Index

A

Abiotic stresses, 79, 192

Acacia senegal,126

Aflatoxins, 51

Africa

domesticated species, 33

farming practices, 66

genetic resources work, 356-357

root and tuber programs, 96

African cassava mosaic virus, 58

African streak virus, 200

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights including Trade in Counterfeit Goods, 281

Agricultural practices/systems

alternative strategies, 18, 66-67, 76

continuous cropping, 78

crop rotations, 18, 66, 76, 78

high-input, 66

IARC programs, 66

monoculture, 16, 18, 36-37, 48, 50-51, 66, 67, 82

multilines mixture, 17, 66-67

and productivity, 63

recommendations, 82-83

relay planting, 17-18, 66-67

research funding, 103

and resistance, 76

traditional, 127-128

and vulnerability of crops, 82-83

and yields, 179

Agrobacterium tumefanciens,252

Albino mutants, 226

Alfalfa, 104-106, 110

Algae, 242, 243, 246, 252

Alleles

common, 121

common, localized, 139, 140, 143

common, widespread, 139, 140

conceptual classes, 139

defined, 407

frequency, 138, 140, 143, 144-145, 159

introgression from exotic sources, 134

loss (drift), 160, 170

lower-frequency, 146-147, 148-149

rare, 160

rare, localized, 139, 143

rare, widespread, 139-140, 143

resistance, 54

self-incompatibility, 138

see also Neutral allele

Allium species, 9, 123, 125, 369, 373

Almonds, 123

Alpha interferon, 249

American Cyanamid Co., 285

American Malting Barley Association, 234

American Society of Agronomy, 183



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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Index A Abiotic stresses, 79, 192 Acacia senegal,126 Aflatoxins, 51 Africa domesticated species, 33 farming practices, 66 genetic resources work, 356-357 root and tuber programs, 96 African cassava mosaic virus, 58 African streak virus, 200 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights including Trade in Counterfeit Goods, 281 Agricultural practices/systems alternative strategies, 18, 66-67, 76 continuous cropping, 78 crop rotations, 18, 66, 76, 78 high-input, 66 IARC programs, 66 monoculture, 16, 18, 36-37, 48, 50-51, 66, 67, 82 multilines mixture, 17, 66-67 and productivity, 63 recommendations, 82-83 relay planting, 17-18, 66-67 research funding, 103 and resistance, 76 traditional, 127-128 and vulnerability of crops, 82-83 and yields, 179 Agrobacterium tumefanciens,252 Albino mutants, 226 Alfalfa, 104-106, 110 Algae, 242, 243, 246, 252 Alleles common, 121 common, localized, 139, 140, 143 common, widespread, 139, 140 conceptual classes, 139 defined, 407 frequency, 138, 140, 143, 144-145, 159 introgression from exotic sources, 134 loss (drift), 160, 170 lower-frequency, 146-147, 148-149 rare, 160 rare, localized, 139, 143 rare, widespread, 139-140, 143 resistance, 54 self-incompatibility, 138 see also Neutral allele Allium species, 9, 123, 125, 369, 373 Almonds, 123 Alpha interferon, 249 American Cyanamid Co., 285 American Malting Barley Association, 234 American Society of Agronomy, 183

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Andean Pact, 24, 266 Aneuploids, 234-236, 407 Animals germplasm importations, 262, 273 in vitro conservation, 196-197 of quarantine significance, 262 proprietary rights on, 284 see also Livestock Antibiotics, 249 Aphids, 265 Apomixis, 156, 293, 407 Apples, 33, 58, 61, 66, 78, 122-125 Apricots, 79 Arabidopsis spp., 199 Argentina, 74, 262 Artificial selection, 1, 2, 4 Asia alternative farming practices, 66 crop genetic diversity, 71 genetic resources conservation programs, 354-355 germplasm banks, 354-355 wild oats, 141, 142, 144 Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 267 Asian Farming Systems Network, 98 Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, 9, 95, 354 Australia, genetic resources works, 358-359 B Bacillus thuringiensis, 249, 252 Backcrossing, 21, 63, 101, 225 Bacteria in collections, 243, 245 entry pathways for, 269 freeze-drying, 246 liquid nitrogen preservation, 246 nitrogen-fixing, 242, 252 plasmids in, 245-246 species number and richness, 245 see also individual bacteria Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris),77 Bacterial diseases, 57 Bananas (Musa spp.), 52, 58, 61, 125, 172, 268, 274, 374 Bangladesh, 70, 76 Barley accessions, 182 Barley Genetics Newsletter,233-236 collections, 182, 185, 207, 367 economic value, 319 evolutionary processes and use of, 33, 184, 185 genetic stock collections, 229, 232-236 haploid plants, 195 hybridization, 185 IARC releases in developing countries, 93 nurseries, 96 primitive, 207 private sector breeding programs, 105, 106 public sector research, 104 rust epidemic, 58 Barley Genetic and Aneuploid Stock Collection, 234-236 Baum, Warren, 37 Beans breeding programs, 97, 114 common, 9, 33, 52, 59, 62 dry (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), 64, 68-69, 368 Faba, 368 farming practices, 66 field, 93 IARC releases in developing countries, 93, 94 Michigan navy, 68 pests and pathogens, 68-69 pinto, 68-69 public sector research, 104 quarantine restrictions, 265 seed production and distribution, 114 snap, 64 winged, 369 Belgium, 240 Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon).262 Beta-lactam antibiotics, 249 Biological diversity conventional, 14, 26-27, 280, 375 defined, 408 intraspecific, 121, 126 threats to, 2 Biosphere reserves, 123-124 Biotechnology advances in, 189-190 in developing countries, 26

