phosphorus retention Consuegra and Anderson, 1967 0.44 0–35 Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash, liveability Miller, 1967 0.70 0–21 Growth, bone ash Bisoi et al., 1980 Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.6 Sexually mature Egg production, hatchability Nelson et al., 1964 0.30 0–28 Growth, bone ash, calcium and phosphorus retention Consuegra and Anderson, 1967 0.3 0–21 Growth, bone ash Bisoi et al., 1980 Sodium chlorine, % 0.15 0–28 Growth Scott et al., 1960 0.10 8–35 Growth, liveability, adrenal weight Lumijarvi and Vohra, 1976 Magnesium, mg/kg 300 0–14 Growth, liveability, hemoglobin, tibia ash Harland et al., 1976 150 mg 0–14 Growth, liveability Vohra, 1972b Iron, mg/kg 120 0–28 Growth, hemoglobin, feathering, bone ash Harland et al., 1973 Copper, mg/kg <5 0–28 Growth, hemoglobin, feathering, bone ash Harland et al., 1973 Manganese, mg/kg <12 0–28 Growth, hemoglobin, feathering, bone ash Harland et al., 1973 Zinc, mg/kg 25 0–28 Growth, feathering, tibia ash, liveability Spivey-Fox and Jacobs, 1967 Selenium, mg/kg 0.1 0–42 Growth, liveability Thompson and Scott, 1967 Iodine, mg/kg 0.3 0–28 Growth, thyroid weight Scott et al., 1960 Vitamin A, IU/kg 1,650 7–56 Growth, liveability Shellenberger and Lee, 1966 3,300 Sexually mature Hatchability Shellenberger and Lee, 1966 825 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 1,000 0–10 Growth, liver vitamin A Parrish and Al-Hasani, 1983 3,200 Sexually mature Hatchability, liveability, vitamin A in yolk Parrish and Al-Hasani, 1983 Vitamin D, IU/kg 480 0–21 Bone ash, plasma calcium Shue, 1967 750 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 Thiamine, mg/kg 6 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 1.2 0–35 Growth, liveability Mak and Vohra, 1982 Niacin, mg/kg 40 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 15 0–35 Growth, viability Mak and Vohra, 1982 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 40 0–7 Growth, feather development, dermatitis Spivey-Fox et al., 1966 10 7–35 Growth, feather development, dermatitis Spivey-Fox et al., 1966 10 0–35 Growth, feather development Cutler and Vohra, 1967 15 Sexually mature Fertility, hatchability Cutler and Vohra, 1967 23 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 Riboflavin, mg/kg 8 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 2 0–35 Growth, viability Mak and Vohra, 1982 Choline, mg/kg 2,500 0–28 Growth, feed efficiency Vogt, 1970 2,090 Sexually mature Egg weight Latshaw and Jensen, 1971 1,045–2,090 Sexually mature Body weight, liver lipids Latshaw and Jensen, 1972 1,300 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 Folacin, mg/kg 0.36 Not specified Growth, liveability Wong et al., 1977 Pyridoxine, mg/kg 6 0–14 Growth Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974 1,25 0–35 Growth, viability Mak and Vohra, 1982

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE A-12 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail Nutrient and Estimated Requirement Age Period (Days) Response Criteria References Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg 2,850–3,170 0–5 Growth, energy consumption, feed efficiency Wilson et al., 1977 Protein, % 28 0–8 Growth, liveability Baldini et al., 1950 20 0–6 Growth, liveability Baldini et al., 1953 26.5 0–4 Growth, feed efficiency, feathering Scott et al., 1963 28 0–6 Growth Andrews et al., 1973 20 6–9 Growth Andrews et al., 1973 26 0–5 Growth, feed efficiency Serafin, 1977 24 0–5 Growth, feed efficiency Serafin, 1982 Methionine + cystine, % 1.0 0–5 Growth Serafin, 1982 Calcium, % 0.65 0–6 Growth, liveability, bone ash Wilson et al., 1972 2.3 Sexually mature Egg production, eggshell thickness, fertility, hatchability Dewitt et al., 1949 2.4 Sexually mature Egg production, eggshell thickness, fertility Cain et al., 1982 Nonphytate phosphorus, % 0.8 Sexually mature Egg production, fertility, hatchability, liveability of offspring Dewitt et al., 1949 0.40 0–6 Growth, liveability, tibia ash Scott et al., 1958b 0.28 6–12 Growth, liveability, bone ash Scott et al., 1958b 0.45 0–6 Growth, liveability, bone ash Wilson et al., 1972 0.35 0–6 Growth, bone ash Powell et al., 1974 >0.70 Sexually mature Egg production, egg shell thickness, fertility Cain et al., 1982 Vitamin A, IU/kg 8,800 0–10 Growth, liveability Nestler, 1946 13,200 Sexually mature Reproduction, survival of offspring Nestler, 1946 Riboflavin, mg/kg 3.8 0–5 Growth, feed efficiency, liveability Serafin, 1974 Pantothenic acid, mg/kg 10 0–4 Growth, liveability, feathering, leg development Scott et al., 1964 12.6 0–5 Growth, feed efficiency, liveability Serafin, 1974 Niacin, mg/kg 31 0–5 Growth, feed efficiency, liveability Serafin, 1974 Choline, mg/kg 1,500 0–5 Growth, feed efficiency, liveability Serafin, 1974