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies expenditures on plant breeding, 108 funding for, 103, 111, 112 and gene pools of wild species, 31, 35, 38 germplasm conservation and, 10-11, 17, 20, 38-39, 111-112, 189-190 limitations of, 199-200 microorganism used in, 249-252 ownership issues, 13, 14, 108, 289-290 private sector research, 105, 107, 111, 289-290 and quarantine, 10, 12, 267, 274-275 recommendations, 20, 22-23, 26, 202-204 research needs, 22-23 and species diversity, 4, 52 team approach with breeders, 111-112 uses, 22-23, 52 see also Genetic engineering; In vitro conservation; Molecular conservation technologies Bipolaris maydis,36, 59 Black pepper, 13 Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis),58, 268 Bolivia, 94 Bottleneck effect, 147 Bovine viruses, 196 Brazil, 37, 74, 122, 241, 262 Bread molds (Neurospora spp.),219, 220, 242 Breeders collections, 134, 180, 307-308 interests, 35, 62 lines, 60, 62, 175, 219, 226-227, 408 monitoring advanced materials, 175 perceptions of crop vulnerability, 65 perceptions of germplasm systems, 62-63, 88, 114-115, 174-179, 180-183, 206 team approach with molecular biologists, 111-112 see also Plant breeders Breeding DNA transformation technique and, 11 and pathogen/pest absence, 58 performance advances175, 178 speed and accuracy, 2 stocks, 134, 181, 307-308 systems, 155-156 see also Crop breeding programs; Plants breeding Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens)16, 56, 76-77 Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Protection, 285 Burkina Faso, 77 C Cabbage, common, 9, 95 Cacao, 172, 373 Cacao swollen shoot virus, 58 California Cooperative Rice Research Foundation, Inc., 292 grape pests, 36 plants quarantines, 34 Rice Research Board, 292 sorghum pathogens, 175 wild oats, 141, 142, 144 Callus culture, 190, 192 Canada, 126, 283, 284, 359 Canola, 105, 106 Caribbean genetic resources works, 355-356 Plant Protection Commission, 267 Carrot, 104, 369 Cassava clones, 172, 195 collections, 369, 373 crop improvement programs, 96 exchange of germplasm, 195 forage, 9 IARC releases in developing countries, 93, 94 pathogens and pests, 12, 58 wild species, 122 Cassava bacterial blight, (Xanthomonas manihotis),12, 252, 273 Cattle, 295-296, 299 Cell cultures, 193 Cenchrus ciliaris,126 Center for Genetic Resources (Netherlands), 213 Central Rice Research Institute, 309-310 Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, 355, 356

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 9, 39, 69, 94 , 97, 114, 195, 265, 366 Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), 9, 39, 88, 194, 267, 294, 366 Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT) back-up collection for, 132 data base, 362 enhancement of germplasm, 186 establishment, 9, 38, 92 exchange of germplasm, 290 mission, 38, 39 nurseries, 95-96 rust susceptibility of populations, 74-75 teosinse conservation, 123-124 wheat breeding, 74-74, 81, 95-96 Centro Nacional de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 122, 356 Cercospora sp., 252 Cereals adaptability testing, 95 collections, 9, 367 domestication, 33 Certified seed systems, 284 Characterization biochemical, 121, 125 biotechnology and, 203-204 core subsets, 170 data, 21, 22-23 data bases with, 215 defined, 161, 408 descriptors and descriptor states, 162, 209 environmental adaptation, 121 evaluation data and, 161 of gene pools, 121 growth rate, 121 importance of, 161-162, 165, 206 information sources, 212 molecular level, 197 morphology, 121, 125 passport data and, 161 phenology, 121, 125 phytopathology, 125 and seed regeneration, 162 size of collections and, 20, 167 standardization of data, 162 techniques, 162 technologies, 20 yield, 125 see also Traits Charles M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center, 229-232 Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve, 124 Cherries, 78-79, 123, 125 Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica),49, 58, 259 Chickpeas, 9, 93, 368 China, 9, 74, 78, 85, 124, 166, 288-289, 293 Chinese cabbage, 9 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,242 Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 252 Citrus spp., 61, 125, 373 Climax populations, 126 Clones/clonal propagation, 38, 61, 153 crops maintained as, 172, 179 defined, 408 DNA fragments, 23 in vitro tissue culture, 22 microorganisms used in, 249-252 naturally occurring, 190 uses, 197 Clover, 80, 119 Cocoa (Theobroma spp.), 125 Coconut, 172, 274 Coconut palm191 Cocoyams, 96, 197 Coffee, 13, 52, 58, 125, 268, 274, 289 Coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix),58, 268 Collections of germplasm access to, 23, 24, 88 active, 131, 132, 134, 178-179, 180-184, 407 allelic diversity and, 141-145 back-up, 131, 132, 151, 152 base, 88, 90, 131-132, 134, 152, 153, 155, 168, 180, 254, 290, 293 , 294, 367-373, 407 breeders', 134, 180 breeders' perceptions and use of, 62-63, 88, 180-183 completeness of, 88 core subsets, 8, 19-20, 88-89, 167-170 data bases, 8, 213-215 deficiencies in, 140-141 defined, 408 documentation of, 8-10, 32, 140-141, 206-217

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies early, 34-35 empirical studies, 136-139, 141-145 environmentally influenced genetic differentiation and, 141-145 evaluation problems, 10-11, 32, 182-183; see also Evaluation of accessions genetic diversity and, 136-139 in vitro, 193-194 information sources on, 207-208 IPPGR role, 86 long-term conservation commitment, 367-373 maintenance and renewal of accessions, 181-182 major holdings, 5, 9, 88 microorganisms, 43 modernization, 183-184 obsolescence, 180-181, 182 parameters of genetic diversity, 135-136 passport and descriptor information, 9-10, 20, 63, 171-172, 181, 411 problems, 89 recommendations, 151-152, 170-171 redundancy, 166-170, 171, 182 reference, 195 size considerations, 7-8, 10, 42, 166-170, 182 sources of new accessions, 183-184 status of, 32 storage lives, 132 testing for pathogens/pests, 276 types, 131-134 value of, 5-6, 43, 223 worldwide, 85-92, 153 see also Genetic stock collections; Sampling Collectotrichum sp., 252 Colombia, 37, 265, 293 Colorado potato beetle, 119 Colorado State University, 233, 234 Comite Tecnico Ad-Hoc en Sanidad Vegetal para el Area Sur, 267 Commodity research networks, 96-97, 98, 114 Commonwealth of Independent States genetic reserves, 122, 124 genetic resources work, 37, 349, 352 maize collection, 290 patents on animals, 284 Computers/computerization of collection data data bases, 213-215 hardware, 210 information supply to users, 212-213 software, 210-211, 214 standardization of systems, 211-212 Conflicts over genetic resources international controversy, 326-332 international dialogue, 324-336 international payment, 340-343 International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources and, 41, 26, 226, 325-327 North-South debate, 91-92, 332-333 origins, 322-324 ownership and stewardship, 333-334 plant breeders' rights, 92 politics and geography, 321-324 recommendations, 344-346 resolution avenues, 338-339 resolution basis, 337-338 responses to, 336-344 scientific balance, 343-344 seed industry restructuring, 334-336 South-South debate, 41 treaty solution, 339-340 Conservation of germplasm actions necessary for, 253 adequacy of efforts, 118 biotechnology and, 10-11, 17, 38-40, 197-198 demand for, 11 dissenting views, 40-42 historical background, 1 importance, 5-6, 29, 32, 253 IPPGR role, 86 multilevel collaborations, 28 origin, 33-34 rationales for, 49 science and technology and, 6-11 status of major crops, 8 see also In situ conservation; In vitro conservation Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 214 Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CIGAR), 5, 94-95, 374 criticisms of, 26, 92 funding by, 27, 88, 375

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies IARC administration, 37-38, 85, 360-361 internationalization through, 377 legal protection for working materials, 288 recommended role, 25, 26, 320 Technical Advisory Committee, 40, 322, 361 Copyright, 13, 286-287 Core subsets of collections advantages, 7, 19, 168 disadvantages, 19, 168-169 practical problems, 169-170 recommendations, 19-20, 171 size considerations, 19-20, 167, 169 uses, 20. 88-89, 169, 182 Corn domestication, 33 gene pools, 178 hybrid, 5 introduction to Americas, 173 pests and pathogens, 16, 36, 61 private-sector hybrids, 52 public sector research, 104 southern corn leaf blight epidemic, 16, 36 sweet, 104 varietal dominance, 64 yield increases, 2 Zea mays,220 Costa Rica, 86, 195 Côte d'Ivoire, 77 Cotton, 1, 64, 65, 76, 104-106, 110 Cotton boll weevil, 259 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 349 Cowpeas, 9, 80, 93, 265 Crop breeding programs concerns about, 98-99 exotic germplasm, 95-96 international, 95-99 legumes, root crops, and vegetables, 93-95 networks and interactions with national programs, 96-98 nurseries, 95-96 private sector programs, 104-108, 110-114 public sector programs, 102-104, 110-114 recommendations, 114-116 and yields, 2 Crop varieties centers of diversity, 35 desirable characters, 35 genetic diversity, 60-61 genetically heterogeneous populations, 61-62 protection, see Patents; Proprietary initiatives see also Vulnerability of crop varieties Crops area and farm value of, 64 clonally propagated, 38, 61 data bases, 215, 362-364 directories, 208 quarantines, 261-262 regions of diversity and regions of production, 350-351 rotations, 18, 66, 76 Cross-licensing, 108 Cross-pollinating species, 61, 157, 158 Crucifer, 104, 369 Cryogenic storage, 19, 190 Cucurbit, 104, 370 Cultivars defined, 408 selection for traits, 32 see also Varieties Cyclosporin, 249 Cytoplasmic male sterility, 59, 76, 78, 80 D Data bases address and address codes in, 209-210 central crop, 89, 208, 215, 217, 362-364 collections, 213-215 development, 91 DNA sequence, 23, 38, 197-199, 203 European, 352, 353 international crop germplasm, 217, 352, 353, 362-363 management systems, 211, 214 microbial culture collections, 240-241, 255 on-line, 213, 240, 241 recommendations, 203-204, 216-217 Denmark, 85

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Descriptors and descriptor states, 162, 165, 181, 205, 206-207, 209 Developing countries crop genetic resources, 6, 15, 40 environmental funding, 27 exploitation of, 92, 323-324 genetic diversity of crops, 16, 27, 69, 72, 74, 75, 76, 80-81, 114 germplasm banks in, 42, 87, 90-91, 92 maize germplasm trade, 291 microorganism applications in, 252 MIRCEN-sponsored collections, 253 national programs, 81, 92-93 ownership issues, 13, 24-25, 27, 101, 279, 282, 290, 299-300 potato breeding programs, 294 plant protection legislation, 282 private sector role in, 112-113, 115 public sector role in, 113 quarantine policies, 275-276 recommended roles, 26-27, 129, 301, 345-346 seed organizations, 113 seed policies, 113-114, 115 use of germplasm resources, 180 yield increases, 92, 188 see also Conflicts over genetic resources Diagnostic probes, patents, 286 Differential survival, 157-158 Dioecious species, 159 Disease transmission by embryo transfer, 196-197 see also Epidemics; Pathogens; individual pathogens DNA artificial chromosomes, 198 defined, 408 introduction from other species, 31 markers, 121, 199, 201-202, 224 measure of variation, 121 plasmid libraries, 23 probes, 10-11, 23, 52, 199, 200-202, 204, 220, 224 randomly amplified polymorphic, 202 recombinant technology, 189, 203 transformation technique, 11, 31, 38, 197, 202 DNA sequences data banks, 23, 38, 197-199, 203 from dead materials, 38-39, 198, 201 as genetic resources, 38, 197-198 linkage maps, 197, 199 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 23, 67-68, 121, 199-202 Documentation compatibility between systems, 209-210, 211-212 computerization, 210-213, 216 deficiencies in, 140-141 descriptive information, 8-11, 206-207 environmental conditions, 208-209 of evaluation efforts, 165-166 of genetic resources, 205-217 importance, 38 and management of collections, 205 recommendations, 21, 187, 216-217 status report, 213-214 technology development and, 215-216 and use of systems, 181, 212-213 see also Information on germplasm collections Domesticated species evolution of, 33-34, 129 in situ conservation, 127-128 plant-pathogen relationships, 60 Dot blot tests, 11 Double cropping, 59 Drosophila spp. (Fruit flies), 37, 138, 219, 220 Drought, 51, 57 Dutch elm disease (Ceratocystis ulmi,)58 Dwarf bunt (Tilletia controversa),58, 70 E Earworms (Heliothis zea),73 Eastern Europe genetic resources work, 350, 352 security of collections in, 42 Ecogeographical surveys, 124-125 Economic assessment of genetic resources contributions of international collections, 317-318 Hedonic pricing method, 308-309 incorporation into advanced cultivars and, 307-308 institutional releases and, 312 landrace appearance and, 312-313 markets, 304-306

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies origins and conclusions in varieties and, 313 pedigree analysis, 310 price evaluation methods, 306-309 regression analysis of data, 313-316 recommendations, 319-320 rice, 309-318 valuation, 303-304 varietal releases and, 310-311 Ecotypic differentiation, 155 Eggplant, 9, 370 Empirical studies of allelic diversity, 141-145 of genetic diversity and, 136-139 Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 356 Endangered species, 275 Environmental conditions and allelic frequency, 143 documentation, 208-209 for evaluation experiments, 164 and genetic variation in characters, 121 and genetic vulnerability, 51, 55, 60, 79 heterogeneity and, 60 meteorological data bases, 208-209 and pest populations, 78 seed regeneration and, 160 tolerance to, 252 Epidemics blast, 77 brown planthopper, 16 bunt, 70 chestnut blight, 58 costs of, 80 Dutch elm disease, 58 evaluation of, 164 heterogeneity and, 60 leaf blight, 75 movement of pests into new areas, 58 Periconia root rot of sorghum, 175 potato late blight, 36, 55, 58 powdery mildew, 79 rust, 56, 58, 68-69 shoot fly, 70 southern corn leaf blight, 16, 36, 59, 67, 99-100 Erosion control, 66 Escherichia coli,219, 242, 249 Escuela Té cnica Superior de Ingenieros Agron ómos, 363 Ethiopia, 42, 207, 289, 357 European Association for Research on Plant Breeding, 352, 361, 364 Community, 24, 240, 266, 283, 285-286, 354 Cooperative Program for the Conservation and Exchange of Crop Genetic Resources, 88, 352 corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis),61, 259 Culture Collections Organization, 240 data bases, 353 genetic resources work, 352-354 germplasm banks, 352-354 and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 267 Molecular Biology Laboratory, 198 Patent Convention, 284 Program on the Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources, 354 Evaluation of accessions breeders' contribution, 21 characterization and, 161 communication among germplasm users, 165 control of exotic germplasm, 164 core subsets and, 170 costs, 90 defined, 408-409 documentation, 9-10, 165-166, 182-183, 215 environments or sites for, 164 IBPGR role, 89-90 importance, 182-183 large-scale, systematic, 162-163 multidisciplinary approach, 162, 163, 165 recommendations, 187 resistant or tolerant species, 164 sample size, 163 supplies of seed or materials, 163 test planning and implementation, 163-164 and use of germplasm, 162, 182-183, 206 verification of data, 164-165 Evolution, molecular, neutral theory of, 135

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Evolutionary processes, and germplasm use, 184-185 Ex situ conservation and accessibility of germplasm, 6-7 advantages, 117, 118 collections, 356 defined, 38, 117, 409 in situ methods combined with, 128 multiplication, 14, 160-8 of perennials, 190 selection pressures, 160 Exchange of germplasm data base, 194 demand for, 35 and genetic diversity, 100-101 importance, 11-12, 117, 348 in vitro cultures and, 194-195 international programs, 26-27, 266 introduction of old pests, 1 national programs, 26-27, 348 and pathogen/pest introduction, 262, 263-264 policy constraints, 12, 25 proprietary rights and, 24, 25, 100-101, 107-108, 288, 299-301 quarantine and, 264-265, 266-268 recommendations, 24-27, 276, 301 resistance breeding and, 69 scientific code of conduct for, 300-301 for vegetables, 95 in vitro conservation and, 194-195 see also Proprietary rights; Quarantine Exotic germplasm breeders' avoidance of, 62-63 control during evaluation, 164 dissemination of, 95 documentation, 165 enhancement of, 95-96 and genetic vulnerability, 80 introgression from, 74, 134, 178, 186 in maize hybrids, 73-74 screening, 178 sources, 178 tolerance and resistance traits from, 74-75 wheat, 69, 70 and yields, 178 Exotic pathogens and pests, 58, 259-260, 262, 263 Eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides), 21 F Federations of Culture Collections, 241 `Field bindweed, 259 Filamentous fungi antibiotics from, 249 Coprinus sp., 244 enzyme transfer to yeasts, 249 freeze-drying, 246 information sources, 240 Neurospora crassa,242 preservation problems, 242, 244 Schizophyllum sp., 244 viruses in, 245-246 Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), 58 Florida, 73 Flowers and ornamentals, 105, 106 Fodder crops, 120 Food and Agriculture Organizations, 5, 25, 40, 57, 132 Biennial Conference, 324-325 Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, 13, 15, 26, 41, 325, 328, 332, 365, 376, 378 exchange of germplasm, 91 definition of plant genetic resources, 226 genetic stocks defined by, 219 International Fund for Plant Genetic Resources, 343 International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, 41, 26, 226, 325-331, 339, 365, 378, 379-380 internationalization through, 92, 376, 378 Panel of Experts on Plant Exploration and Introduction, 37, 360, 364 phytosanitary certificates, 264, 266 recommended role, 26, 378, 379-380 Resolution 681, 324-325 technical conferences, 37, 322, 365 Food plants, number of species, 31 Food product development, 104 Forage and Range Research Laboratory, 122 Forages, 9, 104-106, 120, 122, 125, 129, 142, 178, 371 Forbs, 178 Ford Foundation, 38, 335 Fossils, as genetic resources, 39 France, 37, 213, 240, 291, 295 Fruit crops, 76-80, 105, 106, 122

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Fruit flies (Drosophila spp.), 37, 138, 219, 220 Fuelwood, 120 Fungal Genetic Stock Center, 242 Fungi in collections, 243, 245 entry pathways, 269 habitat conservation, 248 pathogens, 36, 49, 57, 59, 242, 247 perennial lichen-forming, 248 pest control with, 252 preservation, 246-247 species number and richness, 245 see also Bread molds; Filamentous fungi Fusarium kernal rot, 51 G Gel electrophoresis, 199 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Uruguay Round, 13, 280 Gene pools, 86 Genes, 20, 286, 289, 409 Genetic diversity areas of, 322 biotechnology and, 4 brand names and, 101 in core subsets, 19-20 defined, 409 empirical studies, 136-139 enhancement and stabilization strategies, 66-67 environmental factors and, 8 enzyme variants, 138-139 and exchange of germplasm, 100-101 habitat destruction and, 32 importance, 173 loci and, 137, 138 measures of, 135-137 in primitive and modern varieties, 60-61 proprietary rights and, 100-101, 107, 279 qualitative or discretely inherited characters, 137-138 quantitative characters, 136-137 quarantine and, 276 and sampling strategies, 141-145 Genetic drift, 19, 147, 154, 156, 158-159, 161, 171, 409 Genetic engineering, 324 crops, 119, 252 microorganisms, 249 patents, 286 Genetic integrity differential survival and, 157-158 genetic drift and, 158-159 isolation and, 10, 158 monitoring during seed storage, 166 outcrossing and, 157-158 principles of maintaining, 10, 156 regeneration and, 18-19, 132, 154-155, 148, 170 storage and, 132 and use of systems, 182 Genetic Maps,235 Genetic mixing, 157, 170 Genetic reserves, 120-121, 122-123 Genetic resources accessing, 6-14 activism, 324 agricultural endowment, 2-4 dead materials as, 38-39, 198, 201 defined, 409 exchange, see Exchange of Germplasm and food supply, 29-30 incorporation into advance cultivars, 307-308 global, 4 markets, 5 need for, 4-6 ownership, 40-42 threats to, 5 see also Germplasm Genetic shift, 154-155, 157, 161, 170, 171 Genetic stock collections accessioning of stocks, 231, 235 advisory board, 237-238 of agriculturally relevant, 221, 222, 227-229 biotechnology and, 220 breeding lines contrasted with, 226-227 components, 224-226 costs, 220-221, 237 data management, 231, 235-236, 238 demand for, 236 development and location, 221-224 dissemination of seed, 231 examples, 229-236 funding, 223, 228, 229, 230-231, 236-237

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies importance and use, 31, 220-221, 236 introduction of germplasm resources into, 307-308 management, 223-224, 227-229, 231, 234-235 microorganisms, 221, 222, 242 problems, 221 purposes, 220, 237 recommendations, 236-238 seed increase, 231, 235 single-gene or single-trait variants, 224, 412 Genetic stocks alien addition and substitution lines, 225 chromosome number variants, 225 chromosome structure variants, 225 classes, 30-31 cytogenetic, 31, 225 defined, 219, 227, 409 electrophoretically detectable protein, 224 morphologic and physiologic variants, 224 multi-allelic, 31, 225, 410 near isogenic lines, 225 RFLP variants, 224 single-gene or single-trait variants, 31, 224, 412 transposable elements, 224 wild relatives, 225-226 Genetic uniformity, 16, 47-50, 52-53, 55, 62, 67, 82 Genetic vulnerability, 36-37 to abiotic stress, 51 agronomically related, 59 assessment and monitoring recommendations, 17, 81-83 changes in, 59-60 critical factors and assumptions, 48-49 and crop diversity since 1970, 67-81 current levels, 80-81 defined, 15-16, 48-53, 409 in developing countries, 114 environment and, 51 to exotic pathogens, 58 IARC programs and, 99 measurement of, 52-53, 67-68 monocultures and, 50-51 in new regions, 58 and pesticide treatment, 602 prediction of, 68 uniformity and, 48, 49-50 varietal development of germplasm and, 61-63 and varietal replacement over time, 63-66 Genetics Society of America, 221, 228-229 Germany, 37, 122, 213, 214, 240, 284 Germplasm defined, 409 demand for, 11 enhancement, 20-21, 63, 91, 95-96, 111, 112, 143, 184, 185-186, 200 evaluation of, see Evaluation of accessions global concerns, 37-40 importance, 32, 321 nature of, 29 sources of, 186, 272 usefulness, 21, 34-36; see also Use of germplasm value of, 24, 102, 287-288 varietal development, 61-63 see also Exotic germplasm; Genetic resources Germplasm banks data bases, 213, 214 genetic erosion in, 27, 322 IBPGR role, 40, 86-89 linkages with breeders, 91 number, 40, 42, 153 size concerns, 42 storage capacity, 87 see also Collections of germplasm; Seed Germplasm users of active collections, 178-179 communication among, 165 perceptions of systems, 179-180 workers' communications with, 180, 183 Global Environmental Facility, 27, 342 Global Plant Genetic Resources initiative, 42 Golden mosaic virus, 94 Gossypium somalense,126 Grain conservation status, 8 public sector research, 104

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies breeding programs, 104-108, 110-114 corn hybrids, 52, 290-291 developing-country role, 112-113 expenditures, 107 focus of research, 110, 111 number of companies in plant breeding, 105 recommended role, 302 rice development, 293 scientific personnel, 106 Proctoctists, 243 Programa Regional Cooperativo de Papa, 81 Proprietary rights to animals, 284 biotechnology and, 13, 14 and breeding activity, 279 control issues, 287-289 and exchange of germplasm, 24, 25, 100-101 farmers' rights, 42, 333 forms of protection, 13, 42 and genetic diversity, 100-101, 107, 279 and germplasm flows from developing countries, 279 human cell lines, 286 to hybrid corn, 42 implications of, 298-301 international impacts, 15, 101-102, 112-114, 279, 287-290 litigation, 283-287 on living beings, 280-287 to microbes, 284-286 to plants, 281-284 price issues, 287 and private sector programs, 104-108, 279 and public sector breeding programs, 102-104, 112 recommendations, 301-302 related rights, 286-287 and research allocation, 289-290 and seed industry restructuring, 108-110 species differences in, 298-299 see also Patents Protected areas categories, 125-126 conservation focus, 124 defined, 120 genetic reserves, 120-121 in situ conservation in, 120-121, 125-127 land area, 126 recommended use of, 129 Protozoa, 246 Prunus species, 12, 78-79, 124, 265 Pseudomonas spp., 252 P. syringae, 252 Pseudorabies virus, 196 Public networks, 52 Public sector biotechnology funding, 111, 112 breeding program decline, 102-104 focus of research, 110, 111, 112 maize breeding efforts, 290 proprietary protection and, 102-104, 112, 292-294, 301 rice development, 292-293 Pulses, 33, 62 Q Quarantines and access to genetic resources, 12 biologic basis, 266-267 biotechnology and, 10, 12, 194, 200, 204 defined, 411 detection methods, 267 and exchange of genetic resources, 264-267 first, plant, 34 functions, 260, 267, 276-277 and genetic diversity, 276 geographic basis, 268 and global transfer of plant genetic resources, 262-273, 275-277 historical background, 1 implementation, 12 importation of genetic resources, 273-274 in vitro collections and, 194 international activities, 24 legal basis, 23-24, 265-266 as pest control strategy, 264 phytosanitary certificates, 264, 266 policies and practices, 24, 275-277 principles, 260-261, 264 recommendations, 32-24, 274-277 regional organizations, 266, 267 regulations, 12, 23-24, 34, 261, 273

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies risk reduction, 260-262 significant pests and pathogens, 268-269 and size of collections, 167 species subject to, 260-262 third-party, 264, 274, 275 uses, 259 R Random genetic drift, 156, 159, 160 Recommendations agronomic management strategies, 82-83 assessment and monitoring of crop vulnerability, 15-18, 81-83 back-up collections, 151 biotechnology, 22-23, 202-204, 274-275 collection of germplasm, 151-152 conflict resolution, 344-346 core subsets, 19-20, 171 crop breeding programs, 114-116 data base development, 116, 203-204, 238 developing-country programs, 26-27, 129, 301, 345-346 documentation, 21, 187, 216-217, 238 economic assessment, 319-320 evaluation of accessions, 187 exchange of germplasm, 24, 25, 26-27, 276, 301 funding mechanisms, 27, 236-237, 345, 380 genetic enhancement programs, 20-21, 186 genetic stability enhancement strategies, 17-18 genetic stock collections, 236-238 in situ conservation, 18, 22, 128-129 in vitro tissue cultures, 22, 203 international conservational efforts, 115-116, 379-380 investment recommendations, 320 management of genetic resources, 18-21, 170-172, 203-204 multilevel collaborations, 28 national and international programs, 25-27, 345-346, 379-380 proprietary rights, 24-25, 301-302 protected areas for conservation, 129 quarantine policies, 23-24, 274-277 redundancy elimination, 20, 171-172 research, 23-25, 129, 172, 203-204, 274-275, 320 sampling and sample size, 151-152 seed regeneration, 18-19, 170 size of collections, 18-20, 129, 171 storage methods, 172, 203 training of germplasm workers, 172, 275-276 use of germplasm, 21, 115-116, 186-187, 203-204 wild varieties, 18, 22, 129 Regeneration in tissue culture, 191 see also Seed regeneration Regional programs, 96-97, 98, 114, 115 Registration of cultivars, 183-184 Relationships,see Plant-pest relationships Relay plantings, 17-18, 66-67 Resistance alleles, 54 boom-and-bust cycles, 77 breakdown, 53-54 crop rotations and, 76 cytoplasmic inheritance and, 76 durability, 56 environmental stresses and, 51, 57, 102 evaluation of, 164 exotic germplasm and, 73-74 genes, 52 genetic markers, 200 and high yield, 61 and host-pathogen relationships, 55, 56 kinds of, 54-55 life cycle and, 59 major-gene, 55-56, 82 mixture-interaction, 55 of modern varieties, 60-61 to mosaic viruses, 94 in multiline varieties, 67 polygenic/horizontal, 54, 98-99 to potato late blight, 55-56 pyramiding of genes and, 56, 61, 70, 82 to rust, 55-56, 68-69, 72, 96 screening, 95 sources of germplasm for, 268

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies strategies for increasing, 50 uniformity and, 50 in varietal mixtures, 67, 82 varietal turnover and, 72, 73 vertical, 54, 55, 56, 76-77, 98 to viruses, 73-74, 75 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 20, 23, 158, 167, 199-200, 201-202, 220, 224, 412 Restrictive distribution agreements, 288 Rhizobium spp., 242, 252 Rice (Oryza spp.) alternative production practices, 66, 293 area planted and farm value, 64, 316-317 blast epidemic, 77 breeding programs, 97, 165 characterization, 162 Chinese hybrids, 76 Cina variety, 76 collections, 5, 9, 43, 132, 292-293, 309-310, 317, 367 conservation status, 8 continuous cropping, 78 documentation, 209 domestication, 33 economic analysis, 43, 316-318 fertility restoration gene, 53 genetic enhancement programs, 20-21 genome sequence, 199 high-yield varieties, 75-76, 77, 92, 115, 314 hybrid varieties, 293 importance, 292 institutional background, 309-310 institutional releases, 93, 312 international collections, 317-318 landraces, 312-313, 315-316 national collections, 309-310 origins and inclusions in varieties, 313, 315 O. glaberrima, 309 O. nivara, 77, 305 O. sativa, 309 patents, 292-293 pedigree analysis, 310, 315 pests and pathogens, 16, 59, 76-77, 305, 308 pricing methods, 309-318 private sector breeding programs, 105, 106, 293 public sector research, 104, 292-293 regression analysis of data on, 313-316 released varieties in India, 310-313 semidwarfism, 59, 75, 76, 77, 93, 96 test crosses, 87 value of germplasm stocks, 317 varietal releases, 310-311, 314 viruses, 16 vulnerability and diversity, 16, 52, 53, 75-78, 96, 114-115 wild, 164, 305, 309 see also International Rice Research Institute Rice yellow mottle virus, 77 Rick, Charles M., 229, 232 Rinderpest, 12, 259-260 Robertson, D. W., 234 Rockefeller Foundation, 38, 335 Root crops, 9, 62, 93-95, 369 Rootworms (Crambus caliginosellus), 73 Rubber (Hevea spp.), 13, 58, 125, 172, 268, 274, 323 H. brasiliensis, 264 Rural development, wild gene pools and, 120 Russia, 174 Russian wheat aphids, 50 Rusts conservation methods, 247, 248 Puccinia spp., 55-56, 58, 65, 70, 73, 74-75, 247 resistance to, 55-56, 68-69, 72, 96 Uromyces appendiculatus, 68-69 weed control with, 252 Rye, 11, 105, 106, 322, 367 Ryegrasses, wild, 122 S Safflower, 105, 106, 370 Sahel, 57 St. Lawrence Islands National Park, 126 Salt levels, 51 Salmonella spp., 242 Sample size allelic frequency and, 7-8, 138, 148-149, 169 constant strategy, 169 core subsets, 169 ecological factors, 150

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies for evaluation of accessions, 163 inbreeding depression and drift and, 158-159 isozyme analysis and, 138 maintenance and, 181-182 mating system and, 7-8, 159 minimal number, 149-150 mobility and, 7 population factors, 150 practical considerations, 147-148 recommendations, 151-152 seed regeneration and, 10, 18-19, 158, 159, 171, 181-182 and use of systems, 181 variable strategy, 169 Sampling/samples ecological factors, 150, 152 documentation, 207 for evaluation experiments, 163 expedition and explorations, 35 first multiplication, 150 formulation of strategies, 139-141 limiting factors, 134-135 lower-frequency alleles, 146-147, 148-149 mating system and, 7, 10, 151 measures of genetic diversity and, 134, 135-138 microbes, for patents, 285-286 mobility and, 7 neutral allele model and135-136, 169 number of sites, 150-151 population factors, 150 principles and standards, 38 recommendations, 151-152 strategies, 134-135, 151 stratified, 150, 169 units, 135, 147-150 and use of systems, 181 San Jose scale, 259 Sandwich assay process, 286 Sary-Chelck Reserve, 124 Scale insects, 269 Scandinavia, 37, 241 Seed artificial, 193 banks, 38; see Collections of germplasm; Germplasm banks catalogue legislation, 283 conservation funding through, 27 dissemination of, 231 dormancy, 154, 163, 172 germination tests, 154 increase, 231 inviable, 39 management data, 215 risk from importation, 270, 273 sales information, 52 shattering, 21, 150, 154, 164 short-lived, 118, 194 small-scale production, 113-114 storage alternatives, 190-197 storage facilities, 87, 134 viability, 89, 154, 156, 166, 412 world market, 110 Seed industry in developing countries, 26, 112-113 development, 34 hybrid breeding methods, 108-109 proprietary initiatives and, 108-110 response to resistance breakdown, 72 restructuring, 108-110, 324, 334-336 varietal losses, 65-66 Seed regeneration breeding systems, 155-156, 161 characterization and, 162 contamination from outcrossing, 157, 158, 182 counter selection, 158 defined, 412 differential survival during, 157-158 genetic drift, 154, 158-160, 170 and genetic integrity, 10, 132, 154-155, 156-160, 170, 182 inbreeding depression and drift, 158-159 of inbreeding species, 160 intervals, 170-171 isolation methods, 10, 158 of landraces or wild species, 160-161 for multiplication for distribution and use, 155, 170 natural selection, 10, 159-160 population size, 10, 158-159 problems, 154, 156, 171, 182, 366 recommendations, 18-19, 170 for rejuvenation of stored accessions, 155, 170 selection during, 158 size of germplasm collection and, 18-19 type of collection and, 134

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies viability threshold, 166 wild species, 154 Seed Savers Exchange, 65 Selection pressures, 10, 34 Self-pollinating species, 61-62, 155, 157, 160, 161 Seminario Panamericano de Semillas, 343 Senegalese grasshopper, 57 Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria nodorum),70 Sexually propagated varieties, 281 Shoot fly (Atherigona spp.), 70 Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, 123-124 Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola), 58 Singapore, 86 Slender wild oat (Avena barbata), 8, 141-144, 145 Smuts, 248 Snails, 269 Soft red winter wheat, 70, 174 Somaclonal variations, 192 Sorghum, 33 area planted and farm value, 64 collections, 5, 9, 367 conservation status, 8 diversity, 101 IARC varieties released in developing countries, 93 pathogens and pests, 175 private sector breeding programs, 105, 106, 110 productivity gains, 63 proprietary lines, 108 public sector research, 104 short-stature, 123 tropical-to-temperate adaptation, 185 vulnerability, 65, 76 wild species, 126 Sorghum arundinaceum,126 South American leaf blight (Dothidella ulei), 58, 264, 268 Southern African Development and Coordination Conference, 357 Southern corn leaf blight (Helminthosporium maydis), 16, 36, 48, 67, 76, 99-100 Soviet Union (former) germplasm collections, 9 see also Commonwealth of Independent States Soybeans, 33 area planted and farm value, 64 collections, 5, 9, 368 conservation status, 8 diversity, 101 genetic stocks, 229 patent, 283 private sector breeding programs, 104-106, 110 productivity gains, 63 public sector research, 104, 110 quarantine restrictions, 265 research, 95 trade restrictions, 13 vulnerability, 65 Spain, 141, 142, 144, 241 Sri Lanka, 77, 289 Stalk borers (Papaipema nebris), 73 Stem borers, 77 Stem rust (Puccinia graminis), 55-56, 70 Storage of germplasm base collections, 132 biotechnology and, 197, 198 cryogenic, 132, 172, 190, 192-193, 196-198, 203 encapsulation, 192-193, 246-247 freeze-drying, 246-247 in vitro, 132, 191, 192-193 lives, 132 microorganisms, 246-247 packaging, 134 research needs, 172 slow growth, 192 vitrification, 192-193 Strawberries, 76, 190 Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), 70 Striped borers (Chilo zacconius), 77 Subsistence agriculture, 61 Sugar beets, 64, 79, 105, 110, 370 Sugarcane, 1, 61, 172, 190, 371, 373 Sulfur dioxide, 79 Sunflowers, 79, 80, 105, 106, 119, 321-322, 372 Sweden, 173, 213 Sweet potato, 8, 9, 39, 64, 79-80, 93, 95, 96, 104, 172, 195, 369, 373 Switzerland, 85 T Taiwan, 293 Taxonomy, 208 Tea, 289

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Teosinte (Zea diploperennis), 18, 123-124 Texas, 73 Thailand, 76, 78, 123, 290, 293, 307 Theophrastus, 33-34 Thermophilus aquaticus, 200 Threatened species, tissue samples from 198 Timber industry and crops, 120, 122, 123, 129 Tissue culture oil palms, 295 patents, 286, 292 storage, 38, 39, 194, 275, 412 Tobacco, 13, 104, 229, 371 Toluene, 252 Tomatoes, 95 genetic diversity, 80 genetic stock collections, 5, 9, 93, 229-232, 370 introduction to Americas, 173 Lycopersicon spp., 226, 230 public sector research, 104 Solanum spp., 226, 230 wild germplasm, 119, 230 Totipotent regeneration, 190 Trade name, 284 Trade secrets, 107, 108, 288 Trademarks, 284 Training of germplasm workers, 172, 275-276 Traits of agronomic importance, 162, 174 of economic importance, 112 with high-yield potential, 61 patents on, 286 qualitative or discretely inherited, 137-138, 162, 174 quantitative, 136-137, 162, 200 for temperate breeding, 73 tolerance and resistance, 73 Transgenic organisms, 197 Tree crops, 66, 190 Trees, in situ conservation, 118-119, 121, 372 Tristeza disease, 262 Trypanotolerance Network, 98 Tubers, 33, 412 Tungro virus, 76, 77, 308 Turcicum blight (Helminthosporium turcicum), 75 Turf grasses, 105, 106 Turkey wheat, 174 U Unilever, 295 Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, 101, 335 United Kingdom, 37, 63, 86, 173, 213, 241, 285, 295 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 13, 14, 27, 339, 343, 375 Conference on Human Environment, 253, 361 Development Program, 27, 208, 342 Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 240 Environment Program, 27, 41, 91, 342 World Intellectual Property Organization, 101 United States agricultural production, 3 crop genetic diversity, 16, 78, 114-115 genetic stock collections, 229-232 germplasm collections, 9, 290 global impact of activities in, 99-114 landrace conservation, 128 microbial culture collections, 241 patents, 285-286, 287-288, 293-294 Plant Patent Act of 1930, 280, 335 Plant Variety Protection Act, 91, 100, 104, 107, 109, 280, 323-324 potatoes, 293-294 rice breeding programs, 115, 292-293 wheat breeding programs, 72, 115 see also U.S. entries Universidad Politechnica, 363 University of Birmingham, 213 California, Davis, 229-232 Malaya, 363 Maryland, 253 Reading, 363 Southampton, 362 Use of germplasm biotechnology and, 203-204 breeders' perceptions and practices, 62-63, 88, 114-115, 174-179, 180-183, 206 core subsets and, 20, 88-89, 169 documentation and, 181, 212-213 evaluation of accessions and, 162 evolutionary processes and, 33, 184-186

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies genetic stock collections, 31, 220-221, 236 historical background, 173-174 landraces, 62, 69, 114-115 management of collections and, 180 microbial culture collections, 43, 248-252 motoring advanced materials, 175 performance advances, 175, 178-179 recommendations, 21, 115-116, 186-187, 203-204 redundancy and, 182 sampling constraint on, 181 unit of utilization, 181 wild species, 119 U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, 39, 62, 78, 100, 186, 230-231, 359 biotechnology funding, 111 Bureau of Plant Industry, 183 Cooperative State Research Service, 100 Crop Advisory Committees, 78-80, 165 Forage and Range Research Laboratory, 122 monitoring programs, 64 Seed and Plant Introduction Section, 34 seed sales data, 52 U.S. National Plant Germplasm System accessions, 359 changes in, 99-100 distribution of germplasm, 184 evolution of, 34-35, 359 genetic stock collection support, 229 Genetic Resources Information Network, 212, 216, 232, 236 mission, 100, 111 outside expertise, 165 problems, 89 recommendations for, 216 registration of cultivars, 183-184 structure, 35 users' perceptions of, 179-180 U.S. Patent Office, 34 U.S. South Regional Performance Nursery, 70 V Varietal mixtures, 17 Varieties commercial, 30, 65-66 copies of, 101 defined, 30, 412 folk, 30, 409 IARC, released by national authorities, 93 kinds, 30 market changes, 64-65 obsolete, 4, 30, 32, 34, 410 primitive, 30, 60, 63, 411 replacement, 51 resistant, 54 see also Cultivars; Genetic stocks; Landraces; Plant breeders' lines Vavilov, N. I., 35, 349, 350 Vegetables biotechnology research, 107 collections, 93-95, 369, 370 private sector programs, 105, 106, 107 public sector research, 104 rotations, 66 Vegetatively propagated crops, 88, 190, 194, 271-172, 276, 280, 281-182 Vernonia galamensis,126 Vietnam, 76, 77 Vigna spp., 368 Viruses detection, 276 entry pathways, 269, 273 in filamentous fungi, 245-246 nematode-transmitted, 273 pathogens, 12, 16, 57, 73-74 preservation problems, 245-246, 247 seedborne, 273 species in collections, 243 see also individual species Vulnerability of crop varieties, see Genetic vulnerability W W. R. Poage Pecan Field Station, 11, 179 Walnuts, 78, 124 Weeds, 128, 252, 262 West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), 40 Wheat (Triticum spp.), 11, 61 accessions globally, 166 area planted and farm value, 64 collections, 5, 9, 166, 368 conservation status, 8

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies continuous cropping, 78 disease-resistant hybrids, 21, 34 diversity of, 16, 101, 174 economic value, 319 evolutionary changes, 33, 34 exchange of germplasm, 262 exotic germplasm, 69, 70 genetic enhancement programs, 20-21 high-yielding varieties, 70-72, 92, 115 hybridizations, 174 IARC varieties released in developing countries, 93 industrial restrictions, 67 introduction to Americas, 173-174 landraces, 174 Nacozari variety, 72 nurseries, 96 performance, by cultivar, 176-177 pests and pathogens, 50, 58, 65, 70, 72, 221, 262, 265 private sector breeding programs, 105, 106 productivity gains, 63 public sector research, 104, 110 quarantine restrictions, 262, 265 resistance to pathogens, 55-56, 70, 72, 96 semidwarf, 59, 70, 93 Sonalika variety, 65, 70 tetraploid, 33 Triticale, 93, 105 T. aestivum,21 T. dicocoids,18, 125 vulnerability and diversity, 52, 64, 65, 69-72, 114-115 wild relatives, 18, 125 winter, 70, 174, 176-177 yields, 174 Wheat leaf blight (Septoria sp.), 59 White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), 58, 259 Wild and weedy relatives, 62, 86, 150, 153, 226, 294, 412-413 Wild goat grass (Aegilops ventricosa), 21 Wild oats, 262; see also Slender wild oats Wild species, 4 allelic and genotype diversity, 141-144 in breeding programs, 60, 111 conservation areas, 120-121 defined, 413 evaluation of, 163, 164 gene pool classifications, 31 as genetic resources, 21, 35, 119-121, 225-226 habitat losses, 36 high priorities for conservation, 125 importance, 32, 34, 86, 120 in situ conservation, 18-19, 22, 118, 121-127, 129 natural selection, 32 pathogen/pest introduction with, 262-263, 276 population dynamics studies, 125 in protected areas, 126 recommended research, 22, 129 seed regeneration, 154, 160-161, 163 self-pollinating, 141-144 uses, 119 value of cultivars, 119 Wine grapes, pests, 36-37 Witch weed, 259 Woody stocks, 36 World Bank, 27, 342 World Barley Genetic Stock Center, 233 World Conservation Union, 91 World Data Center for Microorganisms, 240, 244 World Federation of Culture Collections, 240, 244, 253 World Health Organization, 242 World Wide Fund for Nature, 91 Y Yams, 8, 96, 172, 195 Yeast Genetic Center, 242 Yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.), 220 bakers', 298 freeze-drying, 246 information sources, 240 liquid nitrogen preservation, 246 S. cerevisiae,242 transfer of enzymes to, 249 Yellow borers (Scirpophaga incertulas), 77 Yemen, 263 Z Zambesi teak (Baikiaea plurijuga), 123 Zambia, 123 Zentralinstitut fur Genetik und Kulturpflantzenforschung, 213

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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Recent Publications of the Board on Agriculture Policy and Resources Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993), 408 pp., ISBN 0-309-04875-3. Managing Global Genetic Resources: Livestock (1993), 294 pp., ISBN 0-309-04394-8. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics (1993), 720 pp., ISBN 0-309-04749-8. Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2. Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5. Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5. Sustainable Agricultural Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9. Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp.,ISBN 0-309-04540-1. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9. Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03985-1. Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3. Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk). Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5. Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4. Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X. Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X. Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5. Nutrient Requirements oh Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8. Futher Information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, 202/334-3313 (information only); 800/624-6242 (orders only); 202/334-2451 (fax).

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